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her course in hys beginninge, whiche in the course of his lyfe many thinges vnnaturallye committed. None euill captaine was hee in the warre, as to whiche his disposicion was more metely then for peace. Sundrye victories hadde hee, and sommetime ouerthrowes, but neuer in defaulte as for his owne parsone, either of hardinesse or polytike order, free was hee called of dyspence, and sommewhat aboue hys power liberall, with large giftes bee get him vnstedfaste frendeshippe, for whiche hee was fain to pil and spoyle in other places, and get him stedfast hatred. Hee was close and secrete, a decpe dissimuler, lowlye of counteynaunce, arrogant of heart, out

Edwarde died, one Mystlebrooke longe ere mornynge, came in greate haste to the house of one Pottyer dwellyng in Reddecrosse strete without Crepulgate: and when he was with hastye rappyng quickly letten in, hee shewed vnto Pottyer that kynge Edwarde was departed. By my trouthe manne quod Pottyer then wyll my mayster the duke of Gloucester bee kynge. What cause hee hadde soo to thynke harde it is to saye, whyther hee being toward him, anye thynge knewe that hee suche thynge purposed, or otherwyse had anye inkelynge thereof: for hee was not likelye to speake it of noughte. But nowe to returne to the course of

wardly coumpinable where he inwardely this hystorye, were it that the duke of hated, not letting to kisse whome hee Gloucester hadde of old foreminded this thoughte to kyll dispitious and cruell, conclusion, or was nowe at erste therenot for euill will alway, but after for am- unto moued, and putte in hope by the bicion, and either for the suretie and en- occasion of the tender age of the younge crease of his estate. Frende and foo was princes, his nephues (as opportunitye muche what indifferent, where his ad- and lykelyhoode of spede, putteth a uquntage grew, he spared no mans deathe, manne in courage of that hee neuer enwhose life withstoode his purpose. He tended) certayn is it that hee contriued slewe with his owne handes king Henry theyr destruccion, with the vsurpacion the sixt, being prisoner in the Tower, as of the regal dignitye vppon hymselfe. menne constantly saye, and that without And for as muche as hee well wiste and commaundement or knoweledge of the hope to mayntayn, a long continued

king, whiche woulde windoubtedly yf he had entended that thinge, haue appointcd that boocherly office, to some other then his owne borne brother. Somme wise menne also weene, that his drift couertly conuayde, lacked not in helping furth his brother of Clarence to his death : whiche hee resisted openly, how beit soniwhat (as menne deme) note faintly then he that wer haftely minded to his welth. And they that thus derine, think that he long time in king Edwardes life, forethought to be king in that case the king his brother (whose life hee looked that euil dyete shoulde shorten) shoulde happen to decease (as in cede he did) while his children wer yonge. And thei deme, that for thys intente he was gladde of his brothers death the duke of Clarence, whose life must nodes haue hindered hym so entendynge, whither the same duke of Claret.ce hadde kepte him true to his nephew the yonge king, or enterprised to be kyng himselfe. But of al this pointe, is there no certaintie, and whoso douineth vppon coniectures, maye as wel shote to faire as to short. Howbeit this haue I by credible informacion learned, that the so..te nights in whyche kynge

grudge and hearte brennynge betwene the quenes kinred and the kinges blood eyther partyeenuying othersauthoritye, he nowe thought that their deuision shoulde bee (as it was in dede) a fortherlye begynnynge to the pursuite of his intente, and a sure ground for the foundacion of al his building yf he might firste vnder the pretext of reuengynge of olde displeasure, abuse the anger and ygnoraunce of the tone partie, to the destruccion of the tother and then wynne to this purpose as manye as he coulde: and those tha coulde not be wonne, myght be losteer they looked therefore. For of one thyns was hee certayne, that if his entente wer perceiued, he shold soone haue mad peace beetwene the bothe parties, wit his owne bloude. Kynge Edwarde in his life, albeit th this discencion beetwene hys frend, $ommewhat yrked hym: yet in his go, health he sommewhat the lesse regard, it, because hee thought whatsoeuer b sines shoulde falle betwene them, hyr selfe should alwaye bee hable to rule bot the parties. But in his last sicknesse, when hee ceived his naturall strengthe soo sore e

