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the keel as the pea. Mostly found in

the class Diadelphia. Ob. A word which, prefixed to other Papillose. Covered with protuberances.

terms, denotes the inversion of the usual Pappus. The down of seeds, as the danposition; as, obcordate, inversely cor- delion; a feathery appendage. See date.

Egret. Obcon'ic. Conic with the point down- Parasit'ic. Growing on another plant and wards.

deriving nourishment from it. Obcor'date. Heart-shaped with the point Paren'chyma. A succulent vegetable subdownwards.

stance; the cellular substance; the thick Oblance'olate. Lanceolate with the base part of leaves between the opposite surthe narrowest.

faces; the pulpy part of fruits, as in the Obli'que. A position between horizontal apple, &c. and vertical.

Partial. Used in distinction to general. Oblong. Longer than oval, with the sides Parti'tion. The membrane which divides parallel.

pericarps into cells, called the dissepiObo'vate. Ovate with the narrowest end

ment. It is parallel when it unites with towards the stem, or place of insertion. the valves where they unite with each Ob'solete. Indistinct, appearing as if worn other. It is contrary or transverse when out.

it meets a valve in the middle or in any Obtu'se. Blunt, rounded, not acute. part not at its suture. Odora'tus. Scented, odorous.

Parted. Deeply divided; more than cleft. Officina'lis. Such plants as are kept for Patens. Spreading, forming less than a

sale as medicinal, or of use in the arts. right angle. Oid, Oides. This termination imports re-Pau'ci. Few in number.

semblance, as petaloid, like a petal; tha-Pec'tinate. Like the teeth of a comb, in

lictroides, resembling a thalictrum, &c. termediate between fimbriate and pinnaOpa'que. Not transparent.

tibid. Oper'culum. The lid which covers the Pedate. Having a central leaf or segment capsules of mosses.

and the two side ones which are comOpposite. Standing against each other on

pound, like a bird's foot. opposite sides of the stem.

Ped'icel. A little stalk of partial pedunOrbicular. Circular.

cle. Orchid'eous. Petals like the orchis, four Peduncle. A stem bearing the flower and arched, the fifth longer.

fruit. Ornithology. That department of zoolo- Pellicle. A thin membranous coat. gy which treats of birds.

Pelluc'id. Transparent or limpid. Os. A bone. A mouth.

Peltate. Having the petiole attached to Os'seous. Bony, hard.

some part of the under side of the leaf. O'vary. A name sometimes given to the Pendant. Hanging down, pendulous.

outer covering of the germ, before it Pen'cilled. Shaped like a painter's pencil ripens.

or brush. O'vate. Egg shaped, oval with the lower Peregri'nus. Foreign, wandering. end largest.

Perennial. Lasting more than two years. Ovip'arous. Animals produced from eggs, Perfo'liate. Having a stem running as birds, &c.

through the leaf; differs from connate O'rules. Little eggs; the rudiments of in not consisting of two leaves.

seeds which the germ contains before its Per'forate. Having holes as if pricked fertilization ; after that the ovules ripen through ; differs from punctate, which into seeds.

has dots resembling holes. O'rum. An egg.

Pe'ri. Around.
Per'ianth. A sort of calyx.
Per'icarp. (From peri, around, and kar-


pos, fruit.) A seed vessel or whatever Palate. A prominence in the lower lip contains the seed.

of a labiate corolla, closing or nearly Perigʻynous. From peri, around, and gyclosing the throat.

nia, pistil. Palca'ceous. See Chaffy.

Pe'risperm. (From peri, around, and sperPalmate. Hand-shaped; divided so as to ma, seed.) Around the seed. resemble the hand with the fingers Per' manent. Any part of a plant is said

to be permanent when it remains longer Palus'tris. Growing in swamps and than is usual for similar parts in most marshes.

plants. Panda'riform. Contracted in the middle Persis'tent. Not falling off. See Permalike & violin or guitar.

nent. Pan'i le. A loose, irregular bunch of Per'sonate. Masked or closed. flowers with sub-divided branches, as Pe'tal. The leaf of a corolla, usually the oat.

coloured. Pan'icled. Bearing panicles.

