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The MAGAZINE of MAGAZINE S strumen 3 to its aid, which feem to But this ought not to cast any regive it eale, by lending sounds a va- proach upon music itself. For, as riety, extent, and continuance, which Plutarch very justly observes, few or the human voice was incapable of. no perfons of realon will impute to
This gave birth to music, made it the sciences themselves the abuse some so affecting and estimable, and shews, people make of them; which is foleat the same time, that, properly ly to be ascribed to the vicious dirspeaking, its true use is solely in re- position of those who profane them. ligion; to which alonc it belongs to This exercise has at all times been impart to the soul the lively sentiments the delight of all nations, of the which transport and ravish it, which most barbarous as well as of those exalt its gratitude and love, which who valued themselves most upon are suited to its admiration and exta- their civility. And it must be confies, and which make it experience felfed, that the Author of Nature that it is happy.
has implanted in man a taste and feSuch was the first use men-made of cret tendency for song and harmomusic, fimple, natural, and without ny, which serve to nourish his joy art or refinement, in those times of in times of prosperity, to dispel his innocence, and in the infancy of the anguish in aliction, and to comlort world ; and, doubtlefs, the family of him in fupporting the pains and fa
Seth, with whom the true worship tigues of his labours. There is no ‘was depofited, preserved it in all its artificer that has not recourse to this purity. But secuiar perfons, more in- innocent invention : and the flighteit slaved to sense and paflion, and more air makes him almost forget his faintent upon softning the pains of tigues.' The harmonious cadence, this life, upon rendering their exile with which the workmen strike the agreeable, and alleviating their dif- glowing mass upon the anvil, seems treiles, abandoned themselves more to lellen the weight of their heavy readily to the charms of music, and hammers. The very rowers experience were more industrious to improve it, a kind of relief in the sort of conto reduce it into an art, to establish cert formed by the harmonious and their observations upon certain rules, uniform motion of their oars. The and to support, strengthen; and di- ancients successfully employed musical versify it by the help of inftruments. inftruments, as is still the custom, to
Accordingly, Moses places this kind excite martial ardor in the breasts of of music in the family of Cain, which the foldiery; and Quintilian, partly, was that of the outcasts, and makes ascribes the reputation of the Roman Jubal, one of his descendants, the troops to the impressions made by the father of it. And we fee, in effect, warlike sounds of fifes and trumpets that music is generally devoted to the upon the legions. objects of the passions. It ferves to I have already observed, that music adorn, augment, and render them was in use among all nations ; but it more affecting; to make them pene- was the Greeks who rendered iç hotrate the very soul by additional nourable, and, by the value they set charms; to render it the captive of upon it, raised it to a very high dethe senses ; to make it dwell wholly gree of perfection. It was a merit, in the ears; to inspire it with a new with their greatest men, to excel in propensity to seek its confolation from it, and a kind of shame to be obligwithout, and to impart to it a new ed to confess their ignorance of it. averlion for useful reflections. The No Hero ever made Greece more abuse of music, almost as ancient as illuftrious, than Epaminondas; his iis invention, 'has occafioned Jubal to dancing gracefully, and touchíng muhave more imitators than David. fical instruments with ikill wer ere
ckoned among his fine qualities. Some naturally favage and barbarous. years before his time, the refusal of But, among all the instances they
Themistocles, at å feaft, to play an have given us of this kind, perhaps air upon the lyre, was looked upon' a more remarkable one is not to be as difhonourable. To be ignorant in found, than the following, related mafic was looked upon, in these times, by Polybius, with regard to the Aras a great defect in education. cadians :
