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Cyme. Flower stalks arising from a com- tils in another; whether on the same mon centre, afterwards variously subdi- plant or on different plants. vided.

Dicoc'cous. Containing two grains or Cymo'se. Inflorescence in cymes.

seeds. Cyp'sele. (From the Greek, kupselion.) A Dicotyled'onous. With two cotyledons or little chest.

seed lobes. D.

Did'ymous. Twinned, or double.

Didyna'mia. (From dis, twice, and duDe'bilis. Weak, feeble.

namis, power.) Two powers. A name Decan'drous. Plants with ten stamens in appropriate to one of the Linnæan each flower.

classes. Decaphyllus. Ten leaved.

Dierisil'ia. (From diairesis, division.) Deciduous. Falling off in the usual sea- One of Jussieu's orders of fruits.

son; opposed to persistent and evergreen, Difform. A monopetalous corolla whose more durable than caducous.

tube widens above gradually, and is diDecli'ned. Curved downwards.

vided into unequal parts; any distorted Decomposi'tion. Separation of the chemi- part of the plant. cal elements of bodies.

Diffrac'ted. Twice bent. Decom' pound.

Twice compound, com- Diffu'sed. Spreading. posed of compound parts.

Dig'itate. Like fingers. When one peDecompos'itae. Name of an ancient class tiole sends off several leafets from a sin

of plants, having leaves twice com- gle point at its extremity.
pound ; that is, a common foot stalk Digyn'ia. Having two pistils.
supporting a number of lesser leaves, Dimid'iate. Halved.
each of which is compounded.

Diæ'cious. Having staminate and pistilDecum' bent. Leaning upon the ground, late flowers on different plants.

he base being erect. This term is appli- bis'coid. Resembling a disk, without ed to stems, stamens, &c.

rays. Decur'rent. When the edges of a leaf run Disk. The whole surface of a leaf, or of down the stem or stalk.

the top of a compound flower, as opposed Decur'sive. Decurrently.

to its rays. Decus'sated. In pairs, crossing each other. Disper'mus. Containing two seeds. Deftec'ted. Bent off.

Dissep'iment The partition of a capsule. Defolia'tion. Shedding leaves in the pro-Dissil'iens. A pericarp, bursting with per season.

elasticity; as the impatiens. Dehis'cent. Gaping, or opening. Most Di'stichus. Growing in two opposite ranks capsules when ripe are dehiscent.

or rows. Del'toid. Nearly triangular, or diamond Divaricate. Diverging so as to turn back

form, as in the leaves of the Lombardy wards. poplar.

Diver'ging. Spreading; separating wideDemer'sus. Under water.

ly. Dense. Close, compact.

Diur'nus. Enduring but a day. Den'tate. Toothed; edged with sharp Dor'sal. Belonging to the back.

projections ; larger than serrate. Dotted. See punctate and perforated. Dentic'ulate. Minutely toothed.

Droop'ing: Inclining downward, more Denu' date. Plants whose flowers appear than nodding.

before the leaves; appearing naked. Drupe. A fleshy pericarp, enclosing a Deor'sum. Downwards.

stone or nut. Depres'sed. Flattened, or pressed in at Drupa'ceous. Resembling, or bearing

drupes. Descrip'tions. In giving a complete de- Dulcis. Sweet.

scription of a plant, the order of nature Dumo'sus. Bushy.
is to begin with the root, proceed to the Du'plex. Double.
stem, branches, leaves, appendages, and
lastly to the organs which compose the

E. flower, and the manner of' inflorescence. Colour and size are circumstances least Eared." Applied to the lobes of a heartto be regarded in descriptions; but sti- form leaf, to the side lobes near the base pules, bracts, and glandular hairs, are of some leaves, and to twisted parts all of importance.

in plants which are supposed to resemble Dextror'sum. Twining from left to right, the passage into the ear. as the hop-vine.