Pe'tiole. The stalk which supports the Papil'io. A butterfly.

leaf. Papiliona'ceous. Butterfly-shaped,-an ir-Phenog'amous. Such flowers as have sta

regular corolla consisting of four petals ; mens and pistils visible, including all the upper one is called the banner, the plants except the cryptogamous. two side ones wings, and the lower one


Physiology. Derived from the Greek, a Pseudo. When prefixed to a word, it imdiscourse of Nature.

plies obsolete or false. Phytology. The science which treats of Pubes'cent. Hairy, downy, or woolly.

the organization of vegetables, nearly Pulp. The juicy cellular substance of synonymous with the physiology of berries and other fruits. vegetables.

Pulver'ulent. Turning to dust. Pi'leus. The hat of a fungus.

Pu'milus. Small, low. Pillar. See Columella and Column. Punctate. Appearing dotted as if pricked. Pilose. Hairy, with distinct straitish hairs. See Perforated. Pilus. A hair.

Pungent. Sharp, acrid, piercing.
Pimpled. See Papillose.

Purpu'reus. Purple.
Pinna. A wing feather, applied to leafets. Pusillus. Diminutive, low.
Pinnate. A leaf is pinnate when the leaf- Puta'men. A hard shell.

ets are arranged in two rows on the side Pyr'ide. (From puris, a box.) Name of

of a common petiole, as in the rose. one of Mirbel's genera of fruit. Pinnat'ifid. Cut in a pinnate manner.

It differs from pinnate, in being a simple

Q. leaf deeply parted, while pinnate is a compound of distinct leafets.

Quadran'gular. Having four corners or Pistil. The central organ ot' most flow- angles.

ers, consisting of the germ, style, and Quarter'nate. Four together.

Quinate. Five together.
Pis'tillate. Having pistils but no stamens.
Pith. The spongy substance in the centre

of the stems and roots of most plants.
See Medulla.

Raceme. (From rar, a bunch of grapes, Plaited. Folded like a fan.

a cluster.) That kind of inflorescence in Plane. Flat with an even surface. which the flowers are arranged by simPlica'tus. See Plaited.

ple pedicels on the sides of a common Plumo'se. Feather-like.

peduncle; as the currant. Plu'mula or Plume. The ascending part Ra'chis. The common stalk to which the of a plant at its first germination.

florets and spikelets of grasses are atPlu'rimus. Very many.

tached : as in wheat heads. Also the Pod. A dry seed vessel, not pulpy, most midrib of some leaves and fronds.

commonly applied to legumes and sili-Ra'diate. The ligulate florets around the ques.

margin of a compound flower. Po' dosperm. (From podos, a part, and Ra'dir. A root; the lower part of the sperma, seed.) Pedicel of the seed.

plant which performs the office of atPointal. A name sometimes used for tracting moisture from the soil, and compistil.

municating it to the other parts of the Pollen. Properly fine flour, or the dust plant.

that flies in a mill. The dust which is Radical. Growing from the root. contained within the anthers.

The part of the corculum which Po'lus. Many.

afterwards forms the root; also the miPolyan'drous. Having many stamens in- nute fibres of a root. serted upon the receptacle.

Ramif'erous. Producing branches. Polyg'amous. Having some flowers which Ramus. A branch.

are perfect, and others with stamens Ray. The outer margin of compound only, or pistils only.

flowers. Polymor'phous. Changeable, assuming Recep'tacle. The end of a flower stalk ; many forms.

the base to which the different parts of Polypet' alous. Having many petals. fructification are usually attached. Polyphyllous. Having many leaves. Recli'ned. Bending over with the end inPome. A pulpy fruit, containing capsule, clining towards the ground. as the apple.

Rectus. Straight. Porous. Full of holes.

Recurv'ed. Curved backwards. Premorse. Ending bluntly, as if bitten off; Refler'ed. Bent backwards, more than rethe same as abrupt.

curved. Pras'inus. Green, like a leek.

Reg'mate. (From regma, to break with Praten'sis. Growing in meadow land. an explosion.) Name of one of Mirbel's Prickle. Differs from the thorn in being genera of fruits.

fixed to the bark, the thorn is fixed to Refrig'erant. (From refrigero, to cool.) the wood.

