Графични страници
PDF файл
ePub

O (omnibus locis*), indicates that the plant is common to the whole district.

A (alpine), indicates that the plant is most common on mountains, or elevated places.

L (littoribust), indicates that the plant is most common at or near shores.

Colours of Corollas. r. red-p. purple-y. yellow-w. white-b. blue-g. green.

T'ime of Flowering.
Ap. April-M. May-J. June-Ju. July-Au. August-
S. September—Oc. October.

Duration, foc.
annual-biennial—4 perennial - h woody.

Accent and quantity. The marks over the generic and specific names, have reference, not only to the syllable which is to be accented, but to the quantity of the vowel in the accented syllable, as either long or short.

Those syllables over which the single mark is placed, have the vowel pronounced long, as in Fra-ga'-ri-a: those over which the double mark is placed, have the vowel pronounced short, as in He-pat"-i-ca ; in the latter case the stress of voice seems thrown upon the consonant; the two marks may, there. fore, be considered as indicating that the consonant, as well as vowel is accented.

The general rule respecting words of two syllables is simple, and renders it unnecessary to prefix to such words the marks for accent and quantity.

Words of two syllables always have the accent on the first; if the syllable end with a vowel it is long, as in Cro'-cus ; if it end with a consonant it is short, as in Cac"-tus.

* Literally translated, in all places.

+ By shores.

29*

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

GENERA OF PLANTS.

The following descriptions of genera and species, are mostly quoted from Eaton's Manual ; a few however, have been selected from Pursh, and Torrey's Botany, Withering's, and some others.

[blocks in formation]

SALICOR"NIA. Calyx inflated, entire, 3 or 4-sided, obconic: corolla 0; style 2-cleft : seed 1, enclosed in the calyx. 12. 29—(samphire). S.

HIPPO'RIS. Calyx superior, obsolete, with à 2-lobed margin ; corolla 0; seed l : stigma simple : style in the groove of the anther. 15. 88(marestail).

ORDER II.

DIGYNIA.

BLI'TUM. Calyx 3-cleft, or 3-parted, berry-like : corolla 0: seed 1, immersed in the calyx. 12. 29—(blite).

[blocks in formation]

ORDER I. MONOGYNIA. A. Corolla l-petalled, inferior, regular : seeds in a drupe or nut. LIGUS'TRUM. Calyx 4-toothed: corolla with 4 ovate divisions : berry 1 or 2-celled, 2 or 4-seeded. 44. 37—(prim).

CHIONAN"THUS. Calyx 4-parted; corolla 4-parted, with very long divi. sions ; nucleus of the drupe, striate-fibrous. 44. 37—(fringe-tree).

Erotics. Jas"MINUM. Corolla salver-form, 5 to 8 cleft: berry 2-seeded, each seed solitary, arilled. 44. 37—(jasmine). SYRIN"GA. Corolla salver-form: capsule 2-celled. 44. 37—(lilac).

B. Corolla 1-petalled, inferior, irregular ; seeds in capsules. VERON"ICA. Calyx 4-parted : corolla cleft into 4 lobes, lower division smaller : capsule obcordate, few-seeded, 2-celled. 40. 35—(speedwell). S.

LEPTAN"DRA. Calyx 5-parted, segments acuminate : corol tubular campanulate, border 4-lobed, a little ringent, lower segment narrower : stamens and at length the pistils much exserted : capsule ovate, acuminate, opening at the top. 40. 35—(culver's physic). S.

GRATIOLA. Calyx 5-parted, often with 2 bracts at the base : corol irregular, resupinate, 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, lower one equally 3-cleft : stigma 2-lipped; capsule 2-celled, 2 valved. 40. 40—(hedge-hyssop.) S.

LINDER"NIA. Calyx 4-parted : corol resupinate, tubular, 2-lipped ; upper lip short, reflexed, emarginate ; lower one trifid, unequal : filaments 4, the 2 longer ones forked and barren: capsule 2-celled, 2-valved, the dissepiment parallel to the valves. 40. 40. S.

CATAL"PA. Corolla 4 or 5-cleft, somewhat inflated, bell-form : calyx 2-partod or 2 leaved : stigma 2-lipped : capsule cylindric, 2-celled. 40. 45—(catalpa tree.) S.