Eburneus. Ivory white. Diadel'phous. (From dis, two, and adel- Echi'nate. Beset with prickles, as a hedge

phia, brotherhood.) Two brotherhoods. hog. Stamens united in two parcels or sets ; Ecos'tate. Without netrves or ribs. flowers mostly papilionaceous ; fruit le-Eflorescen'tia. (From effloresco, to bloom.). guminous.

A term expressive of the precise time of Diamond form. See deltoid.

the year, and the month in which every Dianthe'ria. (From dis, two, and anther.) plant blossoms. The term efflorescence

A class of plants including all such as is applied to the powdering substance have two anthers.

found on Lichens. Dichot'omous. Forked, dividing into two Effolia'tion.

Premature falling off of equal branches.

leaves, by means of diseases or some Diclin'ia. Stamens in one flower, and pis-l accidental causes.

the top:

Effuse. Having an opening by which Fari' na. (From far, corn.) Meal or flour.

seeds or liquids may be poured out. A term given to the glutinous parts of Egg-form. See Ovate.

wheat and other seeds, which is obtainE gret or Aigrette. The feathery or hairy ed by grinding and sifting. It consists of crown of seeds, as the down of thistles gluten, starch and mucilage. The pollen and dandelions. It includes whatever is also called farina. remains on the top of the seed after the Fas'cicle. A bundle. corolla is removed. The egret is Fascic'ulate. Collected in bundles. stiped, when it is supported on a foot Fastig'iate. Flat topped. stem ; it is

Favo'sus. Resembling a honey comb. simple, when it consists of a bundle of Faur. Jaws. The throat of the corolla. simple hairs; it is

Feb'rifuge.

(From febris, a fever, and plumose, when each bair has other little fugo, to drive away.). That which poshairs arranged along its sides.

sesses the property of abating fever. Ellipotic. Oval.

Ferns. Cryptogamous plants, with the Elonga'ted. Exceeding a common length. fruit on the backs of the leaves, or in Emar'ginate. Having a notch at the end, spikes made up of minute capsules openretuse.

ing transversely. Em'bryo. (From embrao, to bud forth.) Fer'tile. Pistillate, yielding fruit.

The germ of a plant; called by Linnæus Fi'bre. Any thread-like part. the corculum.

Filament. The slender thread-like part of En'docarp. The inside skin of a peri- the stamen. carp

Fil'ices. (From filum, a thread.) Ferns. Endog'enous. Applied to stems which Fil'iform. Very slender.

grow from the centre outwardly, as in Fimbriate. Divided at the edge like monocotyledons.

fringe. Eno'dis. Without joints or knots. Fis'tulous. Hollow or tubular, as the leaf En'siform. Sword form, two edged, as in of the onion. the flag and iris.

Flac'cid. Too limber to support its own Entire. Even and whole at the edge. weight. Entomology. The science which treats of Flagelliform. Like a whip lash. insects.

Flan' meus. Flame coloured. Epi. A Greek word, signifying upon ; Fla'vus. Yellow. often used in composition.

Flesh'y. "Thick and pulpy. Ep'icarp. (From epi, upon, and karpos, Fler'uous. Serpentine, or bending in a

fruit. The outer skin of the pericarp. zig-zag form. Epider'mis. (From epi, upon, and derma, Flo'ra. Considered by the heathens as the skin.) See cuticle.

goddess of flowers; descriptions of flowEpig'ynous. (From epi, upon, and gynia, ers are often called Floras. pistil.)

Flo'ral leaf. See Bract. Ep'isperm. (From epi, upon, and sperma, Floʻret. Little flower; part of a compound seed.)

flower. Eqninoc'tial flowers. Opening at stated Flo'rist. One who cultivates flowers. hours each day.

Flos'cular. A tubular floret. E' quitant. Opposite leaves alternately Flow'er (Flos). A term which was for

enclosing the edges of each other. merly applied almost exclusively to the Erect'. Straight ; less unbending than petals. At present a stamen and pistil strictus.

only are considered as forming a perfect Ero' ded. Appearing as if gnawed at the flower. edge.

