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LECTURES ON BOTANY,

INCLUDING

PRACTICAL AND ELEMENTARY BOTANY,

WITH

GENERIC AND SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS

OF THE

MOST COMMON NATIVE AND FOREIGN PLANTS

AND A

VOCABULARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS.

FOR THE USE OF

HIGHER SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES.

BY MRS. ALMIRA H. LINCOLN,

VICE-PRINCIPAL OF TROY FEMALE SEMINARY.

THIRD EDITION.

HARTFORD: PUBLISHED BY F.J. HUNTINGTON. NEW-YORK, COLLINS & HANNAY, AND G. & c. & H. CARVILL; BOSTON, RICHARDSON LORD & HOLBROOK, CROCKER & BREWSTER, CARTER & HENDEE ; PHILADELPHIA, KEY, MIELKE & BIDDLE ; BALTIMORE, JOSEPH JEWETT;

WASHINGTON, THOMPSON & HOMANS; TROY, W. S. PARKER.

Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1831.

BY MRS. ALMIRA H. LINCOLN, in the Clerk's Office of the Northern District Court of New York,

HARTFORD:
Printed at the Secretary Office,

BY P. CANPIKLD.

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Though a name conspicuous in the scientific world might add popularity to this little work now offered to the public, affection for my venerable par induces me to dedicate to her, what will, to her, be interesting, however it may be regarded by the severe eye of criticism. I have, within the past year, seen in my sister's dedication to our aged Mother, of " The History of the Republic of America," that these marks of affectionate respect from her children have the power of awakening more vivid emotions in her breast, than most events connected with a world, which has almost vanished from her sight, in the brighter visions of eternity ; that she may find the pious sentiments imbibed from herself, in some degree reflected from the following pages, is the wish of her

DAUGHTER,

ALMIRA H. LINCOLN. Troy Female Seminary, April 20, 1829.

M260083

PREFACE.

“A PREFACE,” says Smellie, author of the “Philosophy of Natural History," "should contain an account of the circumstances and motives which induced an author to write upon that particular subject." The origin of the present volume, may be briefly traced. In the course of some years, devoted in part to the study of Botany, and with the charge of a large class, I found the want of a suitable book for beginners, and prepared for the use of my pupils a sketch, of which the following pages are but the filling up. "The pupils were in the practice of copying the manuscript, but it required much time, and some of them expressed a wish that they might have the same in a printed form. With respect to botanical facts, I have no claim to

any discoveries, neither have I ventured to make any innovations upon the science itself. The works of Mirbel, Demerson, Rosseau, St. Pierre, Smith, Thornton, Woodville, Eaton, Torrey, Bigelow, Nuttall, Elliot, Barton, Bartram, Sumner and Locke; Encyclopedias and the Journal of Science, have been consulted. For the style, the arrange ment of the work, and the application of botanical facts to the mind, either with a view of strengthening its reasoning faculiies, or of inspiring devout affection, I consider myself as responsible. I have not intentionally copied from any work, without giving credit to the author. The History of Botany is, in part, translated from Mirbel's Elemens de Botanique.

The description of the genera and species of plants, with the Natural Orders of Linnæus and Jussieu, have been furnished me by Professor Eaton, to whom my thanks for this, and other kind offices, are justly due.

It has been customary among botanical writers, to consider under separate heads, the physiology, anatomy, and classification of plants. This division, although proper in minute investigations upon physiology and anatomy, seems not well adapted for a school book. I have not therefore attempted to keep the departments separate.

This work has been prepared in intervals from duties connected with this institution, and while instructing in such branches of education, as required the best saculties of my mind; it is larger than was at first designed ; it may be urged, that remarks not strictly connected with the subject are introduced, and that the substance of the book might be much condensed. In answer to this objection, I would remark, that from experience in teaching others, and from observation of the operations of my own mind, I am led to believe that books most remarkable for a concise style, are not the most favourable for the developement of the mind. "If a book is to be committed to memory, every word, member of a sentence, or idea, not absolutely essential, should be excluded; but this fact with regard to education seems now to be generally understood, that the memory

may be burdened without improving the other intellectual faculties, and that the best method of teaching, is that which tends most tó develope, fertilize, and strengthen the mind.

A small text book, in a dry, concise style, may answer very well where a teacher has leisure and ability to amplify and explain; thus supplying to the pupils the want of an interesting book: yet with all this labour on the part of a teacher, a book containing interesting illustrations, would be desirable. But many teachers have neither the time, nor the confidence in themselves, to attempt to enlarge or illustrate: considering their duty as terminating in a faithful explanation of the book from which their pupils study.

It is desirable that school books should be easy to teach, and easy to learn.

The essentials for these purposes are,
1st. A clear and methodical arrangement of subjects.
2d. Perspicuity of language.
3d. A pleasing style, and interesting illustrations.

Whether I have attained to this standard, it remains for experience to determine.

But much as I have desired to aid the youthful mind in acquiring the elements of knowledge, still more have I desired to lead that mind to the fountain of all knowledge, to teach it to behold the providence of God as ever active, and watchful over all, even the least of his works.

I am greatly indebted to the kindness of Dr. Robbins, who amidst the fatigue of professional duties, has performed a service, for which, by long and close study of the ancient languages, he is peculiarly well qualified, that of accenting the genera and species of plants annexed to these-lectures. This it is believed will prove of great utility both to teachers and pupils; for without some guide, those who are unacquainted with the principles of accentuation in the Latin and Greek languages, are liable to many mistakes in pronouncing botanical names.

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