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An increase occurred in the item "Income from Other Sources, Stocks, Bonds, etc.," of $2,364,015.

Table K.--Expenses. Necessarily the expenses of the railroads were largely increased. The total aggregated the vast sum of $746,384,501, being in excess of the previous year, $66,713,715. The following statement shows the items in which increases occurred:

Increase for the year 1907 over the year 1906.

Maintenance of way and structures,

$5,728,514 Maintenance of equipment,

14,064,454 Conducting transporation,

34,084,432 General expenses,

1,201,133 Total operating expenses,

58,078,533 Total expenses for year,

52,624,218 Total amount of dividends,

4,038,391 The following statement shows the items of expense in which decreases occurred:

Decrease for the year 1907 under the year 1906.

Other expenses as per deductions from income,
Total amount of dividends,
Surplus after deducting dividends,
Deficit after deducting dividends,

$5,454, 315

4,038,391 14.912,952 2,017,680

Table L.-Accidents. From the facts given in the preceding statements, showing the immensity of railroad operations for the year, it was to have been expected that there would be an increase in the number of accidents. The total number killed was 4,171 and the total number injured was 37,157.

The following statement shows the items in which increases occurred:

Increase for the year 1907 over the year 1906.

Passengers killed,
Passengers injured,
Employes killed,
Employes injured,
Others killed,
Total killed,
Total injured,

There was a decrease of 14 in the item “Others Injured.”

95 293

140 3,053

64 299 3,332

STREET RAILWAYS.

The street railways of the State, in their reports, reveal evidences of prosperity and progress. Their "Total Capitalization and Current Liabilities” amounting to $240,224,061, an increase over the year 1906 of $56,570,620.

To the total capitalization above given must be added $224,329,881, the total capital stock and funded and unfunded indebtedness of street railway companies leased and operated by other companies, as shown by Table G. This will give the total capitalization of streul railways in the State at the vast sum of $464,553,942.

Ati analysis of the tables accompanying this report, showing the inore lives in the many items embraced in their operations, follows:

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Table E.-Mileage, Equipment, Persons Employed and Passengers

Carried.

Increase for the year 1907 over the year 1906.

Total miles of single tracks and branches operated,
Total length of all tracks operated,
Total number of cars,
Total number of employes,
Total compensation,

264.53 304.20 690

3.396 $2,093,537 Table F. Accidents.

Increase for the year 1907 over the year 1906.

9

47 519

Passengers killed,

65 Passengers injured,

2,828 Employes killed, Employes injured,

624 Others killed, Others injured, Total killed,

60 Total injured,

3,971 Table G shows the capitalization, indebtedness, cost of road and equipment, income and disbursements of street railway companies leased and operated by other corporations. The total capital stock outstanding of these roads amounts to $144,890,438; the total funded and unfunded debt, to $79,439,443; the total cost of roads and equip ment to $225,798,775.

The increases have been general as shown by the following statement:

Table G.

Increase for the year 1907 over the year 1906. Capital stock outstanding,

$33,255,019 Funded and unfunded indebtedness,

2,692,219 Cost of road and equipment,

28, 112,956 Income through rental of road and other sources,

1,294,882 Dividends paid,

2,004,210 Other disbursements,

771,733 The foregoing comparative statements show emphatically the predominant feature of railroad operations for the year. The railroads in all departments of their operations were taxed to the straining point to handle the enormous traffic that came to them. This condition of unprecedented prosperity in all lines of productive industry, necessitated extraordinary efforts upon the part of the railroads to increase equipment of cars and locomotives, as well as to add to tracks, yards and terminal facilities. For these purposes they were required to raise vast sums of money by new issues of capital stock and bonds, and that much of the surplus capital of the country found investment in such securities is conclusively manifested by the figures to be found in this report. That the managers of railroads all over the country labored earnestly and energetically to meet the demands made upon them can scarcely be denied, but for a long time all their exertions were inadequate to the task. Naturally, many complaints arose against the railroad companies. Shippers of all sorts of products clamored for cars and the expeditious movement of them, and when their needs were not met promptly, resulting in great inconvenience and oftentimes in loss, it was but to be expected that their displeasure would be directed against the delinquent railroads. To charge the failures of the railroad companies to

meet all the demands made upon them by those whom they served to favoritism and discrimination was easy and natural to men provoked by unrealized hopes and expectations.