Flow'er stalk. See peduncle. Es'culent. Eatable.

Folia'ceous. Leafy. Ev'ergreen. Remaining green through the Follicles. Leafets; a diminutive of foyear, not deciduous.

lium, a leaf. The smaller leaves which Excava'tus. Hollowed out.

constitute a compound leaf. Exot'ic. Plants that are brought from fo- Foli'um. Lenf. Leaves are fibrous and reign countries.

cellular processes of the plants, of differExpan' ded. Spread.

ent figures, but generally extended into Expec'torant. (From expectoro, to dis- a membranaceous or skinny substance.

charge from the breast.) Medicines Follicle. A seed vessel which opens lengtbwhich promote a discharge from the wise, or on one side only. lungs.

Foot'-stalk. Sometimes used instead of Erser'ted. Projecting out of the flower or peduncle and petiole. sheath.

Fork'ed. See Dichotomous. Eye. See Hilum.

Frag'ilis. Breaking easily, and not bend

ing. F.

Frond. The leaf of Cryptogamous plants ;

formerly applied to palms. Facti'tious. (From facio, to make.) Not Frondes'cence. (From frons, à leaf.) The natural, produced by art.

time in which each species of plants unFam'ilies. *A term in Botany implying a folds its first leaves. See Frondose.

natural union of several genera into Frondo'se (Frondosus). Leafy, or leafgroups ; sometimes used us synonymous like. with Natural Orders.

Fructifica'tion. The flower and fruit with Fal'cate. Sickle shaped ; linear and crooked.

Fructif erous. Bearing or becoming fruit.

their parts.

Fruc'tus. The fruit is an annual part of Graft'ing, is the process of uniting the

the plant, which adheres to the flower branches or buds of two or more sepaand succeeds it; and after attaining ma- rate trees. The bud or branch of one turity, detaches itself from the parent tree, is inserted into the bark of another, plant, and on being placed in the bosom and the tree which is thus engrafted upof the earth gives birth to a new vegeta- on is called the stock. ble.

In common language the fruit in- Gram'ina. Grasses and grass-like plants. cludes both the pericarp and the seed, Mostly found in the class Triandria. but strictly speaking, the latter only is Gramin'eous. Grass-like; such plants are the fruit, while the former is but the also called culmiferous.

case or vessel which contains it. Grand' iflorus. Having large flowers. Frutes'cent. Becoming shrubby. Gran'ular. Formed of grains, or covered Fru'ter. A shrub.

with grains. Fu'gar. Fugacious, flying off.

Grave'olens. Having a strong odour. Fulcra. Props, supports; as the petiole, Grega'rious. In flocks, plants growing peduncle, &c.

together in groups. Ful' vous. Yellowish.

Groov'ed. Marked with deep lines. Fun'gi. The plural of fungus, a mush-Gymnocarp'es. (From gumnos, naked, room.

and karpos, fruit.) Mirbel's first class of Fun'gous. Growing rapidly, with a soft fruits, containing such as have fruit texture like the fungi.

without being covered or concealed. Fun'nel-form. Tubular at the bottom and Gymnosper'mia. (From gumnos, naked, gradually expanded at the top.

and sperma, seed.) Having naked seeds. Fu'siform. Spindle shaped ; a root thick Gynan'drous. Stamens growing upon the at the top and tapering downwards. pistil.

Gyn'ia. From the Greek, signifying pistil. G.

H. Galea. A helmet. Gem'ma. A bud seated upon the stem and Habita'tio, or Habitat. The native situa

branches, and covered with scales, in tion of plants. order to defend it from injury. The bud Hobit. The external appearance of a resembles the seed in containing the fu- plant, by which it is known at first sight, ture plant in embryo; but this embryo is without regard to botanical distinctions. destitute of a radicle, though if the bud Hair. See Pilus. is planted in the earth, a radicle is de-Hair-like. See Capillary. veloped.

