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17–2. TAGETES. 49. 55.
Exotic. erec'ta (african marygold. y. Ju. 0), leaves pinnate; leafets lanceolate,
cilitate serrate; peduncles 1 flowered, incrassate, sub-inflated; calyx angled.
17–2. TANACETUM, 49. 55.
Erotic. vulga're (tansey. y. Ju. 4), leaves doubly pinnate, gash-serrate. Naturalized. Var. crispum (double tansey), leaves crisped and dense.
13–1. TEUCRIUM. 42. 89. canaden"se (wood sage, germander. O.r. Ju. 4), pubescent; leaves lance ovate,
serrate, petioled; stem erect; spikes whorled, crowded ; bracts longer than the calyx. Var. virginicum, upper leaves sub-sessile ; bracts about the length of the calyx. 1–3f. S.
12–13. THALICTRUM. 26. 61. dio'icum (meadow rue. 0. w-r. M. 4), flowers diæcious ; filaments filiform ;
leaves about 3 ternate; leafets roundish, cordate, obtusely lobed, glabrous ; peduncles axillary, shorter than the leaves. 1-2 f. s.
12–1. THEA. 54. 71.
China and Japan.
14–1. THLASPI. 39. 63.
13-1. THYMUS. 42. 39.
Erotic. vulga'ris (thyme. b-p. J. 4, 5), erect; leaves ovate and linear, revolute; flowers in a whorled spike.
12-1. TILIA. 37. 79. gla'bra (bass wood, lime tree. O. y-w. Ju. 3), leaves round cordato, abruptly
acuminate, sharply serrate, sub-coriaceous, glabrous ; petals truncate at the apex, crenate; style about equalling the petals ; nut ovate. Large tree, wood soft and white. Leaves often truncate at the base. S.
6-1. TRADESCANTIA. 6. 13.
gated, glabrous ; flowers sessile ; umbel compact, pubescent. Cultivated.
rays of the corolla ; the corollets very narrow, truncate ; peduncles incrassate.
13—1. TRICHOSTEMA. 42. 39. dichot"oma (blue curls. b. Au. C), leaves lance ovate ; branches flower bearing,
2 forked ; stamens very long, blue, curved. Var. linearis, somewhat pubescent ; leaves linear. 6–12 i. S.
7--1. TRIENTALIS. 20. 34. america'na (chick wintergreen. O. w. Ju. 4), leaves lanceolate, serrulate, acuminate ; petals acuminate. 3—6 i.
16–10. TRIFOLIUM. 32. 93. re'pens (white clover, O. w. M. 4), creeping; leafets ovate oblong, emarginate,
serrulate ; flowers in umbelled heads ; teeth of the calyx sub-equal; legumes
4 seeded. S. praten"se (red clover. O. r. M. 4), ascending, smoothish, leafet ovate, sub-en
tire ; stipules awned ; spikes dense-ovate ; lower tooth of the calyx shorter
than the tube of the corolla, and longer than the other teeth. 2-3 f. S. arven" se (rabbit-foot. 0. w. J. O), heads very hairy, oblong cylindrical ; teeth
*. It is asserted by some, that this is only a variety of the bohea.
of the calyx setaceous, longer than the corolla ; leafets villose, narrow obovate ; banner deciduous. 6–12 i. S.
6-3. TRILLIUM. 11. 12. pen"dulum (noddding wake robin. w. M. 4), peduncles erect, with the flower
a little nodding; petals ovate, shortly acuminate, spreading, flat, longer than
the calyx; leaves rhomboid acuminate, sessile. erec'tum (false wake robin. O. p. w-y. M. 4), peduncles erect or erectish, with
the flowers a little nodding; petals ovate, acuminate, spreading; equalling the calyx; leaves rhomboid, acuminate, sessile. Var, atropurpureum, petals large, dark purple. Var. album, petals smaller, white; germ red. Var. flarum, petals yellow; both petals and calyx leaves longer and narrower. 12 to 18 inches high. Leaves often 3 to 4 inches broad. Peduncles about 3 inches long. 9—16 i. S.
3-2. TRITICUM. 4. 10.
Exotic. hyber"num (winter wheat. J. 8), calyx glume 4 flowered, tumid, even, imbricate, abrupt, with a short compressed point; stipule jagged ; corollas of the upper florets somewhat bearded. There are several varieties of this species which are introduced by culture.
8-1. TROPÆOLUM. 23. 73.
Exotic. ma'jus (nasturtion, indian cress. y. & r. Ju. 0 & 4), leaves peltate, sub-repand; petals obtuse, some of them fringed.
6-1. TULIPA. 10. 14.