C. Corolla l-petalled, inferior, irregular; seeds naked. MONAR"DA. Calyx cylindric, striated, 5-toothed: corolla ringent, tubular, upper lip lance-linear, involving the filaments, lower lip reflexed, 3-lobed. 42. 39--(Oswego tea, mountain-mint). S.

Lyco'pus. Calyx tubular, 5-cleft or 5-toothed : corol tubular, 4-cleft, nearly equal : upper division broader and emarginate : stamens distant : seeds 4, retuse. 42. 39(water horehound). S.

SAL"VIA. Calyx tubular, striated,' 2 lipped, under lip 2 to 3-toothed, lower lip 2-cleft: corolla ringent, upper lip concave, lower lip broad, threelobed, the middle lobe the largest, notched ; stamens with two spreading branches, one of which bears a one-celled anther; germ four cleft; style thread-shaped, curved ; seeds 4, in the bottom of the calyx. 42. 39—(sage). s.

COLLINSO'NIA. Calyx tubular, 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed : corolla funnel. form, unequal, under lip many-cleft, capillary: one perfect seed. 42. 39-(horse-balm). S.

Erotic. ROSMARI'NUS. Corolla ringent, upper lip 2-parted : filaments long, curved, simple, with a tooth. 42. 39--(rosemary).

D. Corolla superior. CIRCÆ'a. Calyx 2-leaved or 2-parted; corolla 2-petalled : capsule hispid, 2-celled, not gaping ; cells 1 or 2 seeded, seeds oblong. 48. 88(enchanter's nightshade). S.

ANTHOXAN"THUM. Calyx of two egg-shaped, pointed, concáve, chaffy scales ; 1 flowered ; corolla of two equal husks, shorter than the calyx, awned on the back; an internal corolla or nectary, consisting of two egg-shaped minute scales ; stamens longer than the corolla ; anther oblong, forked at both ends ; germ superior ; seed, one. 4. 10—(sweet vernal grass). S.

ORDER II.

DYGYNIA.

CLASS III. TRIANDRIA.

MONOGYNIA.

ORDER I.

A. Flowers superior. I'RIS. Calyx spatha 2 or 3-valved: corolla 6-parted, divisions alternately reflexed : stigmas 3, petal-like : style short : capsule 3-celled. 6. 18—(flowerde-luce, iris or flag). S.

Exotic. Cro'cus. Spatha radical : corolla funnel form, with a long slender tube : stigma deep-gashed, crested. 6. 18—(saffron).

Southern, 'Ix"la. Spatha 2 or 3-valved, ovate, short ; corolla 6-parted or 6-petalled ;' sometimes tubular : stamens strait or incurved; stigmas sub-filiform (black berry-lily). 6. 18.

B. Flowers inferior. COMMELI'NA. Spatha cordate ; perianth 3-leaved : corolla 3-petalled subequal : 3 barren filaments--sometimes the whole 6 filaments bear anthers; stigma simple : nectaries 3, cross-form, inserted on peculiar filaments : capsule sub-globose, 3-celled, cells 2-seeded or empty. 6.13—(day-flower). S.

Xy'ris. Calyx a cartilaginous glume, 2 or 3-valved, in a head : corolla 3petalled, equal, crenate : capsule 3-valved, many-seeded. 6. 13—(yellow-eyedgrass), S.

ORDER. II. DYGYNIA. A. Spikelets 1.flowered : corollas without abortive rudiments of flowers at the base.

(Calyx and corolia different in texture). LEER"SIA. Calyx 0; corol 2-valved, closed; valves compressed, boat shaped : nectary obovate, entire, collateral : stamens varying in number. 4. 10--(cut-grass). S.

Exotic. Sac"CHARUM. Calyx involucred with long wool at the base, 2-valved: 00rolla 1 or 2-valved : stamens 1 to 3. 4. 10—(sugar-cane).

(Calyx and Corolla oj similar texture-flowers in spreading panicles). Agros'tis. Calyx herbaceous, 2-valved, l-flowered, valves acute : a little less than the corolla : corolla 2-valved, membranaceous, often hairy at the base: stigmas longitudinally hispid or plumose, florets spreading : nectary lateral : seed coated. 4. 10 - (redtop). S.