Halbert-form. See Hastate. Gemma'ceous. Belonging to a bud; made Hand-form. See Palmate. of the scales of a bud.

Hang'ing. See Pendant. Gener'ic name. The name of a genus. Has'tate. Shaped like a halbert; it difGenic'ulate. Bent like a knee.

fers from arrow-shaped in having the Ge'nus. (The plural of genus is genera.) side processes more distinct and diver

A family of plants agreeing in their flow- gent. er and fruit. Plants of the same genus Head. A dense collection of flowers, are thought to possess similar medicinal nearly sessile. powers.

Heart. See Corculum and Corcle. Germ. The lower part of the pistil, which Heart'-form. See Cordate. afterwards becomes the fruit.

Helmet. The concave upper lip of a labiGermina'tion. The swelling of a seed, ate flower.

and the unfolding of its embryo. Helminthology. The science which treats Gib'bous. Swelled out commonly on one of worms. side.

Hepat'ic. Liver-like. Glabel'lous. Bald, without covering. Herb. A plant which has not a woody Gla'brous. Sleek, without hairiness. stem. Gland. A small appendage, which seems Herba'ceous. Not woody.

to perform some office of secretion or Her'bage. Every part of a plant except exhalation.

the root and fructification. Gland'ular. Having hairs tipped with lit-Herba'rium. A collection of dried plants. tle heads or glands.

Herb'ist. One who collects sells Glauc'ous. Sea en, mealy, and easily! plants. rubbed off.

Hexag'onal. Six cornered. Glome. A roundish head of flowers. Hi'ans. Gaping. Glom'erate. Many branchlets terminated Hi'lum. The scar or mark on a seed at by little heads.

the place of attachment of the seed to Glume. The scales or chaff of grasses, the seed vessel.

composing the calyx and corolla ; the Hir'sute. Rough with hairs. lower ones are called the calyx, all others His'pid. Bristly, more than hirsute. the corolla ; each scale, chaff, or husk, Ho'ary. Whitish coloured, having a scaly is called a valve: if there is but one, the mealiness, not unlike glaucous.

flower is called univalve, if two, bivalve. Holera'ceous. Suitable for culinary purGlu'tinous. Viscid, adhesive.

poses. The term is derived from holus, Gon. (From gonu, a knee or angle ;) as signifying pot herbs. One of the natural

pentagon, five angled ; hexagon, six an- orders of Linnæus, called Holeracæ, ingled; polygon, many angled.

cludes such plants as are used for the

table, or in the economy of domestic af- ated at the base of an umbel or bead. fairs.

Involu'cel. A partial involucrum. Hon'eycup. See nectary.

In'volute. Rolled inwards. Hood'ed. See cucullate, or cowled. Irides'cent. (From Iris, the rainbow.) Hora'rius. Continuing but an hour. Reflecting light. Horizon'tal. Parallel to the horizon. Irreg'ular. Differing in figure, size or proHorn. See spur.

portion of parts among themselves. Hu'milis. Low, humble.

Irritability. The power of being excited Husk. The larger kind of glume, as the so as to produce contraction ; this power husks of Indian corn.

belongs to vegetables as well as animals; Hyberna'lis. Growing in winter.

sensation is thought to imply the existHy'brid. A vegetable produced by the ence of internal properties not possessed

mixture of two species; the seeds of hy by plants ; though some have attributed brids are not fertile.

sensation to plants as well as animals. Hy'po. (From upo, under.) Much used in the composition of scientific terms.

J. Hypocrater' iform. Salver shaped, with a

tube abruptly expanded into a flat bor- Jag'ged. Irregularly divided and subdivider.

ded. Hypog'ynous. Under the style.

Jaws. See faut.

Joints. Knots or rings in culms, pods, I.

leaves, &c.

Ju'gum. A yoke; growing in pairs. Icthyology. The science of fishes.