It was for this reason, that the The study of music, says that hilmost celebrated philosophers, who torian, has its utility in all nations, have left us treatifes upon policy, as but is absolutely neceffary to the ArPlato and Aristotle, particularly re- cadians. This people, in establishing commended the teaching of music their republic, tho otherwise very to young persons. Among the Greeks, auftere in their manner of life, had it was an essential part of education. so high an opinion of music, that they Besides which, it has a necessary con- not only taught that art to their nection with that part of grammar children, but obliged all their youths called profody, which confiders the to apply themselves to it till the age length or shortness of fyllables in pro- of thirty. It is not shameful, among nunciation, the measures of verses, them, to profefs themselves ignorant their rhymes and cadence, and, par- of other arts ; but it is highly difhoticularly, the manner of accenting nourable not to have learned to ing, words. The ancients were fully per- and not to be able to give proofs of fuaded, that, by giving their youth it on occasion. an early tincture of music and harmo: Their first Legislators, by making ny, their manners would be more fuch institutions, do not seem to have eafily formed, and their minds made designed to introduce luxury and effesusceptible of receiving whatever was minacy, but to foften the natural felaudable and polite ; nothing, accord- rocity of the Arcadians, and to divert, ing to Plutarch; being better adapted, by the practice of music, their gloomy than music, to excite persons at all and melancholy disposition, undoubttimes to virtuous actions, and especial- edly occafioned by coldness of the ly to confront the dangers of war. air which the Arcadians breath al
Music, however, was not in very most throughout the whole country: high efteem, during the happy times Such is the account given us by of the Roman republic. It was then Polybius, who ascribes the pleasing looked upon as a thing of little con- manners and virtuous inclinations of fequence, as Cornelius Nepos very the Arcadians wholly to their applyjustly observes. And Sallust's re- ing themselves to music; and, on the proach of a Roman Lady, That the contrary, the savage ferocity and bar. knew better how to fing and dance, barous actions of the Cynethians to than was consistent with a woman of their neglect of that science: character, fuficiently thews what the But it is necessary to obferve what Romans thought of music, in his kind of music the ancients, and par: time. Such was the Roman severity ticularly Plato and Aristotle, fo greatly till their commerce with the Greeks, recommended. And this, Quintilian and, still more, their riches and opu- tells us, is not that with which the lence, made them run into those ex- theatres then resounded; which, by celles, with which the Greeks can- its wanton effeminate airs, had not à 200 so much as be reproached. little contributed to extinguish what
The ancients attributed wonderful remained of their ancient manly vir's effects to music, either to excite or but that which men, filled with suppress the parlions, or to foften honour and, valour, made use of in ske manners, and humanise nations finging the praises of others like them:
elves. It is far from my intention nishes us, that we cannot be com adds Quintilian, to recommend those much upon our guard against the dangerous instruments, whose languish- dangerous charms of a depraved liing sounds convey softness and impu- centious music, and points out the rity into the soul, and which ought to means of avoiding such a corruption. be held in horror by all persons of He declares, that wanton music, dissense' and virtue : I mean that agree- folute and debauched songs, corrupt able art of affecting the foul by the the manners; and that the musicians powers of harmony, in order either to and poets ought to borrow from wife excite or afswage the passions, as oc- and virtous persons the subjects of their cation and reason require.'
compositions. This is the sort of music that was It is no wonder that Plutarch comso highly eiteemed by the greatest plains of the depravity of music in his philolophers and wiseft Legislators a- time, when we find that Plato and mong the Greeks, because it civilizes Aristotle made the fame complaint favage minds, softens the roughness long before. But it will, perhaps, be and forocity of difpofitions, renders asked, How music, a science they were people more capable of discipline, • lo remarkably fond of, should fo inakes fociety more pleasing and de- greatly decline from its original granlightful, and shews, in their genuine deur, at a time when eloquence, poehorrible colours, those vices which in- try, painting, and sculpture were cule cline men to inhumanity. cruelty, and tivated with such success! To this violence.