Exotic. suaveolens (sweet tulip. M. 11), small stem 1 flowered, pubescent; flower erect;
petals obtuse, glabrous ; leaves lance-ovate. gesneria'na (common tulip. M. 4), stem 1 flowered, glabrous : flower various coloured, erect; petals obtuse, glabrous ; leaves lance ovate.
17–2. TUSSILAGO. 49. 55. far" fara (colt's foot: y. Ap. 4), scape single flowered, scaly ; leaves cordate,
angular, toothed downy beneath. The flower appears long before the leaves. 4-6 i.
19-3. TYPHA. 3. 8. latifollia (cat tail, reed mace. (). Ju. 4), leaves linear, flat, slightly convex beneath ; staminate and pistillate aments close together. Wet. 4-6 f. S.
5-2. ULMUS. 53. 99. america'na (elm, white elm. 0. g-p. Ap. 5), branches smooth; leaves oblique
at the base, having acuminate serratures a little hooking ; flowers pedicelled ; fruit fringed with dense down. Var. pendula, has hanging branches and smoothish leaves. 40–70 f. S.
21-4. ULVA. 57. 2. lin"za, frond lance linear; margin undulate crisped. About an inch broad, tapering to the base, green. Sea shore.
5–2. URASPERMUM. 45. 60. clayto'ni (sweet cicely. 0. J. 4., leaves compound, hairy ; leafets gash toothed;
umbels axillary and terminal, about 5 rayed ; style as long as the villose germ, filiform, deflected. 2 f.
2146. UREDO. 58. 1. linea'ris (yellow grain rust. J. ©), linear, very long, stained yellow, at length
but obscurely coloured. On the culms and leaves of barley, oats, rye, wheat, &c.
1944. URTICA. 53. 99. dio'ica (common nettle. 0. J. 4), leaves opposite, cordate, lance ovate, coarsely
serrate; flowers diæcious ; spikes panicled, glomerate, in pairs, longer than the petioles. 2-3 f. S.
21-5. USNEA. 57. 2. plica'ta, frond pendulous, smooth, pale; branches lax, very branching, sub
fibrous; the extreme ones capillary ; receptacles flat, broad, ciliate ; the ciliæ very slender and long. On trunks and branches of trees; most com
mon on dry dead limbs of evergreens, from which it often hangs in long
6-1. UVULARIA, 11. 14. perfolia'ta (bell wort. 0. y. M. 4), leaves perfoliate, oval obtuse (lance linear or
oval oblong in the young state); corolla bell liliaceous, scabrous or granular
within ; anthers cuspidate. 8 12 i. sessilifo'lia (O. y. M. 4), stem smooth ; leaves sessile, oval lanceolate, glaucous beneath ; petals flat, smooth within; capsules stiped. 6–12 i. S.
10-1. VACCINIUM. 18. 51. resino'sum (black whortleberry. O. p. M. }), leaves slender, petioled, oblong
oval, mostly obtuse, entire, bedewed with resinous specks beneath ; racemes lateral, 1 sided : pedicels short, somewhat bracted : corolla ovate conic, 3 cornered. Berries black. One variety has a yellowish green, and another has a reddish yellow corolla. 1–4 f. s.
6–3. VERATRUM. 10. 13. vir''ide (indian poke, white hellebore. O.J. y. 4), racemes paniculate ; bracts of
the branches oblong lanceolate, partial ones longer than the sub-pubescent peduncles : leaves broad ovate, plaited. 3—4 f. s.
5-1. VERBASCUM. 28. 41. thap''sus (mullein. O. y.J. 8), leaves decurrent, downy both sides : stem gene
rally simple, though sometimes branched above : flowers in cylindric-spike.
3—6 f. . blatta'ria noth mullein, sleek mullein. w-y. J. 5), leaves glabrous, tooth ser
rate : lower ones oblong obovate : upper ones heart ovate, clasping: pedice's 1 fowered, in a terminal panicle raceme. Var. alba, leaves toothed : flowers white. Var. lutea, leaves doubly serrate : flowers yellow. 2–3 f. s.
13–1. VERBENA. 42. 39. hasta'ta (vervain, simpler's joy. 0. p-w. Ju. 4), erect, tall : leaves lanceolate,
acuminate, gash-serrate: lower ones sometimes gash hastate: spikes linear, panicled, sub-imbricate. Var. pinnatifida, has the leaves gash pinnatifid, coarsely' toothed. Var. oblongifolia, leaves lance oblong, deeply serrate,
acute : spikes filiform, panicled. 2–5 f. s. urtieifo'lia (nettle leaf vervain. O. w. Ju. 4), erect, subpubescent; leaves oval,
acute, serrate, petioled : spikes filiform, loose, axillary, terminal : flowers tetrandrous. 2-3f. S.