is bled, that hee dyspayred all recouer. then hee consyderynge the youthe of his chyldren, albeit hee nothynge lesse mistrusted then that that happened, yet well forseynge that manye harmes myghte growe by theyr debate, whyle the youth of hys children shoulde lacke discrecion of themself, and good counsayle of their rendes, of whiche either party shold counsayle for their owne commodity and rather by pleasaunte aduyse too wynne themselfe fauour, then by profitable aduertisemente to do the children good, he called some of them before him that were at variaunce, and in especyall the lorde marques Dorsette the quenes sonne by her fyrste housebande, and Richarde the lorde Hastynges, a noble man, than Jorde chaumberlayne agayne whome the quene specially grudged, for the great fauoure the kyng bare hym, and also for that shee thoughte hym secretelye familyer with the kynge in wanton coumPanye. Her kynred also bare hym sore, as well for that the kynge hadde made hym captayne of Calyce (whiche office the lorde Ryuers, brother to the quene, claimed of the kinges former promyse) as for diuerse other great giftes whiche hee receyued, that they loked for. When these lordes with dinerse other of bothe the parties were comme in presence, the kynge liftinge vppe himselfe and vndersette with pillowes, as it is reported on this wyse sayd vnto them, My lordes, my dere kinsménne and alies, in what plighte Ilye you see, and I feele. By whiche the lesse whyle I looke to lyue with you, the more depelye am I moued to care in what case I leaue you, for such as I kaue you, suche bee my children lyke to synde you. Whiche if they shouldé (that Godde forbydde) fynde you at varyaunce, myght happe to fall themselfe at warre ere their discrecion woulde serue to sette you at peace. Ye see their youthe, of whiche I recken the onely suretie to Itste in youre concord. For it suffiseth not al you loue them, yf eche of you hate other. If they wer menne, your faithfulnesse happelye woulde suffise. But childehood must be maintained by mens authoritye, and slipper youth vindespropped with elder couns:yle, which neither they can haue, but ye geue it nor ye geue it, yf ye gree not. For wher eche laboureth to breake that the other maketh, and for hatred of eche of others parson, impugneth eche others counsayle, there must it nedes bee long tre anye good conclusion goe forwarde.

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And also while either partye laboureth to be chiefe, flattery shall haue more place then plaine and faithfull aduyse, of whyche muste needes ensue the euyll bringing vppe of the prynce, whose mynd in tender youth infect, shal redily fal to mischief and riot, and drawe down with this noble relme to ruine: but if grace turn him to wisdom, which if God send, then thei that by euill menes before pleased him best, shal after fall farthest out of fauour, so that euer at length euill driftes dreue to nought, and good plain wayes prosper. Great variaunce hath ther long bene betwene you, not alway for great causes. Sometime a thing right wel intended, our misconstruccion turneth vinto worse or a smal displeasure done vs, eyther our owne afeccion or euil tongues agreueth. But this wote I well ye neuer had so great cause of hatred, as ye have of loue. That we be al men, that we be christen men, this shall I leaue for prechers to tel you (and yet I wote nere whither any prechers wordes ought more to moue you, then his that is by and by gooying to the place that thei all preache of.) But this shal I desire you to remember, that the one parte of you is of my bloode, the other of myne alies, and eche of yow with other, eyther of kindred or affinitie, whiche spirytuall kynied of affynyty, if the sacramentes of Christes churche, beare that weyghte with vs that woulde Godde thei did, shoulde no lesse mouc vs to charitye, then the respecte of fleshlye consanguinitye. Oure Lorde forbydde, that you loue together the worsc, for the selfe cause that you ought to love the better. And yet that happeneth. And no where fynde wee so deadlye debate, as amonge them, whyche by nature and lawe moste oughte to agree together. Suche a pestilente serpente is ambicion and desyre of vaine glorye and soueraintye, whiche amonge states where he once entreth crepeth foorth so farre, tyll with deuision and variaunce hee turneth all to mischiefe. Firste longing to be nexte the best, asterwarde egall with the beste, and at laste chiefe and aboue the beste. Of which immoderate appetite of woorship, and thereby of debate and dissencion what losse, what sorowe, what trouble hathe within these fewe yeares growen in this realme, I praye Godde as wel forgeate as wee wel remember. Whiche thinges yī I coulde as wel

