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The genius of Raphael having succeeded to the times of barbarism and ignorance, the knowledge of painting is now arrived to perfection. Dryden's 1) fresnoy, Proface. 3. Brutality ; savageness of manners; incivility. Moderation ought to be had in temperirg and managing the Irish, to bring them from their delight of licentious barbarism unto the love of goodness and civility. Sponser's Ireland. Livers great monarchies have risen from barBarism to civility, and fallen again to ruin. - 10avies on Ireland. 4. Cruelty; barbarity; unpitying hardness of heart. Not in use. They must perforce have melted, And barbarium itself have pitied him. Shakop. BARBA'RIT Y. m. ... [from barbarous.] 1. Savageness; incivility. #. Cruelty; inhumanity. And they did treat him with all the rudeness, reproach, and barbarity, imaginable. Clarendon. 3. Barbarism ; impurity of speech. Next Petrarch follow'd, and in him we see "What rhyme, improv’d in all its height, can be; At best a pleasing sound, and sweet barbarity. - Dryden. Latin expresses that in one word, which either e barbarity or narrowness of modern tongues sannot supply in more. Dryden. Affected refinements, which ended by degrees in many barbarities, before the Goths had invaded Italy. Soft. BARBAROUS. adj. [harbare, Fr. £o:&:3. J 1. Stranger to civility; savage; uncivilized. - What need I say more to you? What ear is so Barbarous but o heard of Amphialus? Sidney. The doubtful damsel dare not yet commit Her single person to their barbarous truth. Fairy Queen. Thou art a Roman; be not barbarous. Slakop. He left governour, Philip, for his country a Phrygian, and for manners inore barbarous than he § set him there. - Macc. A barbarous country must be broken by war, before it be capable of government; and when subdued, if it be not well planted, it will oftsoons return to barbarism. Lavies on Ireland. 3. 'o. unacquainted with arts. They who restored painting in Germany, not having those reliques of antiquity, retained that barbarous manner. Dryden. 3. Cruel ; inhuman. By their harbarous usage, he died within a few days, to the grief of all that knew him. Clarendon. BA/R BA Rous I.Y. adv. [from barbarous.] 1. Ignorantly ; without knowledge or arts. 2. In a manner contrary to the rules of speech. We harbarantly call them blest, While swelling coffers break their owners rest. Stepney. 3. Cruelly; inhumanly. . But yet you barbarously murder'd him. Dryd. She wishes it may prosper; but her mother used one of her nieces very barbarously. Spectator. BA’R BA Rous N Ess. n. J. [from barbarous.] * 1. Incivility of manners. Excellencies of musick and poetry are grown to be little more but the one fiddling, and the sther rhiming; and are indeed very worthy of

the ignorance of the fiar, and the barbarous-zir of the Goths. Teaple, 2. Impurity of language. It is much degenerated, as touching the pureness of speech; being overgrown with barbarootstrff. Brerewood. 3. Cruelty. The barbarousness of the trial, and the persuasives of the clergy, prevailed to antiquate it. Hale's Common Law. To BA’R BECU E. v. a. A term used in the West Indies for dressing a hog whole ; which, being split to the backbone, is laid flat upon a large gridiron, raised about two feet above a charcoal fire, with which it is surrounded. Oldfield, with more than harpy throat endued, Cries, Send me, gods, a whole hog barbecued. Pope. BA/R H Ecu E. m. s. A hog drest whole, in the West Indian manner. BA/R BE D. part. adj. [from To barb.] I. Furnished with armour. His glittering armour he will command to rust, His barbed steeds to stables. Shakspear. 2. Bearded; jagged with hooks or points. If I conjecture right, no drizzling show'r, But rattling storm of arrows barb'd with fire. A silton, BA/R BE L. m. s. [barbus, Lat.] 1. A kind of fish found in rivers, large and strong, but coarse. The barbel is so called, by reason of the birb or wattels at his mouth, or under his chaps. W.itor's Angler. 2. Knots of superfluous flesh growing up in the channels of the mouth of a horse. Farrier's Dict, BA’RE E R. m. s. [from To barb.] A man who shaves the beard. His chamber being stived with friends or suitors, he gave his legs, arms, and breasts, to his servants to dress; his head and face to his Aarher, his eyes to his letters, and his ears to petitioners, #'attan, Thy boist'rous looks, No worthy match for valour to assail, But by the barber's razor best subdued. Milies. What system, Dick, has right averr'd The cause why woman has no beard? In points like these we must agree, Our barber knows as much as we. Prior, To BA/R BER. v. a. [from the noun..] To dress out; to powder. Our courteous Antony, Whom ne'er the word of No woman heard speak, Being barber'd ten times o'er, goes to the feast. Shakspeara BAR BER-CH 1 R U R G EoN. n.s. A man who joins the practice of surgery to the barber's trade; such as were all surgeons formerly, but now it is used only for a low practiser of surgery. He put himself into orbér-chirurgeons hands, who, by unfit applications, rarified the tumour. Wiseman's Surgery. BAR BE R-Mo.N GE R. m. s. A word of reproach in Shakspeare, which seems to signify a fop ; a man decked out by his barber, Draw, you rogue; for though it be night, the moon shines; I'll make a sop of the moonshine of you; you whoreson, cullionly, Aarberoneog” draw, Stalfiaro, King Lo".