2-1. VERONICA. 43. 35. officina'lis (speedwell. b. M. 4), spikes lateral, peduncled . leaves opposite, ob
ovate, hairy : stem procumbent, rough haired. 9–12 i. S. angal"lis (brook pimpernel. O. b. J. 4), racemes opposite, long, loose : leaves
lanceolate, serrate; stem erect. 12-18 i. s. beccabun"gla (brook lime. b. J. 4), racemes opposite: leaves oval, obtuse, sub
serrate, glabrous : stem procumbent, rooting at the base. Probably a variety of the last. 9-18 i. S.
5—3. VIBURNUM. 43. 58. pyrifolium (w. J. 1), smooth : leaves ovate oblong, acute, crenate serrate: pa
tiole naked : cymes sub-pedunculate: fruit oblong ovate. 5—10 f. lenta'go (sheep berry. O. w. J. 5), glabrous : leaves broad ovate, acuminate,
hook serrate : petioles margined, undulate: cymes sessile. The branches when full grown often form a fastigiate top. Berries black, oval, and plea
sånt tasted: somewhat mucilaginous. 8–15 f. S. acerifo'lium (maple guelder rose, dockmackie. 0. w. J. 5), leaves heart ovate
or 3 lobed, acuminate, sharp serrate, pubescent beneath : cymes long peduncled. Stem very flexible: leaves broad and sub-membranaceous. 4 - 6 f. S. Leaves applied to inflamed tumours by the Indians.
Exotic. opulus (guelder rose, snow-ball. w. J. 5), leaves 3 lobed, sharp toothed ; po
tioles glandular, smooth ; flowers in compact cymes, surrounded with radia
ting florets. Var, roseum, has the whole cyme made up of radiating florets. li'nus (laurestine. r-w. 5), leaves ovate, entire, with tufts of hair in the axils of the veins beneath : flowers in smooth
cymes. 16—10. VICIA. 32. 93.
Exotic. fa'ba (garden bean, windsor bean. w. & black. J. ), stem many flowered,
erect, strong ; legumes ascending, tumid, coriaceous ; leafets oval, acute,entire ; stipules sagittate, toothed at the base. From Persia.
5-1. VINCA. 30. 47.
Erotic. mi'nor (periwinkle. b. Ap. 3), stem procumbent ; leaves lance oval, smooth at the edges ; flowers peduncled ; teeth of the calyx lanceolate.
5-1. VIOLA. 29. 80.
1. Stemless, or with a subterranean stem. (Leaves more or less reniform, always cordate, younger cucullate : proper
colour of the corolla violet.) cuculla'ta (O. p. b. M. 4), glabrous; leaves cordate, somewhat acuminate, cre
nate dentate ; autumnal ones largest, very exactly reniform ; peduncle somewhat 4 sided, longer than the leaves ; divisions of the calyx subulate, acuminate, emarginate behind or very entire : petals (as in many American species) oblique, veiny, very entire, white at the base, upper one generally naked, glabrous, lateral ones bearded, and with the upper one marked with a few blue lines. Var. papilionacea, petioles and peduncles longer ; leaves sublance ovate; beards of the lateral petals often yellow. Var. tetragona, peduncle strong, exactly 4 sided ; petals azure colour, veinless. Var. villosa,
leaves, petals and peduncles villose. 4—8 i. S. palma'ta (O. p-b. M. 4), mostly villose; leaves heart reniform, palmate, 5—7
lobed ; lobes polymorphous, often narrow, and gashed, middle one always larger; sometimes villose both sides, sometimes only beneath, often glabrous, all of them very often purple beneath ; the first spring ones are ovate, entire ; petioles sub-emarginate ; peduncle somewhat 4 sided, longer than the leaves; divisions of the calyx lance ovate, ciliate, very entire behind ; petals all very entire, veiny, and white at the base, upper ones narrower, smaller, sometimes villose at the base, yet often naked, glabrous ; lateral ones densely bearded, and with the upper one, marked with a few blue lines. One variety has white flowers. 3-6 i. S.
(Leaves oblong or ovate, never reniform: youngor ones cucullate.) sagitta'ta (E. b-p. Ap. 4), glabrous ; leaves ciliate, oblong, not acute, sagittate
cordate, dentate, gashed at the base (or furnished with elongated divaricate teeth); peduncle somewhat 4 sided, longer than the leaves ; divisions of the calyx lanceolate, acuminate, emarginate behind ; petals all very entire, veiny, white at the base ; upper one generally naked, glabrous; lateral ones densely bearded, and with the upper one marked with a few blue lines ; spur elon
gated behind. A variety has the leaves more or less villose. Dry. (Leaves ovate or lanceolate: corolla white, with the lateral petals narrower.) ama'na (E. w. Ap. 4), glabrous : leaves ovate sub-acuminate, crenate, some
times sub-villose above, petioles long, spotted with red, peduncle somewhat 4 sided, equalling or exceeding the length of the leaves spotted : divisions of the calyx lanceolate; petals all very entire, green at the base : lateral ones sometimes with the base pubescent, and with the upper one marked with a few blue lines. Moist woods. Flowers odorous.