It is not intended by what has been said, to assert that the railroads were not guilty of favoritism and discrimination. On the contrary, in several trials in the courts of law and in proceedings before the Interstate Commerce Commission, it was shown positively that many subordinate officials did use their opportunities to favor some as against others, to their own pecuniary advantage. Nevertheless, it is undoubtedly true that the railroad companies were unjustly accused frequently for alleged defaults to their patrons, which were due wholly to their inability to do better.

Accumulating discontent logically led to agitation, and continued agitation to a well defined "popular movement" against railroads, which culminated in the election of the Legislature of 1907, the majority of the members of which body was committed beforehand to the enactment of laws designed to regulate corporations engaged in the business of public carriers and correct alleged abuse of privileges by them.

NEW RAILROAD LAWS.

The Legislature of 1907 fully met the expectations of the people of the State. It passed a large number of laws relating to railroads. Some of them will, without doubt, bu of material benefit; others of them were just as certainly improvident and insufficiently considered. The act which possibly excited the greatest discussion and agitation was the one popularly known as the “Two Cent Rate Bill.” It has since been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, in so far as it applies to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. There will hardly be any attempt, therefore, to enforce it against other companies, as such a course would be generally regarded as inequitable and unjust. If the Legislature and those agitating for the passage of this law had consulted the records of the Bureau of Railways they could have secured the information upon the subject that should have convinced them that such legislation would be exceedingly burdensome to the railroads. The sworn reports of the railroad companies to the Bureau of Railways for the six years preceding, showed that the average of receipts per mile for carrying passengers was 1.850 cents--one cent and eight and a half mills. In the report of the Bureau for the year 1906, Hon. Isaac B. Brown, then Secretary of Internal Affairs, discussed the subject thoroughly and least, the doubtful propriety and wisdom of the proposed legislation. The general acquiescence with which the decision of the Supreme Court has been received by the public appears to warrant the belief that no legislation along this line will be attempted again, except after fullest investigation in order that the rights of all parties concerned may be ascertained and conserved.

A law enacted by the last Legislature required the railroad companies of the State to re-survey their roads and make returns thereof to the Department of Internal Affairs. Suitable blanks were prepared and sent to all the steam and electric railroads. They very promptly complied with all requirements of the law. This measure was inspired largely by the idea which prevailed quite generally, that some railroad companies had, by their policy of straightening their lines by the taking out of curves, considerably reduced the distances between certain terminals, and that they continued to charge fare for a greater number of miles than they were entitled to do. The returns to this department scarcely justified this contention. The differences between the new surveys and those previously returned and on file in the Department, were very small. It was productive, however, of one very important result. The records of this Department now contain the exact distances in miles between every station and every other station, on every steam and electric railroad in the State. This information will be especially valuable to the Pennsylvania State Railroad Commission in its work.

Among the most important and far reaching in their effect, of the laws passed by the Legislature of 1907, are four acts intended to enforce certain constitutional provisions. Their titles give an idea of their purpose and are as follows:

AN ACT

To enforce the provisions of Section five, Article seventeen of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, relative to the powers of incorporated common carriers and the privileges of mining and manufacturing companies; making violation thereof a misdemeanor, and providing a punishment for the same.

AN ACT To carry into effect the provisions of Section seven, Article seventeen of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, relating to discriminations and preferences in charges and facilities; and making the violation thereof a misdemeanor, and providing a penalty for the same.

AN ACT

To enforce the provisions of Section four, Article seventeen, of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, pertaining to the consolidation of

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