Juxta-position. (From juxta, near, and Icosan'drous. Having about twenty sta- pono, to place.) Nearness of place.

mens growing on the calyx. Such plants furnish a great proportion of the most

K. delicious pulpy fruits. Im'bricate. Lying over, like scales, or the Keel. The under lip of a papilionaceous shingles of a roof.

flower. Imper'fect. Wanting the stamen or pistil. Keeled. Shaped like the keel of a boat or Incarna'tus. Flesh coloured.

ship. Inci'sor. Front tooth.

Kernel. See Nucleus. Inclu' ded. Wholly received, or contained Kid'ney-shaped. Heart shaped without

in a cavity : the opposite of exsert. the point, and broader than long. Incomple'te. Flowers destitute of a calyx Knee. A joint, being genticulate.

or corolla are said to be incomplete. A Knob'bed. In thick lumps, as the potato. term differing from imperfect.

Knot. See joints. Incras'sate. Thickened upward, larger

L. towards the end. In' crement. The quantity of increase. La'biate. Having lips as in the class DiIncum' bent. Leaming upon or against. dynamia. Incur'ved. Bent inwards.

Lacin'iate. Jagged, irregularly torn, lace Indig'enous. Native, growing wild in a

rated. country. (Some exotics, after a time, Lactes'cent. Yielding a juice, unusually

spread and appear as if indigenous.) white like milk, sometimes red, as in the Indurated. Becoming hard.

blood root. Indu'sium. A covering; plural indusia. Lac'teus. Milk wbite. Infe'rior. Below; a calyx or corolla is in- Lacus'tris. Growing about lakes.

ferior when it comes out below the germ. La'ris. Smooth, even. Infla'ted. Appearing as if blown out with Lamellated. In thin plates. wind, hollow.

Lam'ina. The broad or flat end of a petal, Infler'ed. The same as incurved.

in distinction from its claw. Inflores'cence. (From infloresco, to flour-La'nate. Woolly.

isli.) The manner in which flowers are Lance'-olate. Spear shaped, narrow with connected to the plant by the peduncle, both ends acute. as in the whorl, raceme, &c.

Lance-o'rate. A compound of lanceolate Infrac'tus. Bent in with such an acute and ovate, intermediate. angle as to appear broken.

Lat'eral. (From latus.) On one side. Infundibuliformis. Funnel form. La'tent. (From lateo, to hide.) Hidden, Inser'ted. Growing out of, or fixed upon.

concealed. Insi'dens. Sitting upon.

Lar'va. The caterpillar state of an inInsigni'tus. Marked.

sect. In'teger. Entire.

Lar. Limber, flaccid. Interno'de. The space between joints; as Leaf'et. A partial leaf, part of a comin grasses.

pound leaf. Interruptedly-pin'nate. When smaller lea-Leaf'-stalk. See petiole.

fets are interposed among the principal Leg'ume. A pot or pericarp, having its ones.

seeds attached to one side or suture; as Intor'tus. Twisted inwards.

the pea and bean. Introdu'ced. Not originally native.- Leguminous. Bearing legumes.

Brought from some other country. Lepan'thium. A term used for a petal-like Involu'crum. A kind of general calyx serv- nectary; like that of the larkspur and

ing for many towers, generally situ- monkshood.

Li'ber. The inner bark of plants. Imme- Mola'res. Back teeth, grinders.

diately under the cuticle is a succulent, Mollis. Soft. cellular substance, for the most part of a Mollus'cous. Such animals as have a soft green colour, especially in the leaves body without bones; as the oyster. and branches. Under this cellular in- Mon adelphous. Having the stamens unitegument is the bark, consisting of but ted in a tube at the base. one layer in plants or branches only one Monil'iform. Granulaie, strung together year old. In older branches and trunks like beads. of trees, it consists of as many layers as Monocotyledons. Having but one cotylethey are years old ; the innermost and don. newest being called the liber; it is in this Monæ'cious. Having pistillate and stamilayer only that the essential vital func- nate flowers on the same plant. tions are carried on for the time being, Monoptt'alous. The corolla all in one atter which it is pushed outwards with piece. the cellular integument, and, like that, Monophyllous. Consisting of one leaf. becomes a lifeless crust.

