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EXPLANATION OF BOTANICAL TERMS.*
Ad'versifo'liæ. (From adversus, opposite,
and folium, a leaf.) Plants whose leaves A, in composition, signifies privation, or stand opposite to each other, on the same
destitute of; as, acaulis, referring to a stem or branch. Name of the 5th class plant without a caulis or stem.
in Sauvage's Methodus foliorum (me Abor'tive flower. Falling off without pro- thod of leaves), as exemplified in the laducing any fruit.
biate flowers. stamens, not furnished with an- Æstiva'les. (From estas, summer.) thers.
Plants which blossom in summer.
The pistil. Defective in some essen- second division of Da Pas' method, with
reference to the four seasons of the year, seed. Not becoming perfect consisting of herbs which blossom in through want of the fertilizing influence summer. of the pollen.
A'fora. (From a, without, and fores, a Abrupt' leaf. A pinnate leaf with an odd door.) Having no doors or valves. The or terminal leafet.
name of a class in Camerius' metbud, Acalyces. (From a, signifying without consisting of plants whose pericarp or and calyx, a flower cup.) A class in an seed vessel is not furnished with internal ancient method of arrangement, consist- valves. ing of plants without a calyx.
Aga'mous. (From a, without, and gamos, Acau'les. (From a, wanting, and caulis, a marriage.) A term derived from the in
stem.) The 20th class in Magnolius' me- delicate notions of the botanists of the thod, including plants without stems. last century, respecting the sexual disAcero'se leaf. Linear and permanent, as tinctions of plants; and which, whatin the pine.
ever analogies may actually exist beAcic'ular. Needle shaped.
tween the vegetable and animal kingA'cinus. A small berry which, with many doms, should as far as possible be exclu
others, composes the fruit of the mulber- ded from the science. Were it to be
ry and raspberry; the plural is acini. otherwise, the study of botany ought to Acotyled'onous. (From a, without, and co- be limited to the medical profession. Of
tyledon, a seed lobe.) Plants destitute of all studies, that of botany should be unseed lobes, and which consequently put accompanied by aught that might pain forth no seminal or seed leaves, as mosses or disgust a delicate mind. Plants withand ferns.
out any visible stamens or pistils are by Acu'leus. (From acus, a needle.) А French botanists called agamous.
prickle, or sharp point; common to the A'ges of plants. Ephemeral are such as rose and raspberry. It differs from the
spring up, blossom and ripen their seed thorn in being a prolongation of the in a few hours or days; annual live a outer bark of the plant, and unconnected few months or one summer. with the wood. Prickles have been biennial, spring up one summer and die compared to the nails and claws of ani- the following. mals.
perennial, live an indefinite period. Acu'minate. Abruptly sharp pointed, hav- Ag'gregate. (From aggregare, to assemr ing the point curved towards one edge of ble.) Many springing from the same the leaf, resembling an awl.
point; this term was at first applied to Acute. More gradually sharp pointed than compound flowers, but there is at present acuminate.
An obtuse angle or any a sevenfold division of aggregate flowother mathematical angle, is acute in bo- ers; the aggregate, properly so called ; tanical language.
compound, Adel'phous. (From the Greek adelphos, a umbellate,
brother or an equal.) Applied to plants cymose, whose stamens are united by their fila- amentaceous, ments, whether in one or two sets. glumose, Adnate. Growing together.
* The author, in preparing the following vocabulary, consulted Milne, Thornton, Mirbel and Eaton.
Aggregate flower is erected on peduncles Angiosper'mal. (From angio, a vessel, or footstalks, which all have one com- and sperma, seed.) Plants whose seeds mon receptacle on the stem ; they some- are inclosed or covered. times have one common calyx, and are Angular. Forming angles; when the sometimes separately furnished with a stems, calyxes, capsules, &c. have ridges calyx.
running lengthwise. Aigrette. See egret.
Angustifo'lius. Narrow-leaved. Ala. A Latin word signifying a wing. An'nual. A plant which lives but one
It is sometimes used to express the angle year. The herbage is often annual, formed by the stem with the branch or while the root is perennial ; in this case leaf. Linnæus and some others use the the plant is said to be perennial. term ala, as the name of a membrane, Annula'ted. Having a ring round the capaffixed to some species of seeds which sules; as in ferns; or in mushrooms serves as a wing to raise them into the having a ringed stipe.
air, and thus promotes their dispersion. An'nulus. A ring. Ale. The two lateral or side petals of a Anom'alous. (From a, without, and nopapilionaceous flower.
mos, law.). Irregular, or whatever forms Albu'men.