BA'Rher RY. m. s. [berberis, Lat, or oxya-
canthus.J. Pipperidge bush.
The species are, 1. The common barberry.
2. Bar erry without stones. The first of these
sorts is very common in England, and often
planted for hedges. 4, iller.
Berberry is a plant that bears a fruit very use-
ful in housewifery; that which beareth its fruit
without stones is counted best. Mortimer.
BAe n. 4. Lowraa. Welsh. A poet.
There is among the Irish a kind of people
called bard, which are to them instead of poets;
whose profession is to set forth the praises or dis-
praises of men in their poems of rhime; the
which are had in high regard and estimation
among them. Spensor on Ireland.
And many oard; that to the trembling chord
Can tune their timely voices cunningly. Fairy Q.
The bard who frst adorn'd our native tongue
Tun'd to his British lyre this ancient song,
Which Homer might without a blush rehearse.
- Dryden.
BARE. adj. 35-je, Sax. lar, Dan.]
1. Naked; without covering.
The trees are are and naked, which use both
to coatin and house the kern. Spenter.
Then stretch'd her arinst embrace the body
Her clasping hands inclose but empty air. Dryd.
In the old Roman statues, these two ports
were a ways oare, and exposed to view as much
as our hands and face. Ziddison.
2. Uiscovered in respect.
Though the lords used to be covered whilst
the commons were bare, yet the commons would
not be bare before the Scottish commissioners;
and so none were covered. Clarendon.
3. Unadorned ; plain; simple ; without
Yet was their manners thenbut bare and plain;
For th’ antique world excess and pride did hate.
. Detected ; no longer concealed.
These false pretexts and varnish'd colours
Bare in thy guilt, how foul thou must appear!
42 ilion.
5. Poor; indigent; wanting plenty.
Were it for the glory of God, that the clergy
should be left as bare is the apostles, when they
had neither staff nor scrip; God would, I hope,
endue them with the self-same affection.
Hooler's {{...,
Even from a baretreasury, my successhas been
contrary to that of Mr. Cowley. Drydon.
6. Mere; unaccompanied with usual it-
It was a bare petition of a state
To one whom they had punished. Shakspeare,
Nor are men prevailed upon by bare words,
". through a defect of knowledge; but carried
with these puffs of wind, contrary to knowledge.
7. Threadbare; much worn.
You have an exchequer of words, and no other
treasure for your followers; for it appears, by
their bare liveries, that they live by your bare
words. Shak-peare.
3. Not united with any thing else.
A desire to draw all things to the determina-
tion of bare and naked Scripture, hath caused
much pains to be taken in abating the credit of
man. Rooker.
That which offendeth us, is the great disgrace
which theyoffer unto our custom of bare reading
the word of Gca. Booker.
Wanting clothes; slenderly supplied
with clothes -