haue foresene, as I haue with my more payne then pleasure proued, by Goddes blessed Ladie (that was euer his othe) I woulde neuer haue won the courtesye of mennes knees, with the losse of soo many heades. But sithen thynges passed cannot be gaine called, muche oughte wee the more beware, by what occasion we haue taken sco greate hurte afore, that we eftesoones fall not in that occasion agayne. Nowe be those griefes passed, and all is (Godde be thanked) quiete, and likelie righte wel to prosper in wealthfull peace vnder youre coseyns my children, if Godde sende them life and you loue. Of whiche twoo thinges, the lesse losse wer they by whome thoughe Godde dydde hys pleasure, yet shoulde the realme alway finde kinges and peraduenture as good kinges. But yf you among youre selfe in a childes reygne fall at debate, many a good man shall perish and happely he to, and ye to, ere thys land finde peace again. Wherfore in these laste wordes that euer I looke to speake with you : I exhort you and require you al, for the loue that you haue euer borne to me, for the loue that I haue euer borne to you, for the lone that our Lord beareth to vs all, from this time forwarde, all grieues forgotten, eche of you loue other. Whiche Iverelye truste you will, if ye any thing earthly regard, either Godde or your king, affinitie or kinred, this realme, your owne countrey, or your owne surety. And therewithal the king no longer enduring to sitte vp, laide him down on his right side, his face towarde them : and none was there present that coulde refrain from weping. But the lordes recomforting him with as good wordes as they could, and answering for the time as thei thought to stand with his pleasure, there in his presence (as by their wordes appered) eche forgate cther, and ioyned their hands together, when (as it after appeared by their dedes) their hearts wer far a sonder. As some as the king was departed, the noble prince his sonne drew toward London, which at the time of his decease, kept his houshold at Ludlow in Wales. Which countrey being far of from the law and recourse to iustice, was begon to be farre oute of good wyll and waxen wild, robbers and riters walking at libertie vncorrected. And for this encheason the prince was in the life of his father sente thither, to the ende that the authoritie of his presence should refraine