The farinaceous, fleshy or an exception to a general rule. The horny substance, which constitutes the 11th class in Tournefort's method is callchief bulk of monocotyledonous seeds; ed anomala, including plants whose coas wheat, rye, &c.
rollas are composed of irregular and disAlburnum. (From albus, white.) The similar parts ; as the columbine, monk's
soft wbite substance, which in trees is hood, violet, larkspur, &c. found between the liber, or inner bark Anther. (From anthos, a flower, so called and the wood, and becoming solid, in as indicating its importance.) That part progress of time is converted into wood. of the stamen which contains the pollen; From its colour and comparative soft- it is of various forms, as linear, awlness, it has been styled the fat of trees. shaped, heart-shaped, round, &c.; it is It is called the sap wood, and is formed one celled, two celled, &c.; the anther by a deposite of the cambium or descend- of the Tritilaria (crown imperial) has ing sap; in one year it becomes wood; four cells. and a new layer of alburnum is again Antherid' ium. A mass of pollen. formed by the descent of the cambium. Antherif'erous. Flowers bearing anthers
Flags; these by Linnæus com- without filaments. prise the plants of the order Hepatica Anthus. (from the Greek anthos.) A and Lichenes.
flower generally referring to the petals Alpine. Growing naturally on high moun- only. tains.
Antiscorbu'tics. Substances which eure Alternate. Branches, leaves, flowers, &c. eruptions.
are alternate, when beginning at differ- Apet'alous. (From a, without, and petaent distances on the stem ; opposite, is lum, a petal.), ilaving no petals or cowhen they commence at the same dis- rollas ; such flowers are termed incom
tances, and base stands against base. plete ; such as are destitute of either staAlter'nately pinnate leaf; when the leafets mens or pistils are called imperfect.
are arranged alternately on each side of Apet'ale. A class formed by some of the
the common footstalk or petiole. ancient botanists, including plants destiAlve'olate. Having cells which resemble tute of corollas. a honey-comb.
A'per. The top or summit. Am'bitus. The outer rim of a frond, re- Aphyllous. (From a, without, and phylceptacle, &c.
lon, a leaf.) Destitute of leaves. Ament. Flowers collected on chaffy Aphylle is the name given by an ancient
scales, and arranged on a thread or slen- botanist to a class of plants without der stalk; these scales mixed with the leaves, comprising garlic, rush, mushflowers resemble the chaff in an ear of rooms, &c. corn ; in the willow and poplar, an Appen' da ged. Having bracts, thorns, ament supports both staminate and pis- prickles, &c. tillate flowers on distinct roots. Flowers Appres'sed. Closely pressed ; as leaves supported by an ament are generally des- against the stem, &c. titute of a corolla.
Approx'imate. Growing near each other. Amplericau'lis. Clasping the base of the Ap'terous. Without wings. stems.
Aquatic. (From aqua, water.) rowing Analysis. To analyze a plant botanically, in, or near water. Aquatice, was an
is to ascertain its name, by observing its ancient name for a class including all organs, and comparing them with scien- plants which grow in water. titic descriptions of plants.
Ar'bor. A tree; a perennial plant, which Ancip'etal. Having two sharp edges like rises to a great height, having a woody a sword.
stem. Most trees spring from seeds havAn'dria. Signifies stamen.
ing two cotyledons; they are therefore Androg'ymous plants. Such as bear sta- called dicotyledonous plants. The stems
minate and pistillate flowers on the same of such plants are said to be exogenous, root; as the oak and indian corn ; such that is, growing externally, new layers
plants belong to the class Monacia. of wood being every year formed under Angiocar'pus. Fungi bearing seeds inter- the bark, around the outside of the old nally.
wood. Palm trees are monocotyledonous Berry.
plants; their stems are called endoge- Barb. A straight process, armed with nous, that is, growing internally and teeth pointing backwards. pressing upon the outer coats, which be- Barba'tus. Bearded. come hard and compact. The ancient Bark. The covering of vegetables, conbotanists divided plants into trees and sisting of several parts; as cuticle, celiuherbs; but this distinction is too vague lar integument, &c. The bark consists to form the basis of classification.
of as many layers as the tree on which Arbo'reus. Like a tree.
it grows has years: a new layer being Arbusti'vus. (From arbustum, a shrub.) formed from the cambium every year.