ARUN"DO. Calyx 2-valved, unequal, membranaceous, surrounded with hair at the base ; lower valve mucronate or slightly awned. Sometimes there is a pencil-form rudiment at the base of the upper valve. 4. 10—(reed). Calyx and corolla of similar texture-flowers in compact panicles, often spikes

form). Paluum. Calyx hard, 2-valved, equal, sessile, linear, truncate, bieaspidate :

corolla enclosed in the calyx, 2-valved, awnless, truncate. 4. 10—(timothygrass). S. B. Spikelets 1 flowered ; corolla with 1 or 2 abortive rudiments of flowers at the

base.

(Calyx and corolla of similar texture). PHALA'RIS. Calyx membranaceous, 2-valved, valves keeled, nerved, equal in length, including the 2-valved pilose corolla. The corolla is shorter than the calyx and coriaceous : rudiments opposite, sessile, resembling valves : nectary lateral. 4. 10—(ribbon-grass, canary-grass). S.

C. Spikelets many-flowered.

(Flowers in panicles ; corolla unarmed). Bri'za. Spikelets heart-ovate, many-flowered : calyx chaffy, shorter than the 2-ranked forets : corolla ventricose : lower valve cordate, upper one orbi. cular, short. 4. 10—(quake-grass). S.

Po'a. Spikelets oblong or linear, compressed, many-flowered : calyx shorter than the florets : corolla herbaceous, awnless, often arachnoid at the base ; lower valve scarious at the margin. 4. 10.-(spear-grass). S.

Exotic. SORG"HUM. Florets in pairs, one perfect, with a 3-valved corolla, and sessile ; the other staminate or neutral, and pedicelled. 4. 10—(broom-corn).

(Flowers in panicles ; corol armed or mucronate.) DAC"TYLIS. Spikelets aggregated in unilateral heads, many-flowered : calyx shorter than the florets, with one large glume, keeled, pointed : corolla with the lower valve keeled, emarginate, mucronate ; upper valve sub-conduplicate. 4. 10—(orchard-grass.) S.

AVE'NA. Calyx 2-valved ; 2, 3, or many flowered : corolla, valves mostly bearded at the base, lower one torn, with a twisted awn on the back : glumes membranaceous, and somewhat follicle-like : seed coated. 4. 10--(oats). S.

D. Flowers in spikes. Lo'lium. Calyx 1-leafed, permanent, many flowered ; florets in many flowered 2-rowed simple sessile spikelets on a rachis : lower valve of the corolla herbaceous-membranaceous, mucronate, or bristled at the tip. 4. 10 -(darnelgrass.)

TRI'TICUM. Calyx 2-valved, about 3-flowered ; florets sessile on the teeth of the rachis, obtusish and pointed; glumes beardless, or interruptedly bearded. 4. 10.-(wheat).

SECA'LE. Calyx 2-valved, 2 or 3-flowered : spikelets sessile on the teeth of the rachis, with the terminal foret abortive : calyx 2-valved ; glumes subulate, opposite, shorter than the florets : corolla with the lower valve long-awned. 4. 10--(rye).

E. Flowers polygamous.

(In panicles). PAN"ICUM. Calyx 2-valved, 2-powered; the lower glume generally very small; the lower floret abortive, 1 or 2-valved ; the lower valve resembling the calyx, the upper one membranaceous : perfect floret with cartilaginous valves, unarmed. 4. 10—(cockfoot-grass, panic-grass). S.

(In spikes). HOR"DEUM. Spikelets 3 at each joint of the rachis, 1 or 2-powered, all per fect, or the lateral ones abortive': glume lateral, subulate : perfect flower with a 2-valved corolla ; lower valve ending in a bristle : seed coated. 4. 10-(barley).

TRIGYNIA. MOLLU'GO. Calyx 5-leaved, coloured within : corol 0 : capsule 3-celled, 3 valved. 22. 82—(carpet-weed). S.

ORDER III.

CLASS IV. TETRANDRIA.

ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
A. Flowers superior.

(1-petalled). CEPHALAN"THUS. Inflorescence in a head : general calyx none; proper calyx superior, minute, angular, 4-cleft : corolla funnel-form; receptacle globular, hairy : capsules 2 to 4-partible : seed solitary, oblong. 48. 56—(buttonbush). S.

« ПредишнаНапред »