(Stemless.) rotundifolia (O. M. y. 4), glabrous ; leaves thickish, appressed to the earth, 2. Caulescent. pubescens (0. y. 4), villose pubescent; stem simple, erect, terete, leafless below ; leaves broad ovate, cordate, dentate; petioles short; stipules large, ovate, dentate ; peduncles 4 sided, shorter than the leaves ; bracts subulate, minute ; divisions of the calyx lanceolate ; petals all very entire, veinless ; upper one naked, glabrous ; lateral ones bearded, and with the upper one, marked with a few blue lines; lower ones often becoming reddish outside; spur short, gibbose, acutish ; stigma pubescent, scarcely beaked. Varies in pubescence; leaves are even found glabrous ; the capsules are also glabrous or woolly. 4-12 i. rarely-4f.
broad ovate or orbicular, cordate, crenate ; nerves pubescent beneath ; sinus closed ; peduncle somewhat 4 sided, as long as the leaves ; divisions of the calyx oblong, obtuse ; petals sometimes emarginate; upper ones small; lateral ones somewhat bearded, and with the upper one, marked with a few yellow
ish brown lines; spur very short. Woods. 1–3 i. peda'ta (O. M. p-b. 4), glabrous ; leaves sometimes ciliate, variously divided,
very often pedately 9 parted ; divisions linear, and obtusely lanceolate, generally 3 lobed at the apex, often simply lanceolate, with the apex, 5–7 lobed, peduncle somewhat 4 sided ; divisions of the calyx lanceolate, acute ciliate, emarginate behind; petals all white at the base, veinless, very entire, very glabrous, naked ; upper one truncate, and marked with a few very blue lines, sometimes obsolete. Var. velutina, has the two lower petals of a very deep violet colour, and appears like velvet. Var. alba, has white flowers, Dry. 3-4 i. S.
Exotic. tri'colour (garden violet, heart's ease, pansy. p. y. b.p. M. 4), stem angular,
diffuse, divided ; leaves oblong, deeply crenate; stipules lyrate pinnatifid. odora'ta (sweet violet. b. M. 4), stemless ; scions creeping ; leaves cordate,
crenate, smoothish; calyx obtuse ; two lateral petals with a bearded or hairy line.
20—4. VISCUM. 43. 58. verticilla'tum (misletoe. g-w. J. }), branches opposite and whorled ; leaves
wedge obovate, 3 nerved ; spikes axillary, a little shorter than the leaves. Berries yellowish white. On the branches of old trees. This is the golden bough of Virgil, and the sacred plant of the Druids. 1-2 f. S.
5-1. VITIS. 46. 72. Remark. All the North American species of grape are polygamous or diccious. labrus''ca (plum grape. w-g. J. 5), leaves broad cordate, lobe angled, white
downy beneath ; fertile racemes small ; berries (blue, flesh colour and green) large. Var. labruscoides (fox grape), has smaller fruit, approaching a
tart taste. rulpi'na (frost grape. 0. w-g. J. ), leaves cordate, acuminate, gash toothed,
glabrous both sides ; racemes lax, many flowered ; berries small. Leaves very variable ; but the uppermost mature leaves will agree with the description.
5-1. XYLOSTEUM. , 48. 58. cilia'tum (Aly honey suckle, twin berry. 0. w-y. M. 3), berries distinct; leaves
ovate and sub-cordate, margin ciliate, in the young state villose beneath ; corolla a little gibbous or calcarate at the base ; tube ventricose above i divisions short, acute ; style exsert. 3—4 f.
3-1. XYRIS. 6. 13. cardinia'na (yellow eyed grass. E. y. Au. 4), leaves linear, grass like ; stem or scape two edged ; head ovate acute; scales obtuse. 9-18 i. S.
5—13. ZANTHORHIZA. 26. 61. apüfo'lia (parsley, yellowroot. p. Ap. 3), stem simple : leaves 3 ternate ;
petioles dilated and clasping at the base ; racemes compound, below the leaves. 1–3 f.
21–5. ZANTHOXYLUM. 46. 94. fraxind'eum (prickly ash, tooth-ache bush. 0. g-w. M. 3), prickly ; leaves
pinnate ; leafets lance-oval, sub-entire, sessile, equal at the base ; umbels axillary. 8–12 f. S.
1943. ZEA. 4. 10.
Southern mays (indian corn. y-g. Ju. 0), leaves lance linear, entire, keeled.