An ancient class of plants containing The newest layer of bark is called liber. shrubs, as the myrtle, mock-orange Bar'ren. Producing no fruit; containing (philadelphus), &c.
stamens only. Arch'ed. Curving above, vaulted. Beak'ed. Terminating by a process shaped Ar'cuate. (From arcus, a bow.) Bent like the beak of a bird. like a bow.
A pulpy pericarp enclosing seeds Arena'rius. Growing in sand.
without capsules. See Bacca. Argen'teus. Silver coloured.
Bi, derived from bis, signifying two. Ar id. Dry.
Bicor' nis. Anthers with two horns. A'ril (arillus). The external coat or co- Bi'dens. Having two teeth.
vering of seeds which, drying, falls oti Bien'nial. Living two years, in the second spontaneously.
of which the flower and fruit is produAris'tate. (From areo, to be dried). Awn- ced ; as in wheat. ed, ending in a bristle.
Bi'fid. Two parted. Aro'ides. So called from arum, and form- Bila'biate. Corolla with two lips. ing a natural family of plants.
Bipin'nate. Twice pinnate. Arins (arma). Offensive weapons. Plants Biter'nate. Twice iernate. The petiole
are said to be armed, when they are fur- supporting three ternate leaves. nished with prickles, thorns, &c.
Bivalve. Two valved. Aromat'ic. Sweet scented.
Blas'teme. From the Greek blastema, a Aromat'ice. The name of a class of Di- bud.
oscorides, Clusius, Bauhin, and some Bor'der. The brim or spreading part of a other botanists who arranged plants ac
corolla. cording to their virtues and sensible Bot'rus. A cluster, like grapes. qualities.
Brach'iate. Branches opposite, and each Ar'ror-form. Shaped like an arrow head, pair at right angles with the preceding. the hind lobes acute.
Bract. Floral leaf; a leaf near the flower Artic'ulated. Jointed; as in the culm or which is different from the other leaves stem of the grasses.
of the plant. In the crown-imperial the Arundina'ceous. (From arundo, a reed.)
bracts are at the termination of the Resembling reeds.
flower stem; from their resemblance to Prven'sis. Growing in cultivated fields. a hair, they are called coma. Ascending. Rising from the ground ob- Branch. A division of the main stem or liquely.
main root. Isperito'lius. Rough leaved.
Branch'let. Subdivision of a branch, a Astrin' gents. Substances which condense twig. the fibres.
Bre'vis. Short. Atten'uated. Gradually diminished or ta- Bruma'les. (From bruma, winter.) Plants pering
which blossom in winter. Auric'ulate. Having appendages resem- Bud. The residence of the infant leaf and bling ears.
flower. Arol-form. Sharp at the point, and curved Bulbs. Called roots; sometimes found to one side.
growing on the stem; strictly speaking Aron. A short stiff bristle.
bulbs are buds, or the winter residence Ax'il. The angle between a leaf and stem of the future plants. A bulb contains in on the upper side.
miniature or embryo, a plant similar to Ar'illary. Growing out of the axils : the parent plant. Plants may be renew
leaves are said to be axillary when they ed from bulbs as well as seeds. Annual proceed from the angle formed by the plants do not have bulbs; they are only stem and branch.
preserved by seeds.
Bun'dle. See fascicle.
c. Bac'ca. A berry. It is a pulpy pericarp,
enclosing seeds without capsules. A Cadu'cous. (From cado, to fall.) Falling berry is said to be proper, when it is early; as the calyx of the poppy. formed of the pericarp or seed vessel ; Caes'pitose. Forming turfs, several roots improper or singular when it is formed growing together. of any other parts. In the mulberry and Calamus. Reed like. rose, a large, fleshy and succulent calyx Calca'reous. Containing lime; applied to becomes a berry. In the strawberry, a shells of oysters, &c. berry is formed of the common recepta- Calyb'ion. From kalubion, a little cabin.) cle ; in the raspberry of a seed.
A genus in Mirbel's second class of fruits. Baccif'erus. Bearing berries,
Calyc'ulated. Having an additional calyx. Banner. The upper petal in a papiliona- Calyp'tra. The cap or hood of pistillate ceous flower.
mosses, resembling an extinguisher set
on a candle. Although called a calyx, it, Cine'reous. Ash coloured. is in reality the corolla of the moss Cin'gens. Surrounding, girding around. closed.