Cooling medicines. Prismat'ic. Having several parallel flat Re'niform. Kidney-shaped, heart-shaped sides.

without the point. Probos'cis. An elongated nose or snout, Repand. Slightly serpentine, or waving

applied to projecting parts of vegetables. on the edge. Process. A projecting part.

Repens. Creeping: Procum' bent. Lying on the ground. Resu'pinate. Upside down. Prolif erous. A flower is said to be pro-Retic'ulate. Veins crossing each other

liferous when it has smaller ones grow- like net work. ing out of it.

Retuse. Having a slight notch in the end, Prop. Tendrils and other climbers. less than emarginate. Proc'imus. Near.

Rever' sed. Bent back towards the base.

Rep'olutr. Rolled backward or outward. annually a large shoot in the spring and
Rhomboid. Diamond-form.

another in June.
kib. A nerve like support to a leaf. Shrub. A plant with a woody stem,
Rigid. Stiff, not pliable.

branching out nearer the ground than a Ring. The band around the capsules of tree, usually smaller. ferns.

Sic'cus. Dry Ringent. Gaping or grinning; a term be. Sil'icle. A seed vessel constructed like a longing to the labiate corollas.

silique, but not longer than it is broad. Rool. The descending part of a vegeta - Silique. A long pod or seed vessel of two ble.

valves, having the seed attached to the
Rootlet. A fibre of a root, a little root. two edges alternately.
Rosa'ceous. A corolla formed of roundish Simple. Not divided, branched or com-

spreading peials, without claws or with pounded.
very short ones.

Sin'uate. The margin hollowed out re-
Rose'us. Ruse coloured.

sembling a bay. Kostel. That pointed part of the embryo, Si'nus. A bay; applied to the plant, a Striate. Marked with fine parallel lines. tals, in the autumn more yellow ones. Strictus. Stiff and straight, erect.


which iends downward at the first ger- roundish cavity in the edge of the leaf mination of the seed.

or petal. Rustrate. Having a protuberance like a So'ri. Plural of sorus; fruit dots on ferns. bird's beak.

Spa'dir. An elongated receptacle of flowRotute. Wheel-form.

ers, commonly proceeding from a spatha. Rotun'dus. Round.

Spa'tha. A sheathing calyx opening Rubra. Red.

lengthwise on one side, and consisting Rufous. Reddish yellow.

of one or more valves. Rugose. Wrinkled.

Spat'ulate. Large, obtuse at the end, Run'cinate. Having large teeth pointing gradually tapering into a stalk at the backward, as the dandelion.

base. Rupes'tris. Growing among rocks. Spe'cies. The lowest division of vegeta

bles. s.

Specif'ic. Belonging to a species only.

Sper'ma. Seed.
Sagit'tate. Arrow-form.

Spike. A kind of inflorescence in which
Salif'erous. Bearing or producing salt. the flowers are sessile, or nearly so, as
Salsus. Salt tasted.

in the mullein, or wheat. Salver-form. Corolla with a flat spread-Spike'let. A small spike.

ing border proceeding from the top of a Spin'dle shaped. Thick at top, gradually tube : flower monopetalous.

tapering, fusiform.
Sam'ara. A winged pericarp not opening Spine. A thorn or sharp process growing
by valves, as the maple.

from the wood.
Sap. The watery fluid contained in the Spino'sus. Thorny.

tubes and little cells of vegetables. Spi'ral. Twisted like a screw.
Sapor. Having taste.

Spur. A sharp hollow projection from a Surmen'tose. Running on the ground, and flower, commonly the nectary.

striking root from the joints only, as the Spur'red-rye. A morbid swelling of the strawberry.

seed, of a black or dark colour, someSar'cocarp. (From sarı, flesh, and kar- times called ergot; the black kind is

pos, fruit.) The fleshy part of fruit. called the malignant ergot. Grain growSca'ber or Sca' brous. Rough.

ing in low moist ground, or new land, Scandens. Climbing.

is most subject to it. Scape. A stalk which springs from the Squamo'sus. Scaly.

root, and supports flowers and fruit but Squarro'se. Ragged, having divergent no leaves, as the dandelion.

scales. Sca'rious. Having a thin membranous Stamen. That part of the flower on margin.

which the artificial classes are founded. Scattered. Standing without any regular Stam'inate. Having stamens without pisorder.