euill disposed parsons fro the boldnes of their formar outerages, to the gouernaunce and ordering of this yong prince at his sending thyther, was there appointed Sir Anthony Wodule lord Riuers and brother vnto the quene, a right honourable man, as valiaunte of hande as politike in counsale. Adioyned wer there vnto him other of the same partie, and in effect euery one as he was nerest of kin vnto the quene, so was planted next about the prince. That drifte by the quene not vinwisely deuised, whereby her bloode mighte of youth be rooted in the princes fauour, the duke of Gloucester turned vnto their destruccion, and vpon that grounde set the foundacion of all his wnhappy building. For whom soeuer he perceiued, either at variance with them, or bearing himself their fauor, hee brake wnto them, som by mouth, som by writing or secret messengers, that it neyther was reason nor in any wise to be suffered, that the yong king their master and kinsmanne, shoold bee in the handes and custodye of his mothers kinred, sequestred in maner from theyr compani and attendance, of which eueri one ought him as faithful seruice as they, and manye of them far more honorable part of kin then his mothers side: whose blood (quod he) sauing the kinges pleasure, was ful vnmetely to be matched with his ; whiche nowe to be as who say re. moued from the kyng, and the lesse no ble to be left aboute him, is (quod he neither honorable to hys magestie, no wnto vs, and also to his grace no suret to haue the mightiest of his frendes from him, and vnto vs no little ieopardy, t suffer our welproued euil willers, to gro in ouergret authoritie with the prince youth, namely which is lighte of belie and sone perswaded. Ye remember trow king Edward himself, albeit he w a manne of age and of discrecion, y was he in manye thynges ruled by t bende, more then stode either with honour, or our profite, or with the cot moditie of any manneels, except onely immoderate aduauncement of them sel Whiche whither they sorer thirsted at their owne weale, or our woe, it v harde I wene to gesse. And if some foll frendship had not holden better pl with the king, then any respect of kinr thei might peraduenture easily haue trapped and brought to confusion son. of vs ere this. Why not as easily as t haue done some other alreadye, as no of his royal bloode as we. But our Lord
hath wrought his wil, and thanke be to
his grace that peril is paste. Howe be it
as great is growing, yf wee suffer this
yonge kyng in oure enemyes hande,
whiche without his wyttyng, might
abuse the name of his commaundement,
to aniof our vndoing, which thyng God
and good prouision forbyd. Of which good
prouision none of vs hath any thing the
lessenede, for the late made attonemente,
in whiche the kinges pleasure hadde more
Place then the parties willes. Nor none
of vs I beleue is so wnwyse, ouersone to
truste a newe frende made of an olde foe,
or to think that an houerly kindnes, so-
dinely contract in one houre continued,
yet scant a fortnight, shold be deper set-
led in their stomackes: then a long ac-
customed malice many yeres rooted.
With these wordes and writynges and
ouche other, the duke of Gloucester sone
set a fyre, them that were of themself
the to kindle, and in especiall twayne,
Edwarde duke of Buckingham, and Ri-
sharde lorde Hastinges and chaumber-
layn, both men of honour and of great
Power. The tone by longe succession
from his ancestrie, the tother by his of
fice and the kinges fauor. These two not
bearing eche to other so muche loue, as
tred bothe vnto the quenes parte; in
this Poynte accorded together wyth the
duke of Gloucester, that they wolde vt-
tolye amoue fro the kinges companye,
all his mothers frendes, vider the name
of their enemyes. Vpon this concluded,
the duke of Gloucester vnderstandyng,
that the lordes whiche at that tyme were
aboute the kyng, entended to bryng him
WPPetohis coronacion, accoumpanied with
oche power of theyr frendes, that it
houlde bee harde for hym to brynge his
Purposeto passe, without the gathering and
great assemble of people and in maner of
openwarre, whereof the ende he wiste was
tous, and in which the kyng being

on their side, his part should haue the

oceand name of a rebellion: he secretly
therefore by diuers meanes, caused the
Quene to be perswaded and brought in
the mynd, that it neither wer nede, and
also shold be ieopardous, the king to
oneyp strong. For where as nowe euery
kode loued other, and none other thing
*udyed vppon, but aboute the corona-
‘ion and honoure of the king: if the
looks of her kinred shold assemble in
* kinges name, muche people, thei
*ould geue the lordes atwixte whome
WQL. I.

and them hadde bene sommetyme de-
bate, to feare and suspecte, leste they
shoulde gather thys people, not for the
kynges sauegarde whome no manne em-
pugned, but for theyr destruccion, hauy-
ing more regarde to their old variaunce,
than their newe attonement. For whiche
cause thei shoulde assemble on the other
partie muche people agayne for their de-
fence, whose power she wyste wel farre
stretched. And thus should al the realme
fall on a rore. And of al the hurte that
therof should ensue, which was likely
not to be litle, and the most harme there
like to fal wher she lest would, al the
worlde woulde put her and her kinred
in the wyght, and say that thei had vn-
wyselye and vntrewlye also, broken the
amitie and peace that the kyng her hus-
band so prudentelye made, betwene hys
kinne and hers in his death bed, and
whiche the other party faithfully ob-
serued.
The quene being in this wise perswad-
ed, suche woorde sent vnto her sonne,
and unto her brother being aboute the
kynge, and ouer that the duke of Glou-
cester hymselfe and other lordes the
chiefe of hys bende, wrote vnto the
kynge soo reuerentlye, and to the
queenes frendes there soo louyngelye, that
they nothynge earthelye mystrustynge,
broughte the kynge vppe in greate haste,
not in good spede, with a sober coum-
panye. Nowe was the king in his waye
to London gone, from Northampton,
when these dukes of Gloucester and
Buckyngham came thither. Where re-
mained behynd, the lorde Ryuers the
kynges vincle, entendyng on the morowe
to folow the kynge, and bee with him
at Stonye Statford miles thence,
earely or hee departed. So was there
made that nyghte muche frendely chere
betwene these dukes and the lorde, Ri-
uers a great while. But incontinente
after that they were oppenlye with greate
courtesye departed, and the lorde Riuers
lodged, the dukes secretelye with a fewe
of their moste priuye frendes, sette then
downe in counsayle, wherin they spent
a great parte of the nyght. And at their
risinge in the dawnyng of the day, thei
sent about priuily to their seruantes in
the innes and lodgynges about, geuinge
them commaundemente to make them
selfe shortely readye, for their lordes wer
to horsebackward. Vppon whiche mes-
sages, manye of their solke were attend-
aunt, when manye of the lorde Riuers