it may be answered: That its inti, Every one knows the canticles of mate union with poetry was the prin. the ancient Hebrews, on what occa- cipal cause of its decline. At first, fions they were written, and the uses each of these fister arts being confinthey were applied to. Among the ed to the exact imitation of what was other nations, even the most super- most beautiful in nature, and having stitious and most barbarous, melody no other view, than to instruct while was, from a mere effect of the pri- they delighted, and to excite emotions mitive institution, still made use of to in the soul tending equally to inspire invoke the Almighty, to perpetuate a reverence for the gads, and a delire the cenor of an alliance or law, or of procuring the happiness of society, mutualiy to inspire one another with they employed for this end the most virtue, by the recital of the actions suitable expressions and lofty thoughts, of great men.
which they delivered in the most But, in process of time, mufic de- inchanting numbers and cadences. viated from its original intention; and Music, particularly, always simple Plutarch himself, in several places of decent, and sublime, continued withhis works, complains, that, to the in the bounds prescribed her by the manly, noble, and divine music of Philosophers and Legislators, who the ancients, in wbich every thing were mott of them poets and muliwas sublime and majestic, the moderns cians. But the theatrical exhibitions, had substituted that of the theatre, and the worship of certain divinities, which intpires nothing but vice and especially Bacchus, in time, destroyed licentioulness. Sometimes he alledges these wise regulations
. They gave Plato's authority to prove, that music, birth to dithyrambic poetry, the mot the mother of harmony, decency, and licentious of all in its expression, delight, was not given to man by the measure, and sentiments. kods only to tickle his ear, but to cies of poetry required a music of the seioitate order and harmony in the same kind, and, consequently, very, foul, too often discompoled by error remote from the noble fimplieity of id pleature. Sometimes he admo- the ancient. All the vicious redun.
dance of found, and levity of orna- long, and one foot and a half broad. ment, were introduced to an excess, It consists likewise of two pieces, a and gave sufficient reason for the just coffer of equal extent throughout, complaints of all those who excelled and a lid with a rim like a snuffand had the best taste in this inchan- box. The lid has two chinks pierting science.
ced through it, each about cwo inIn short, to adapt music to wan- ches long, one just over the mouth ton, diffolute, or debauched pieces is of the corpse, and the other about to degrade it from its original in- the ttomach, for what purpose is tention, and prostitute that science, uncertain ; they were ftop'd up with so capable of raising virtuous emo- a sort of wad or felt
. The coffia, tions in the soul, to the service of like the sepulchre, is without any vice. But the noblest use, music figure or character, excepting at one can be applied to, is the praise and end a few scratches fomewhat readoration of the beneficent Being, fembling a star, and at the other a who fpake the universe out of no. triangle : The inside of the coffin thing, endued man with a racional was lined with the embalming lub and immortal foul, giving him the Atance mixed with clay. dominion over all the creatures on The corps is a young lad 10 or this terraqueous globe, together with 12 years of age. The manner of the glorious promise of everlasting the embalming
is not unlike the most happiness, when this short and tran- curious fort used by the Egyptians. fitory life is ended, in the blissful man- The whole body was thick spread fions of eternity
with balsam, and covered with cloths
dipp'd in the faine matter, which A vry curious'
Account of a Sepulchre was wrapped in very fine linnen, lalely discovered in France, wherein and over all passed fwathes in the was depofited an buman Body embal- manner of a mummy. The trunk, med, anl swathed up like an Egyptian and each end of the extremities were Mummy.
swathed feparately: The hands and
feet were put naked into little cases EAR a place called the field of filled with the balsam, and the head
Martyrs, about two leagues into a cap of prepared skin. The and a half from the town of Riom head lay eastward. in Auvergne, on the fourth of laft The corps discovered not any alFebruary, was discovered half a foot teration, saving in the colour of the under the surface of the ground, an skin, which looks as if it were canancient sepulchre with a leaden cof- ned, from the penetration of the balfin, in which was contained a corpse sam. The head is large, and the curiously embalmed, and exceedingly skin on its top had been separated well preserved.