Monospermus. One seed to a flower. Ligneous. Woody.

Monta'nus. Growing on mountains. Lig'num. Wood.

Moon-form. See crescent-form. Ligu'late. Strap or ribbon like, flat, as Mosses. The second order of the class the fiorets of the dandelion.

Cryptogasia. Lilia'ceous. A corolla with six petals Mu'cronate. Having a small point or

gradually spreading from the base. prickle at the end of an obtuse leaf. Limb. The border or spreading part of a Multiflorus. Many flowered. monopetalous corolla.

Multipler. Many fold, petals lying over Lin'ear. Long and narrow, with parallel each other in two rows. sides, as the leaves of grasses.

Multus. Many.
Lip. The under petal in a labiate corolla. Mu’ricate. Covered with prickles.
Littor''ibus. Growing on coasts, or shores.
Liv'idous. Dark purple.

N.
Lobe. A large division, or distinct portion
of a leaf or petal.

Na'ked. Destitute of parts usually found. Loc'ulus. (From locus, a place.) A little Na'nus. Dwarfish, very small. place.

Nap. Downy, or like fur, tomentose. Lo'ment. A pod resembling a legume, but Napifor'mis. Resembling a turnip.

divided by transverse partitions. Narcot'ic. (From narco, to stupefy.) A Longifo'lius. Long leaved.

substance which has the power of proLongis'simus. Very long.

curing sleep-Opium is highly narcotic. Lu'cidus. Bright and shining.

Na'tant. Floating. Lu'rid. Of a pale dull colour.

Natural character. That which is

appaLu'teus. Yellow.

rent, having no reference to any particuLy'rate. Pimnatifid, with a large roundish lar method of classification. leafei at the end.

Natural history. The science which treats

of nature. M.

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Nec'tary. (From nectar, the fabled drink

of the gods.) The part of a flower which Macula'tus. Spotted.

produces honey; this term is applied to Marcs'cent. Withering.

any appendage of the flower which has Mar'gin. The edge, or border.

no other name. Mar'itime. Growing near the sea. Nemoro'sus. Growing in groves, often Molulla. The pith or pulp of vegetables. given as a specific name, as Anemone

The centre or heart of a vegetable. Va- nemorosa ; the ending in a denotes the rious opinions have been entertained re- adjective as being in the feminine genspecting the importance of the pith ; der; the adjective in Latin varying its Linnæus considered it was the seat of termination to conform to the gender of life and source of vegetation ; that its the substantive. vigour was the principal cause of the Nerves. Parallel veins. shooting forth of branches, and that the Nerved. Marked with nerves, so called, seeds were formed from it. It is now though not organs of sensibility like the generally thought that the pith does not nerves in the animal system. perform so important a part in the econo- Nic'titans. (From a word which signifies my of vegetation as was supposed by to twinkle, or wink.) Applied as a speLinnæus.

cific name to some plants which appear Mellif' erous. (From mel, honey.) Pro- sensitive; as the cassia nictitans. ducing, or containing honey.

Ni'ger. Black. Mem'branous. Very thin and delicate. Nitidus. Glossy, glittering. Mes'ocarp. The middle substance of the Niv'eus. Snow white.

pericarp or leaf, having the epicarp on Nod'ding. Partly drooping. the outer, and the endocarp on the inner Node, Nodus. Knot.

No'men. A name. Mes'osperm. That part of the seed which Notch'ed. See crenate. corresponds to the mesocarp of the peri- Nu'cleus. Nut, or kernel.

Nu'dus. See naked. Mid'rib. The main or middle rib of a leaf Nut, Nux. See nucleus. running from the stem to the apex.

Nu'tant. See nodding, pendulous. Minia'tus. Scarlet, vermillion colour.

side.

carp.

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