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for the shewe of theire dylygence, to bee the fyrste that shoulde that daye attende vppon the kynges highnesse oute of that towne: thus bare they folke in hande. But when the lord Ryuers vnderstode the gates closed, and the wayes on euerye side besette, neyther hys seruauntes nor hymself suffered to go oute, parceluyng well so greate a thyng without his knowledge not begun for noughte, comparyng this maner present with this last nightes chere, in so few houres so gret a chaunge marueylouslye misliked. How be it sithe hee coulde not geat awaye, and keepe himselfe close, hee woulde not, leste he shoulde seeme to hyde himselfe for some secret feare of hys owne faulte, whereof he saw no such cause in hym self: he determined vppon the suretie of his own conscience, to goe boldelye to them, and inquire what thys matter myghte meane. Whome as soone as they sawe, they beganne to quarrell with hym, and saye, that hee intended to sette distaunce beetweene the kynge and them, and to brynge them to confusion, but it shoulde not lye in hys power. And when hee beganne (as hee was a very well spoken manne) in goodly wise to excuse himself, they taryed not the ende of his aunswere, but shortely tooke him and putte him in warde, and that done, foorthwyth wente to horsebacke, and tooke the waye to Stonye Stratforde. Where they founde the kynge with his companie readye to leape on horsebacke, and departe forwarde, to leaue that lodging for them, because it was to streighte for bothe coumpanies. And as sone as they came in his presence, they lighte

adowne with all their companie aboute them.

To whome the duke of Buckingham saide, goe afore gentlemenne and

yeomen, kepe youre rowmes. And thus

in goodly arraye, thei came to the kinge,

and on theire knees in very humble wise, salued his grace; whiche receyued them in very ioyous and amiable maner, nothinge earthlye knowing nor mistrustinge as yet. But euen by and by in his presence, they piked a quarrell to the lorde Richarde Graye, the kynges other brother by his mother, sayinge that hee with the lorde marques his brother and the lorde Riuers his vincle, hadde coumpassed to rule the kinge and the realme, and to sette variaunce among the states, and to subdewe and destroye the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accoumplishinge whereof, they sayde that the lorde Marques hadde entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the kinges treasor, and sent menne to the sea. All whiche thinge these dukes wise well were done for good purposes and necessari by the whole counsaile at London, sauing that sommewhat thei must sai. Vnto whiche woordes, the king aunswered, what my brother Marques hath done I cannot saie. But in good faith I dare well aunswere for mynevilcle Riuers and my brother here, that the be innocent of any such matters. . Y. my liege quod the duke of Buckinghan thei haue kepte theire dealing in thes matters farre fro the knowledge of you good grace. And foorthwith thei as rested the lord Richarde and Sir Thoma Waughan knighte, in the kinges pr sence, and broughte the king and a backe vnto Northampton, where \h tooke againe further counsaile. A there they sent awaie from the kin whom it pleased them, and sette neo seruantes aboute him, suche as lyk better them than him. At whiche Öe inge hee wepte and was nothing conten but it booted not. And at dyner duke of Gloucester sente a dishe fr his owne table to the lord Riuers, pr inge him to be of good chere, a\\ she be well inough. And he thanked duke, and prayed the messenger to bo it to his nephewe the lorde Richard the same message for his comfort, he thought had more nede of coun as one to whom such aduersitie straunge. But himself had been a dayes in yre therewith ; and the coulde beare it the better. Hut f this coumfortable courtesye of the of Gloucester he sent the lorde F and the lorde Richarde with Sir TV Vaughan into the Northe countre.

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