Scions. Shoots proceeding laterally from Standard. See banner.
the roots or bulb of a root.

Stellate. Like a star.
Segment. A part or principal division of Stem. A general supporter of leaves,
a leaf, calyx or corolla.

flowers and fruit.
Sempervi'vens. Living through the win-Stemless. Having no stem.
retaining its leaves.

Ster'ile. Barren.
Serrate. Notched like the teeth of a saw. Stig'ma. The summit, or top of the pis-
Ser'rulate. Minutely serrate.

Sessile. Sitting down ; placing immedi-Stipe. The stem of a fern, or fungus;

ately on the main stem without a foot also the stem of the down of seeds, as stalk.

in the dandelion.
Scta. A bristle.

Stip'itate. Supported by a stipe.
Seta'ccous. Bristle-form.

Sti'pule. A leafy appendage, situated at
Shuft. A pillar, sometimes applied to the the base of petioles, or leaves.

Stoloniferous. Putting forth scions, or Sheath. A tubular or folded leafy portion running shoots. including within it the stem.

Stramin'eous. Straw like, straw coloured. Shoot. Each tree and shrub sends forth Strap-form. Ligulate.

(Stratum. A layer; plural strata.

ter, ai

Ten'dril. A filiform or thread like appenStrigose. Armed with close thick bristles. dage of some climbing plants, by which Strob'ilum. A cone, an ament with woody they are supported by twining round scales.

other objects. Style. That part of the pistil which is Tenellus. Tender, fragile.

between the stigma and the germ. Tenuifo'lius. Slender leaved. Styl'ides. Plants with a very long style. Ten'uis. Thin and slender. Sua'vis. Sweet, agreeable.

Ter'ete. Round, cylindrical, tapering. Sub. Used as a diminutive, prefixed to Terminal. Extreme, situated at the end.

different terms to imply the existence of Ternate. ree together, as the leaves of a quality in an inferior degree; in Eng- the clover. lish, may be rendered by somewhat; it Tetradyn' amous. With four long and also signifies under.

two short stamens. Subero'se. Corky.

Tetran' drous. Having four stamens. Submersed. Growing under water. Thorn. A sharp process from the woody Subter'raneous. Growing and flowering part of the plant; considered as an imunder ground.

perfect bud indurated. Subtus. Beneath.

Thread-form. See filiform. Sub'acute. Somewhat acute.

Thyrse. See panicle. Sub'sessile. Almost sessile.

Tige. See caulis. Sub'ulate. Awl shaped, narrow and sharp Tincto'rius. Plants containing colouring pointed. See awl form.

matter. Suc'culent. Juicy ; it is also applied to a Tomen'tose. Downy; covered with fine pulpy leaf, whether juicy or not.

matted pubescence. Suc'cus. Sap.

Tonic. (From tono, to strengthen.) MeSucker. A shoot from the root by which dicines which increase the tone of the the plant may bé propagated.

muscular fibre. Suffru'ticose. Somewhat shrubby, shrubby Toothed. See dentate. at the base; an under shrub.

Tracheæ. Names given to vessels supposSul'cate. Furrowed, marked with deep ed to be designed for receiving and dislines.

tributing air. Super. Above.

Transverse. Crosswise. Supradecompound. More than decom- Trichot'omous. Three forked.

pound; many times subdivided. Trifid. Three cleft. Superior. A calyx or corolla is superior, Trifo'liate. Three leaved. when it proceeds from the upper part of Trilo'bate. Three lobed.

Triloc'ular. Three celled. Supi'nus. Face upwards See resupinatus. Trun'cate. Having a square termination, Suture. The line or seam formed by the as if cut off.

junction of two valves of a seed vessel. Trunk. The stem or bole of a tree. Syco'ne. (From sucon, a fig.) A name Tube. The lower hollow cylinder of a

given to one of Mirbel's genera of fruits. monopetalous corolla. Sylves'tris. Growing in woods.

