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Fruits which are covered by some foreign envelope.
This class is divided into five genera, as follows:

1st. Strobilum or cone, a collection of fruits concealed by scales, whose union forms a globular or conical body, as the juniper, pine, &c. Here is a representation (Fig. 80) of the

Fig. 80.

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fruit of the Pinus (pine); a is an entire strobilum ; b is the same, cut vertically.

2d. Calybion (from Kalubion, a little cabin); fruits of this genus are composed of glandular pericarps, contained in a peculiar kind of bract ; in the oak, it is partly concealed ; in the beech it is wholly concealed, and also in the yew (Taxus); in the latter are two bracts, one enclosing the other; the exteri.

Enumerate the orders in the class Gymnocarps, with the genera of eachDescribe the class Angiocarps-Strobilum--Calybion.

or one is succulent and of an orange red; the interior hard and woody, encloses the fruit. Here is a representation (Fig. 81) of an acorn, which is the

Fig. 81.

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fruit of the oak (QUERCUS robur); it stands in a hemispherical cup, formed of imbricated scales. The pericarp, called a gland, is ellipsoid, coriaceous, one-celled, and one-seeded. The seed is tunicated; the embryo is dicotyledonous; the cotyledons are large and fleshy; a, an entire Calybion ; b, the cup, (d two abortive glands); c the gland cut vertically, show. ing the embryo near its apex.

Fig. 82.

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3d. Sycone (from sucon, a fig). This genus presents fruits enclosed by a fleshy involucrum or receptacle; as the fig. Fig. 82, a, represents a sycone or a fig, open at the summit; b the same cut transversely.


Describe the fruit of the oak-Sycone.


Fig. 83.

4th. Sorose (from soros, a b collection); this genus contains

many fruits united in a spike, and covered with floral en. velopes in a manner represent

ing a berry, as the mulberry. d

Fig. 83, a, represents the fruit of the MORUS rubra (red mul. berry) which is an example of the genus soros ; it is of an oblong form; each little drupe is surrounded by a succulent peri. carp; the nut is one-seeded; 6 represents a detached perianth containing a drupeole (little drupe); c drupeole; d a nut ; e the same, cut transversely ; f

the embryo. Synopsis of Mirbel's artificial classes of orders, and genera of

fruits or pericarps. Class I. Fruits uncovered, or GYMNOCARPS. ORDER I. CARCELARES, simple fruits, remaining closed.

1. Cypsela, Genera, 2. Cerion,

3. Carcerula. ORDER 2. CAPSULARES, simple fruits which open at maturity.

1. Capsule,

2. Legume, Genera,

3. Silique and Silicle,

4. Pyxides. ORDER 3. DIERESILIA, simple fruits, which divide into many parts when ripe.

1. Cremocarp, Genera, 2. Regmate,

3. Dieresil. ORDER 4. ETAIRONNAIR, compound fruits, proceeding from a germ to which the style adheres.

1. Double Follicle,

2. Etairon. ORDER 5. CENOBIONNAIR, compound fruits, proceeding from a germ not bearing the style.

Genus,{ i. Cenobion. ORDER 6. DRUPACES, simple and succulent fruits, contained in a nut.


Genera, {


Genus, { 1. Drupe. ORDER 7. BACCATI, simple, succulent fruits, containing many separate seeds.

(1. Pyridion, Genera, 2. Pepon,

3. Berry. Class II. Fruits uncovered, or ANGIOCARPS.

1. Calybion,

2. Strobilum, Genera,

3. Sycone,

4. Sorose.

Linnæus' classification of fruits. Linnæus divided pericarps or fruits into the nine following classes; Capsule, Silique, Legume, Follicle, Drupe, Nut, Pome, Berry and Strobilum.

1st. CAPSŮLE, signifies a little chest or casket; this is a hollow pericarp, which spontaneously opens by pores, as the poppy, or by scales, as in the mullein. The capsules in opening divide externally into one or more pieces, called valves ; the internal divisions of the capsule are called cells; these are the chambers appropriated for the reception of the seeds; according to the number of these cells, the capsule is one-celled, twocelled, &c. The membranes by which the capsule is divided into cells are called dissepiments, or partitions; these partitions are either parallel to the valves or contrary. The columella is the central pillar in a capsule, and is the part which connects the several internal partitions with the seed. It takes its rise from the receptacle, and has the seed fixed to it all around.*

2d. SILIQUE, or siliqua, is a two-valved pericarp or pod, with the seeds attached alternately to its opposite edge, as mus. tard and radish, The proper silique is two-celled, being furnished with a partition which runs the whole length of this kind of pericarp; there are some exceptions to this, as in the celandine. Silicle (silicula, a little pod,) is distinguished by being shorter than the proper silique ; it is almost round, as in shepherd's purse. This difference in the form of the Silique and Silicle is the foundation of the distinction of the orders in the class Tetradynamia.t

3d. LEGUME, is a pericarp of two valves, with the seeds attached only to one suture or seam; as the pea. In this cir. cumstance it differs from the Silique, which has its seeds affixed

*. The capsule of Linnæus corresponds to the order Capsulares of Jussieu's division.

† See genus Silique, as described under the order Capsulares of Jussieu.

Linnæus' division of pericarps-Capsule -Silique-Legume.

to both sutures. The word pod is used in common language for both these species of pericarp. Plants which produce the legume are called leguminous. The greater number of these plants are in the 16th class, Diadelphia. The tamarind, is a legume filled with pulp, in which the seeds are lodged.*

4th. FOLLICLE, is a one-valved pericarp, which opens longitudinally on one side, having its seed loose within it, that is not bound to the suture. We have examples of this in the dog's bane (Apocynum), which is a double follicle, and in the milk weed (Asclepias).f

5th. DRUPE, a stone fruit, is a kind of pericarp which has no valve, and contains a nut or stone, within which there is a ker. nel. The Drupe is mostly a moist succulent fruit; as in the plum, the cherry, and the peach. The nut or stone, in the drupe, is a kind of woody cup commonly containing a single kernel, called the Nucleus ; this hard shell, thus enveloping the kernel, is called the Putamen; it may be seen in the stone of a cherry or peach. I

6th. Nur, is a seed covered with a shell, resembling the capsule in some respects and the drupe in others; as the walnut, chesnut, &c.

7th. Pome, is a pulpy pericarp without valves, but containing a membranous capsule, with a number of cells, which con. tain the seeds. This species of pericarp has no external opening or valve. The apple, pear, quince, the gourd, the cucumber, and the melon, furnish us with examples of this kind of pericarp. With respect to form, the Pome is oblong, ovate, globular, &c. the form of fruits being much varied by climate and soil. You know that apples are not uniform in their size or figure. With respect to the number of cells also, the apple is variable.

8th. Berry, is a succulent pulpy pericarp, without valves, and containing naked seeds, or seeds with no other covering than the pulp which surrounds it; the seeds in the berry are sometimes dispersed promiscuously through the pulpy substance, but are more generally placed upon receptacles within the pulp. A compound berry consists of several single berries, each containing a seed, united together; as in the raspberry. Each of the separate parts is called an Acinus, or grain. The orange and lemon are berries with a thick coat.

There are some kinds of berries, usually so called, that seem scarce enti

* See Legume, under the order Capsulares of Jussieu.
+ See order 4th, in the class Gymnocarps.
| See order 6th, in the class Gymnocarps.
§ See order 7th, genus second of the class Gymnocarps.


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