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CLASS I. GYMNOCARPS,

Or fruits not concealed. ORDER 1st. CARCERULARES (from carcer, a prison), simple, fruits which never open spontaneously.

This order includes the fruits of syngenesious plants, of the grasses, foc. Fig. 68.

Cypsela (Fig. 68), represents a fruit of this

genus ;

it is of the syngenesious family. ; 7 the pericarp (a) is turbinate.

(shaped like a top); its sur. face is pubescent and furrow. ed; it is indehiscent (not open. ing when ripe), and monospermous (having one seed); the egret (c) is sessile and plumose.

The embryo is dycotyledonous and fleshy. At b, is the same pericarp, cut longitudinally and exposing an inner half of one of the cotyledons. Cerion, is the fruit of corn and the grasses ;

in this

genus the embryo is situated upon the side of the seed.

Carcerula, the characters of this genus are variable; the buck-wheat (polygonum) is one example. Fig. 69.

ORDER 2d. Capsulares, simple fruits, having capsules which open when in a mature state.

Capsule. You see here (Fig. 69), a capsular fruit ; it is the seed of the mar.

tagon lily (Lilium martagon); a reprea sents the capsule open, as it appears in a

mature state; b the same, cut transversely, showing the seeds.

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Among the genera in this order, are,
Legume, which is a bivalved pericarp, having its seeds at-

Order Carcerulares—Genera belonging to this order-Genera in the order Capsulares—Describe the Legume.

tached to one of its sutures; as the bean and pea. Fig. 70, a, represents a legume, the fruit of the genus, Astragalus; b represents the same cut transversely in order to show the cells.

Fig. 70.

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Fig. 71.

a

Silique, a bivalved pericarp, having its seeds attached to each valve ; as the pods of cabbage and mustard. Fig. 71, a, represents a silique, the fruit of the SINAPIS alba (white mustard); this is said to be rostrate, terminating like a bird's beak; b represents a globular seed; c the same magnified; d shows the seed dividing, and the embryo making its appearance. The sillicula is a variety of the same genus.

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Fig. 72.

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Pyxides (from pucis, a box), having its capsule open horizontally, like a box; as the bachelor's button (GOMPHRENA globosa). This genus may be illustrated by a fruit of the genus Lecythis (Fig. 72, a); b represents the lid of the fruit.

ORDER 3d. Dieresilia (from diæresis, division), contains simple fruits, which divide into many parts when ripe.

The Silique–The Pyxides-Order Dieresilia.

In this order is the genus cremorcarp (from kremao, to suspend, and karpos, fruit), having a pericarp divisible into two seeds, as the coriander, parsley, &c. The other genera in this

order are,

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Regmate (from regma, opening with noise), containing many seeds, which are enclosed by two valves, opening by an elastic movement, as euphorbia.

Dieresil, a variable genus, containing such fruits in the or. der Dieresilia as do not properly come under the two other divisions, as the nasturtion, geranium, &c. Fig. 73.

You see here (Fig. 73), a fruit of the order Die. resilia ; it belongs to the genus Reg. mate. It natu

rally divides into a

four seeds; a represents the entire fruit, and 6 the same cut transversely, shew. ing its four seeds.

ORDER 4th. Etairionnair (from etairoi, associates), con. taining compound fruits, proceeding from a germ to which the style adheres; the genera are,

Double Follicle, as in the milk weed (asclepias), having two follicles, each formed of one valve, folded lengthwise.

Etairon, having many seeds ranged round the imaginary axis of the flower, as the ranunculus and anemone. Fig. 74.

Here is the fruit (Fig. 74) of the Acoa

nitum (monk's hood), which belongs to this order; it is composed of three pods united in one compound fruit; a shows one of the valves in a dehiscent state ; 6

represents a seed cut longitudinally, B

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ORDER 5th. Cenobionnair, (from koinobion, a community)

Genera in the order Dieresilia—Genus Regmate-Dieresil--Order Etairionnair--Genera in the order Etairionnair-Double FoHicle--Etairon-Describe the fruit of the Aconitum-Order Cenobionnair.

compound fruits without valves or sutures, proceeding from germs without any styles ; this order contains but one genus, Fig. 75.

Cenobion, which includes fruit of the labiate plants and some others. This cut (Fig. 75), represents the pericarp of the genus Gomphia; it is com. posed of five companions (a) as Mirbel calls each of the onecelled divisions which stand around an ovoid germ, desti

tute of any style; b represents one of these divisions cut vertically; it contains one seed.

ORDER 6th. Drupaces, simple, succulent fruits, containing a nut. This order has but one genus,

Drupe, which varies in form; the apricot is round, the plum elliptical. The AMYGDALIS persica, or peach, (Fig. 76, a), is a

Fig. 76.

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succulent drupe, of a roundish form, and furrowed on the side; the nut is an ellipsoid, long, one-celled and one seeded; 6

represents the peach deprived of one half of its pulpy exterior, and exposing the nut; c represents the nut divested of one of its valves and showing the seed (a).

ORDER 7th. Baccati, (from bacca a berry) simple, succulent fruits, containing many separate seeds. The genera in this order are the following:

Pyridion, (from perideo to lie around); this genus has its fruit crowned with the adhering calyx. The pericarp is fleshy, and has many cells, each of which contains one or more seeds; the embryo has two cotyledons. This genus contains the apple and pear. The Apple, (Malus communis), (Fig. 77,)

* Called panixtern.

Genus Cenobion-Order Drupaces Genus Drupe-Order Baccati--Genera of the order Baccati-Pyridion.

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has a round fleshy pericarp, crowned with the calyx ; the seeds are enclosed in five cells, ranged around in the centre; the cells are composed of membranaceous valves. The seeds are tunicated or coated; a represents an entire Pyridion; b the same cut vertically ; and c the same cut transversely.*

Pepon (from pepon a melon), having a pulpy interior, contain. ing many seeds; the cucumber, melon, &c. belong to this ge. Here is the fruit (Fig. 78) CUCUMIS anguria, sometimes

Fig. 78.

nus.

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called prickly cucumber; a represents the entire pepon, which is spinous, three-celled and many seeded : as is shown by the same fruit cut transversely, as at b; c represents a seed which is tunicated and dicotyledonous: d the same cut vertically.

Bacca, containing all the fruits of this order not found in the other genera. The currant, whortleberry, orange, barberry, pericarp of the potatoe, grape, &c. are found here. In this

* A singular fact is observable in the fruit of the apple: when cut in slices transversely, it exhibits in its substance an exact representation of the five petals which existed in the flower; I have never in any botanical work met with a notice of this phenomenon, and know not on what physiological principles it can be explained.

Pepon-Bacca.

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