re. Sometimes it has of before the thing
wanted or taken away.
Tempt not the brave and needy to despair;
For, tho' your violence should leave them bare
- Qf gold and silver, swords and darts remain.
Dryden's juvena!.
Making a law to reduce interest, will not raise
the price of land; it will only leave the country
barer of money. Locła.
To B.A. R. v. a. [from the adjective.] To
strip; to make bare or naked.
The turtle, on the bared branch,
Laments the wounds that death did launch.
There is a fabulous narration, that an herb
groweth in the likeness of a lamb, and feedeth
upon the grass, in such sort as it will bare the
grass round about. , , Bacon's Natural History-
Eriphyle here he found
Baring her breast yet bleeding with the wound.
- 19rydon-
He bar'd an ancient oak of all her bougois;
Then on a rising ground the trunk he plac'd,
For virtue, when I point the pen-
Bare the mean heart that lurks beneath a star;
Can there be wanting to defend her cause,
Lights of the church, or guardians of the lo
- - ope-
BA RE, or Bo R.E. The preterit of To bear.
BA'R E. Bo N E. m. s. [from bare and lone.]
Lean, so that the bones appear.
Here comes lean Jack, here comes barebone:
how long is it ago, Jack, since thou sawest thy
own knee f Shakspeare's Henry Iv.
B-'RE face D. adj. [from bare and face.}
1. With the face naked ; not masked.
Your French crowns have no hair at all, and
then you will play barofaced. Shakspeare.
2. Shameless; unreserved ; without con-
cealment; undisguised.
The animosities cncreased, and the parties ap-
peared / arefred against each other. Glirendoz.
It is most certain, that Barofaced bawdry is the
poorest pretence,to wit imaginable. 1/ryden.
BA R H F A^ct. 1, i. Y. adv. from barefaced.]
Openly; shamefully; without disguise.
Though only some profigate whetches own it
too barosacedy, yet, perhaps, we should hear
more, did not fear tie people's tongues. Locłr.
BA R F FA'ck D N Ess. n.s. LFrom barefaced.}
Effrontery; assurance; audaciousness.
BA’s E Foot, adj. [from bare and foot.]
Having no shoes.
Going to find a barefoot brother out,
One of our order. Shop, Romeo and juit,
BA'RE Foot. adv. Without shoes.
She must have a husband;
I must dance barofoot on her wedding-day. Sico.
Ambitious love hath so in me j. -
That bargot plod I the cold ground 3 on
With sainted vow. Shakspeara.
Envoys describe this holy man, with his Al-
caydes about him, standing barofoot, bowing tw
the carth. Addisco.
BA R or o'ort D. adi. Being without shoes.
He himself, with a rope about his neck, bare-
foolea, came to offer himself to the discretion of
Leonatus. Sidney.
BA R E. J N A'w N. adj. [from bare and
gnawn..] Eaten bare.
Know my name is lost,
By treason's tooth bargown and cankerbit.
Sbox:peare's King Lear.
BARF HE'A De D. adi.[from bare and head.]
|Uncovered in respcct,

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2. ‘Inc tog bought or sold; a purchase; tle thing purchased.

Cove no out my pric: for the other two, and yoa's even have that into the bargain. L'Extr. 11 : voo is at the charge of a tutor at home, may give hio on a more genreel carriage, with protor learning into the bargain, than any at school can do. Locke.

2. Stipulation : interested dealing. There was a difference between courtesies received from their master and the duke; for that the duke's might have ends of ptility and bargain, whereas their master's could not. Bacon. 4. An unexpected reply, tending to ob

scenity. Where cold he bargains, whipstitch Dryden. As to bargains, few of them seem to be excellent, because they all terminate into one single joint. Swift. No maid at court is left asham'd,


Howe'er for selling bargain, fam'd. 5. An event; an upshot: a low sense. I am sorry for thy misfortune; however, we must make the best of a bad bargain. Artuthnot. 6. In law. Lurgain and sale is a contract or agreement

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Wand'ring in the dark, Physicians for the tree have found the 53rk. Do 2. A small ship. [from barra, low Lat. The duke of Parma must have town, if he would have come into England; for he could neither get bark nor mariner to put to sea. Baces. It was that fatal and perfidious bark, Built in th’cclipse, and rigg’d with curses disk, That sunk so low that sacred head of thine 14. Who to a woman trusts his peace of mind, Trusts a frail bark with a tempestuous wind. - Granvik. To BAR K. v. m. [beoncan, Saxon.] 1. ‘To make the noise which a dog makes when he threatens or pursues. - Sent before my time Into this breathing world, scarce half made up, And that so lamely and unfashionably That dogs bars at me. Shakspeare's Rickard II: Why do your dogs bark so? be there bears i'th town: , Shałop. Merry Poovo of #indi. In vain the herdman calls him back again;

- The dogs stand off afar, and bari invain. Cowky.


2: To clamour at ; to pursue with re-
Wile is the vengeance on the ashes cold,
And envy base, to hiri at sleeping fame. F. Queen.
You dare patronage
The envious barking of your saucy tongue
Against my lords Soakspeare.
To BAR. K. v. a. [from the noun..] To
strip trees of their bark.
The severest penalties ought to be put upon
barking any tree that is not felled. Temple.
These trees, after they are barked, and cut into
shape, are tumbled down from the mountains
into the stream. Addison.
Bar K-8 ARE D. adi, sfrom bark and bare.]
Stripped of the bark.
Excorticated and bark-bored trees may be pre-
served by nourishing up a shoot from the foot, or
below the stripped place, cutting the body of the
tree, sloping off joi. above the shoot, and it
will heal, and be covered with bark. Mortimer.
BA'RK ER. n.s.. [from bark.]
1. One that barks or clamours.
What hath he done more than a base cur:
barked and made a noise ? had a fool or two to
spit in his mouth But they are rather enemies
of my fame than me, these barkers. Ben junion.