Cir'rose. Bearing a tendril. From Cir'Calyt. From the Greek, signifying a rus, a tendril or climber. flower cup; in most plants it incloses, Clasp'ing. Surrounding the stem with and supports the bottom of the corolla. the base of the leaf. It is defined by Linnæus to be the ter- Class. The highest division of plants in mination of the outer bark.
the system of Botany. Linnæus divided Cam'bium. The descending sap, which all plants into 24 classes; 3 of these are
every year forms a new layer of bark now rejected, and the plants which they and one of wood. It descends between included placed in the remaining 21 the bark and the wood, so that the new classes. The ancient botanists knew wood is formed externally and the new neither methods, systems, or classes; bark internally.
they described under chapters, or secCampan'ulate. Bell-form.
tions, those plants which appeared to Campes'tris. Growing in uncultivated them to resemble each other in the greatfields.
est number of relations. Canes'cent. White or hoary.
Cla'vate. Club-shaped, larger al the top Cap'illary. Hair-form.
than the bottom. Cap'itate. Growing in heads.
Clau'sus. Closed, shut up. Cap'sule. A little chest ; that kind of hol- Claw. The narrow part by which a petal
low seed vessel which becomes dry and is inserted. opens when ripe; a capsule that never Cleft. Split or divided less than half way. opens is called a samara.
Climb'ing Ascending by means of tenCarcer'ular. (From carcer, prison.) А drils, as grapes; by leaf stalks, as the
seed contained in a covering, whose Clematis; by cauline radicles or little sides are compressed. One of Mirbel's fibrous roots, as the creeping American genera of fruits, in the order Carceru- ivy. lares.
Club-shaped. See clavate. Cari'na.
The keel or lower folded petal Clus'tered. See racemed. of a papilionaceous flower.
Cly'peate. Form of a buckler. See pelCar'inated. Keeled, having a sharp back tate. like the keel of a vessel.
Coad'nate. United at the base. Carno' se. Of a fleshy consistence. Coat'ed. With surrounding coats or layers Carpos. From the Greek karpos fruit. Coccin'eous. Scarlet coloured. Caryophylleous. Pink-like corolla, hav- Coch'leate. Coiled spirally, like a snail ing five petals with long claws, all regu
shell. lar and set in a tubular calyx.
Coc'cum. A grain or seed; tricoccous, Cat'kin. See Ament.
3-seeded, &c. Cau'date. Having a tail; as in some Caru'leus. Blue. seeds.
Coleop'tile. From koleos, an envelope, and Gau'der. The main body of a tree, or root. ptilon a bud. Caules'cent. Having a stem exclusive of Co'leorrhize. From kolcos, an envelope, the peduncle or scape.
and riza, a root. Cauline. Growing on the main stem. Colli'nus. Growing on hills. Caulis. The main herbage-bearing stem Coloured. Different from green; in the
of all plants, called in French, la tige. language of botany, green is not called a Cell. The hollow part of a pericarp or an- colour. White, which in reality is not
ther; each cavity in a pericarp that con- a colour, is so called in botany. The tains one or more seeds is called a cell. primitive colours and their intermediate According to the number of these cells shades and gradations, are by botanists the pericarp is one-celled, two-celled, arranged as follows: three-celled, &c.
I Water-colour, hyalinus. Cellular. Made up of little cells or cavities.
Lead-colour, cinereus. Ceno'bion. From the Greek, signifying a
community; one of Mirbel's genera of BLACK, niger. fruits.
Brown, fuscus. Cerion. A carcerulate fruit, forming one Pitch-black, ater.
of Mirbel's genera of fruits. Cerea'lis. Any grain from which bread is YELLOW,
S made. (From Ceres, goddess of corn.) Straw-colour, flavus. Cer'nuus. When the top only droops. Flame-colour, fulvus. Chaffy. Made up of short membranous portions like chaff.
ruber. Chan'nelled. Hollowed out longitudinally, Flesh-colour, incarnatus. with a rounded groove.
Scarlet, coccineus. Cho'rion. A clear limpid liquor contained in a seed at the time of flowering. Af- PURPLE, purpureus. ter the pollen is received, this liquor be- (Violet-colour, cæruleo-purpureus.
comes a perfect embryo of a new plant. Cic'atrice. The mark or natural scar BLUE,
cæruleus. from whence the leaf has fallen.
GREEN, viridis. Ciliate. Fringed with parallel hairs. White is most common in roots, sweet
berries and the petals of spring flowers. and tego, to cover.) The rind or coarse Black, in roots and seeds. Yellow, in outer bark of plants; the organization anthers, and the petals of compound of the outer and inner barks ditfers chiefflowers. Red in the petals of summer ly in the fineness of their texture. flowers and acid fruits. Blue and vio- Cor'tical. Belonging to the bark. let colour, in the petals. Green, in the Coryda'lis. Helmet like. leaves and calyx.