Tuber. A solid fleshy knob. Syn'carpe. (From sun, with, and karpos, Tuberous. Thick and fleshy, containing fruit.). A union of fruits.

tubers, as the potato. Syngene'sious. Anthers growing together, Tubular. Shaped like a tube, hollow. forming a tube ; such plants as constitute Tu'nicate. Coated with surrounding laythe class Syngenesia, being also com- ers, as in the onion. pound flowers.

Tur'binate. Shaped like a top, or pear. Syn'onyms. Synonimous, different names Twining. Ascending spirally. for the same plant.

Twisted. Coiled.
Synop'sis. A condensed view of a subject,
or science.


Uligino'sus. Growing in damp places. Taxon'omy. (From taris, order, and no-Umbel. A kind of inflorescence in which

mos, law.) Method of classification. the flower stalks diverge froni one centre, Teeth of Mosses. The outer fringe of the like the sticks of an umbrella.

peristomium is generally in 4, 8, 16, 32, Umbellif'erous. Bearing umbels.

or 64 divisions ; these are called teeth. Unarmed. Without thorns or prickles. Tegens. Covering.

Un'cinate. Hooked. Teg'ument. The skin or covering of seeds; Unctuo'sus. Greasy, oily.

often bursis off on boiling, as in the pea. Un'dulate. Waving, serpentine, gently Tem'perature. The degree of heat and rising and falling.

cold to which any place is subject, not Unguis. A claw. wholly dependent upon latitude, being Unguic'ulate. Inserted by a claw. atfected by elevation; the mountains of Unifto'rus. One flowered. the torrid zone produce the plants of the Unicus. Single. frigid zone. In cold regions white and Unilat'eral. Growing on one side. blue petals are more common; in warm Urce'olate. Swelling in the middle, and regions red and other vivid colours ; in contracted at the top in the form of a the spring we have more white pe- pitcher.

the germ.

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Vires'cens. Inclining to green.

Vir'gate. Long and slender. Wartlike. Valves. The parts of a seed vessel into Vir'idis. Green.

which it finally separates; also the leaves Virgul'tum. A small twig.

which make up a glume, or spatha. Virose. Nauseous to the smell, poisonous. Variety: A subdivision of a species, dis- Viscid. Thick, glutinous, covered with

tinguished by characters which are not adhesive moisture. permanent; varieties do not with cer- Vitellus. Called also the yolk of the seed; tainty produce their kind by their seed. it is between the albumen and embryo. All apples are but varieties of one spe- Vitreus. Glassy. cies; if the seeds of a sour apple be plant- Vivip'arous. Producing others by means ed, they will produce, perhaps, some of bulbs or seeds, germinating while yet sweet apples, some of a green colour, on the old plant. some red; there are as many trees of Vulnerary. (From vulnus, a wound.) different kinds of fruit, as there are seeds Medicines which heal wounds. planted. The quince is a species of the same genus, or family, as the apple; but

W. the seed of a quince has never been

known to produce an apple tree. Wedge-form. Shaped like a wedge, roundVaulted. Arched over ; with a concave ed at the large end, obovate with straightcovering.

ish sides. Veined. Having the divisions of the petiole Wheel-shaped. See rotate.

irregularly branched on the under side Wings. The two side petals of a papilioof the leaf.

naceous flower. Ven'tricose. Swelled out. See inflated. Wood. The most solid parts of trunks of Vernal. Appearing in the spring.

trees and shrubs.
Ver'rucose. Warty, covered with little

Vertical. Perpendicular.
Verticillate. Whorled, having leaves or Zoology. The science of animals.

flowers in a circle round the stem. Zo'ophytes. The lowest order of animals, Vesic'ular. Made up of cellular substance. sometimes called animal plants, though Ves pertine. Flowers opening in the eve- considered as wholly belonging to the ning.

animal kingdom. Many of them resemVillous. Hairy, the hairs long and soft. ble plants in their form, and exhibit very Viola'ceous. Violet coloured.

faint marks of sensation,

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