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3. Sprat barley or battledoor-barley. All these

sorts of barley are sown in the spring of the year, in a dry time. In some ory dry light land, the rley is sown early in March; but in strong , clayey soils it is not sown till April. The squary bailo or fig is chiefly cultivated in the north of England, and in Scotland; and is hardiothon the other sorts. - - Miller. Barley is emollient, moistening, and expectorating; barley was chosen by Hippocrates as a proper food in inflammatory distempers. Arbuthnot on Aliments. Barley B Roth. n.s.. [from barley and broth.] A low word sometimes used for strong beer. Can sodden water, . Adrench for surreyn'd jades, their barley broth, Decoct their cold blood to such valiant heat? - Shakpore. BAR loy cor N. m. s...[from barley and corn.] A grain of barley; the beginning of our measure of length; the third part of an inch. - - - - - A long, long journey, choak'd with breaks and thorns, - Tilmeasur’d by ten thousand barley-corns.T. &c'. BAR lov Mow. n. . [from barley, and mow.] The place where reaped barley is stowed up. whenever by yen barley mov I pass,

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BA'R Ley BRAKE.. n. s. A kind of rural
play. -
By neighbours prais'd she went abroad thereby,
Atbarlybrake her sweet swift feet to try. Sion 3.
BARM. m. g. burn, Welsh; be onin, Sax.]
Yeast; the ferment put into drink to
make it work ; and into bread, to
lighten and swell it.
Are you not he
That sometimes make the drink to bear mobarm,
Mislead might-wand rers, laughing at their harm?
Try the force of imagination upon staying the
working of beer, when the barm is put into it.
BA'RMY. adj. [from barm.] Containing
barm ; yeasty. -
Theirjovial nights in frolicks and in play
They pass, to drive the tedious hoers away;
And their cold stomachs with crown'd goblets
Of windy cider, and of karmy beer. Doyon.
BARN. n.s.. [benn, Sax.] A place or house
for laying up any sort of grain, hay, or
straw. -
In vain the harns expect their promis'd load:
Nor barns at home, nor reeks are heap'd abroad.
- Dryden.
I took notice of the make of barns here: hav-
ing laid a frame of wood, they place, at the four
corners, four blocks, in such a shape as neither
mice nor vermin can creep up. Addison.
BA's N Act. E., n. 4. [probably of beann,
Sax. a child, and aac, Sax. an oak..]
1. A kind of shellfish, that grows upon
timber that lies in the sea.
2. A bird like a goose, fabulously supposed
to grow on trees. -
It is beyond even an atheist's credulity and im-
pudence, to affirm that the first men might grow
upon trees, as the story goes about barnacles; or
might be the lice of some vast prodigious ani-
mals, whose species is now extinct. Beatley.
And from the most refin'd of saints
As naturally grow miscreants, -
As #groucho turn Soland geese
In th’ islands of the Orcades. Hudorar.
3. An instrument made commonly of iron
for the use of farriers, to hold a horse
by the nose, to hinder him from strug-
gling when an incision is made.
Farrier's Dict.
BAROMETER. n.s.. [from 24:3", weight,
and to 7:3, measure.] A machine for
measuring the weight of the atmosphere,
and the variations in it, in order chiefly
to determine the changes of the wea-
ther. It differs from the baroscope,
which only shows that the air is heavier
at one time than another, without speci-
fying the difference. The barometer is
founded upon the Torricellian experi-
ment, so called from Torricelli, the in-
ventor of it, at Fiorence, in 1643. It
is a glass tube fified with mercury, her-
metically sealed at one end ; the other
open, and immerged in a basin of stag-
nant mercury: so that, as the weight
of the atmosphere diminishes, the mer-
cury in the tube will descend, and, as it
increases, the mercury will ascend ; the
column of mercury suspended inthetube