Co'rymb. Inflorescence, in which the Columella. That which connects the flower stalks spring from different
seeds to the inside of the pericarp. The heights on the common stem, forming a
central pillar in a capsule. Column. The style of gynandrous plants ; Costate. Ribbed. used for columella.
Cotyledons. (From kotule, a cavity.) Co'ma. A tutt of bracts on the top of a Seed lobes. The fleshy part of seeds spike of flowers.
which in most plants rises out of the Com' mon. Any part is common, which ground and forms the first leaves, called
includes or sustains several parts similar seminal or seed leaves. These lobes in among themselves.
the greatest proportion of plants, are Com' pound. Made up of similar simple two in number; they are very conspicparts.
uous in the leguminous seeds; as beans, -flowers. Such as are in the peas, &c. The cotyledons are externally class Syngenesia, having florets with convex, internally flat, and inclose the united anthers.
embryo or principle of life, which it is -leaf. When several leafets their office to protect and nourish. grow on one petiole.
Cre'mocarpe. (From kremao, to suspend, When several racemes and karpos, fruit.) A name given by grow along the side of a peduncle. Mirbel to a genus of fruits.
- umbel. Having the peduncles Creeping. Running horizontally; stems subdivided into pe uncles of lesser um- are sometimes creeping, as also roots. bels.
Cre'nate. Scolloped, notches on the mar-petiole. A divided leaf stalk. gin of a leaf which do not point towards
-peduncle. A divided flower either the apex or base. stalk.
Cre'nulate. Finely crenate. Compres'sed. Flattened.
Cres'cent-form. Resembling a half-moon. Con'cave. Hollowed on one side.
Crest'ed. Having an appearance like a Conceptac'ulum. Single valved capsule. cock's comb. Conchology. The science which treats of Crini'tus. Long haired. shells.
Crowded. Clustered together. Cone. A scaly fruit like that of the pine. Crowned. See Coronatus. See Strobilum.
(From crux, crucis, a cross.) Conglom'erate. Crowded together. Four petals placed like a cross. Con'ic. With a broad base, gradually nar- Crusta'ceous. Small crusty substances
rowing to the top like a sugar loaf. lying one upon another. Conif' erous. Bearing cones.
Cryptoga'mia. Stamens and pistils conConjugate. In pairs.
cealed. Con'nate. Opposite, with the bases united Cu'bit. A measure from the elbow to the
or growing into one, forming the appear- end of the middle finger. ance of one leaf. Anthers are some-Cucullate. Hooded or cowled, rolled or times connate.
folded in, as in the spatha of the Arum Conni'vent. Converging, the ends inclining or wild turnip: towards each other.
Cucurbita'ceous. Resembling gourds or Contin'uous. Uninterrupted.
melons. Contor'ted. Twisted.
Cu'linary. Suitable for preparations of Contracted. Close, narrow.
foud. Conder' ging. Approaching or bending to-Culm or straw. (From the Greek kalama, wards each other.
stubble or straw ; in Latin culmus.) The Con'dex. Swelling out in a roundish form. stem of grasses, Indian corn, sugar Con'volute. Rolled into a cylindric form,
cane, &c. as leaves in the bud.
Culmiferous. Having culms; as wheat, Cor'culum, or Corcle. The embryo or
grasses, &c. miniature of the future plant, which is Cune'iform. Wedge-form, with the stalk found in seeds often between the cotyle- attached to the point. dons.
Cup'ula. A cup: Cor'date. Heart-shaped, side lobes round- Curv'ed. Bent inwards. See incurved. ed.
Cus'pidate. Having a sharp straight point. Coria' ceous. Resembling leather; thick (The eye tooth is cuspidate.) and parchment-like.
Cu'ticle. The outside skin of a plant, comCornu. A horn or spur.
monly thin, resembling the scarf or outCornic'ulate. Horn shaped.
er skin of animals. It is considered as Corol'la, or corol. (A word derived from forming a part of the bark.
corona, a crown.) Usually encloses the Cya'neus. Blue. stamens.
Cy'athiform. Shaped like a common wine Corona'tus. Crowned; as the thistle seed glass. is crowned with down.
Cylin'drical, A circular shaft of nearly Cor'tex. (From corium, leather, or hide, equal dimensions throughout its extent.