from the cranium in order to introThis fepulchre pointed cast and duce the balsam which was there weft, was 7 feet long, 2 feet 8 in- found mixed with clay. 'Tis unches broad, and feet 3 inches high : certain if any of it were injected It was of a light sort of ash co- into its cavity, and what the present lourd stone, from what quarry un- state of the brain is. There is no known, the lower part hollow'd in- hair to be seen any where but on the to a trough, the cover ridged up, back of the head, which is of a with a flat band running along the chesnut brown, and about two inmiddle, and somewhat hollow'd with- ches long. The face, ears and tongue, in; without any ornament, inscrip- were preserved in good condition ; țion, or figure about it.
the eyes are still remaining in their The cotin is 4 feet and a balf orbits. The nose, though a little
bruised, retains its paper, nor was: what is still more surprising, the there: one, tooth milling when it was bones of the arms and legs are soft found. The breait does not appear and pliant: Those of the fore arms* to have been opened any more than may be easily bent ; whilst those of the cranium, and as it was 'not the skull retain their perfect folidity. thought proper to mutilate the body, Can this be the effect of the batit has been impossible to be inform- fam? Would not such fpirituous ed of the condition of the viscera. particles rather oppose the foftening It is certain however that all the of the bones? How should any oleribbs do ftill retain the freedom of ous or unctuous particles pervade the their mation By introducing a fin- integuments and the muscles, and eger through an opening which a ven insinuate themselves into the vefurgeon made out of too much cu
ry texture of the bones, whilst imriolity, the whole thorax may be mediately applied to the cranium, made to play like a pair of bellows, they have produced no such effect ? the diaphragm being fouple, and all Whence arites the rigidness of the the entrails of the lower belly en- joints of the feet ? May nor the tire,cas in a recent carcass; upon stiffness of the one and the softness blo viag, into the intestines, they are of the other. be owing to the disease diftended, and become transparent : the person died of? This discovery they feem to be secured' by a lels has opened a large field for reflecti, folid ballam than what is on the The balsam certainly is exceloutside the body: No aperture can lent and most fragrant. The fepul be difcerned about the belly except, chre, and the stone exhale a great that now mentioned, which inakes it deal of it still, tho' it has been exdoubetul if it were in any part evif- poled to the open air above a inonth, cerated, if the gutts were separate, and the hands of those who have Jy cleansed and aromatis’d, or, if touched the corps, prelerve it fevetizat operation was performed only ral hours, though washed in hot waby injection at the fundament, as ter, brandy, or vinegar. It is difthe want of, any opening inclines ficult to find out the true nature of one to believe ; yet the great tran- this balsam ; 'tis conjectured to be a sparency of the gucs, their being mixture of oils, odoriferous gums, burft in several places, and the bal- or relins, and aromatic powders, fam on their outside, favour the for- forming a combination of scents, of mer methodi The sex is very ma- which it is hard to distinguish any nifestly characteriled, and it may ea- one in particular; it ditcovers nofily be perceived that this lad had ne- thing bitter or acrid to the taste. ver beea circumgled. The arms and The corps received some damage thighs have, if possible, been better bỹ being exposed on sundays to the prelerved than the trunk.
The inspection of the populace, who cut hands elpecially, and the feet are away part of the skin of the forę. worthy of admiration ; the nails ad- head, drew all the fore-teeth, and here talt, and all the lines of the endeavoured to tear ou! the tongue. palıms of the hands are as diilinēt as They carried away all the linnen it those of a living person. All the was wrapped in, and the cap which joints of the trunk and extremities, covered the head ; for they fancied excepting those of the legs and feet, it no less than the body of some are moveable, and the muscular paris Saint. As soon as the officers of yield to the motion that is impref- the fenefchal jurisdiction of Auvergfed upon them ; the tiagers have a ne, wherein it was found, had inca springingness fufficient to restore tice of it, they gave orders for rethemselves after being bent: Bui, moving it into the capital town of