being always equal to the weight of the incumbent atmosphere. The measuring the heights of mountains, and finding the elevation of places above the level of the sea, hath been much promoted by barometrical experiorents, founded upon that essential or roo of the air, its gravity or pressure. As the coron of mercury in the haran ter is counterposed by a column of air of “nal weight, so whatever causes make the air heavior or lighter, tle pressure of it will be thereby increased or lessened, and of consequence ti.e. mercury will rise or fall. Harris. Gravity is another property of air, whereby it counterpoises a column of mercury from twenty-seven inches and one half to thirty and one half, the gravity of the atmosphere varying one tenth, which are its utmost limits; so that the exact specifick gravity of the air can be determined when the Aarometer stands at thirty inches, with a moderate heat of the weatier. Airbuionot. BA Row Eor Ric A. L. a.o. (from barometer.] Relating to the barometer. Ie is very accurate in making baromefrical and thermometiical instruments. D, rbara. BA'RON. m. s. [The etymology of this word is very uncertain. Baro, among the Romans, signified a brave warrior, or a brutal man; and, from the first of these significations, Menage derives baron, as a term of military dignity. Others suppose it originally to signify only a man, in which sense baron, or varon, is still used by the Spaniards; and, to conf: m this conjecture, our law yet uses baron and femme, husband and wife. Others deduce it from ber, an old Gaulish word, signifying commander ; others from the Hebrew 755, of the same import. Some think it a contraction of par hommie, or peer, which seems least probable.] i. A degree of nobility next to a viscount. It may be probably thought, that anciently, in England, all those were called barons, that had *: signiories as we now call court barons; and it is said, that, after the conquest, all such came to the parliament, and sat as nobles in the upper house. But when, by experience, it appeared that the parliament was too much crowded with such multitudes, it became a custom, that none should come but such as the king, for their extraordinary wisdom or quality, thought good to rall by writ; which writ ran has Joe tention. After that, men seeing that this state of nobility was but casual, and depending merely on the prince's pleasure, obtained of the king letters patent of this dignity to them and their heirs male; and these were called barons by letters Watent, or by creation, whose postility are now those barons that are called }. of the parliament; of which kind the king may create more at his pleasure. It is nevertheless thought, that there are yet barcos by writ, as well as barons by letters patent, and that they may be discerned by, their titles; the baron; by writ being those that, to the title of lord have their bwn surnames annexed; whereas the barons by letters patent are named by their baronies. These borong, which were first by writ, may now justly also be called barons by prescription; for that they have continued barons, in themselves and their ancestors, beyond the meto: man. There are also barons by tenure, *s the bishops of the laud, who, by virtue of

baromies annexed to their bishopricks, hare * ways had place in the upper house of parliament, and are called lords spiritual. Cowell, 2. Baron is an officer, as barons of the exchequer to the king : of these the principal is called lord chief baron, and the three others are his assistants, between the king and his subjects, in causes of

justice belonging to the exchequer. 3. There are also barons of the cinque ports; two to each of the seven towns, Hastings, Winchelsea, Rye, Rumney, Hithe, Dover, and Sandwich, that have places in the lower house of parliament. Cowell.

They that bear

The cloth of state above, are four baron: Of the conque ports. Shui poerr. 4. Baron is used for the husband in rekation to his wife. Cowell. 5. A Baron of Beef is when the two sixloins are not cut asunder, but joined

together by the end of the backbone.


BA'ro N A G E. m. s. [from baron.] 1. The body of barons and peers. His charters of the liberties of England, and of the forest, were hardly, and with difficulty, gained by his baronage at Staines, A. D. 1:33. Haie, 2. The dignity of a baron. 3. The land which gives title to a baron. BA'Ro N Ess. n. 4. [baronesia, Ital, baromissa, Lat..] A baron's lady. BA'Ros E.T. m. s. [of baron, and et diminutive termination.] The lowest degree of honour that is hereditary: it is below a baron and above a knight; and has the precedency of all other knights, except the knights of the garter. It was first founded by king James I. in 1611. Cowell. 13ut it appears by the following passage, that the term was in use before, though in another sense. King Edward III., being bearded and crossed by the clergy, was advised to direct out his writs to certain gentlemen of the best abilities, ontitling them therein barons in the next prliament. By which means he had so many barons in his parliament, as were able to weigh down the clergy; which barons were not afterwards lords, but baronets, as sundry of them do yet retain the name. Spenstr. BA/R o NY. n. f. [baronnie, Fr. bednny, Sax. The honour or lordship that gives title to a baron. Such are not only the focs of temporal barons, but of bishops also. Cowell. BA'Rosco PE. m.s. (£4;3° and oxzie'.] An instrument to show the weight of the atmosphere. See BA Rom E T E R. If there was always a calm, the equilibrium could only be changed by the contents; where the winds are not variable, the alterations of the baroscope are very small. Arbuthnet. BA'RR Ac AN. m. s... [bouracan, or barracam, French..] A strong thick kind of camelot. BA’s R Ack, n.s.. [barracca, Span.]

1. Little cabins made by the Spanish fish?

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