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phets by the Spirit; That the Gen-progress, and exhaustless in its suptiles should be fellow-beirs, and of plies, soon assumes the appearanco the same body," with the believing of a current, then swells into a rivu. Jews,“ and partakers of his promise let, till it attains at length the impeconcerning Christ, by the gospel." tuosity of a torrent, and flows triEph. iii. 3, 5, 6.

umphantly over every opposition. Well, therefore, might the apostle The tender twig, just peeping above say, as in 2 Cor. iii.“ Seeing then its mother earth, may be easily torn that we have such hope, we use great from her yielding bosom ; but when plainness of speech. And not as it has ripened and expanded into the Moses, who put a veil upon his face, full-grown energy and the ponderous that the children of Israel could not ramifications of the oak, it then defies stedfastly look to the end of that the pony effort to uproot it, and nods which is abolished. But their minds contempt to the harmless clamours of (as well as Moses' face,) were veiled the tempest. or blinded," namely, by their own It is so in the moral world. The prejudices and lusts; “ for until this infant whose faculties are gradually day remaineth the same veil untaken expanding, and upon whose latent away, in the reading of the Old Tes- soul the light of reason is just dawntament, which veil is abolished or ing, like the tender twig or the flexible done away by Christ. But even unto clay, may be influenced and impressthis day, when Moses is read, the veil ed by instruction and cultivation; but is upon their heart. But," glorious when childhood is succeeded by mato relate, “ when it,” the veiled heart, turity, when its habits become fixed, “* shall turn to the Lord, the veil sball and its failings constitutional, it is be taken away:" when the Jews shall then more deaf to the voice of instrucbelieve the gospel, their prejudices tion, and more callous to the influshall be removed, so that they shall ence of reproof. The headstrong pasdiscern the true meaning of the law, sions, and the unhallowed propensiat the same time that they reap the ties, by which, alas ! too many of our blessed fruits of the gospel.

species are characterized, might, pro( To be continued.)

bably, in their origin, in no inconsiderable degree have been corrected

and subdued; but “ growing with AN ESSAY.

their growth,” and ripening as they THESIS

" Principüs obsta." proximated to maturity, they gained Look to the budding mischief.

at length a complete ascendency over

their minds, and became awfully inDaily observation demonstrates the fluential on their characters and their importance and utility of such an ad- lives. monition, and its universal neglect The mind of man is naturally prone we may consider one grand source of to error, and lulled by the force of inall those calamities with which our ternal corruptions, and the insidious secular existence is replete. There artifices of external adversaries, he is are no trials, however oppressive, sluggish and inert in watching the which could not bave been, in part, at approach of sin, and checking it in least, avoided ; and no circumstances, its progress. Sin, however, is not however calamitous, which could not inactive in its operation, and if it have been, in some degree, ameliorat- meet with no obstruction, it will widen ed, by an attention to this important and strengthen, till it extend to every precept. Yea, not only has it dark- feeling, and faculty, and passion, till ened every beam of prosperity, and the subject of its accursed influence disordered and destroyed the once become the slave of depravity, and flourishing affairs of many; but, hu- the fearless perpetrator of every manly speaking, it has hurried thou- species of crime; and then, tossed sands from the transitory stage of life, upon the turbulent ocean of his evil and brought them to a mournful and passions, with no pilot but “ the an untimely grave.

prince of the power of the air,” he is In the natural world we shall find borne upresistingly along by the torthe utility of this precept illustrated. rent of his guilt, to the gulf of interThe lucid spring, so insignificant and minable despair. obscure in its origin, unchecked in its If then misery be the concomitant


of guilt, and rectitude and peace be 385. Paintings of the crucifixion set united in indissoluble union, it is as- up in houses. suredly our highest interest to stay 387. Pilgrimages to the temple of the most trivial inlet to the one, and Jerusalem and city of Rome deemed to beware of the slightest deviation meritorious. from the other; and surrounded as 434. A council decreed that the we are by temptations so diversified Virgin should be called the Mother of and so mighty in their influence, it God. The Bishop of Constantinople behoves us to wage perpetual warfare objected to it.-Churches were adornwith every species of sin; for if but ed and enriched. A gold image of one be barboured in our breast, the our Saviour crowned with jewels was treacherous guest within will betray set up in St. Peter's church, Rome, us to its friends without, till eventu- by Pope Sixtus. ally we become the dupes of onr own 410. Priests were prohibited from corrupted nature, and the victims of marrying, by Pope Innocent.--Bapinfernal machinations. Let us then, tizing with the sign of the cross. as we journey on the sorrowful path 420. Bishops of Rome were consiof life, while contending with the pow. dered pre-eminent in rank, and asers of darkness, the allurements of sumed pomp, state, and splendour. the world, and the depravity of our 430. The election of the Bishop of hearts, ever recollect, that one enemy Rome was carried by riches and briis vanquished with greater facility bery.- Pagans and heretics were althan two; and make this precept our lowed three months to chuse whether watchword and our monitor

they would become Christians or be Principiis obsta.”

banished from the empire. John, Gloucester.

$. II.

Bishop of Constantinople, was entitled Universal Bishop, by the empe

ror and council; Gregory, Bishop of ERAS OF PARTICULAR, ERRORS

Rome, objected, and said, “ Whoever THE CHURCH OF ROME.

bears the title of Universal Bishop, is [In the dates of the articles wbich follow, the the forerunner of Antichrist.” Boni

reader will find some irregularity. But face the Third, Pope of Rome, prethis can have no influence on the facts vailed on the usurper and murderer themselves.]

Phocas to give him the title of UniIn the year 197, Victor Bishop of versal Bishop, although ConstantinoRome separated from the Eastern ple was the seat of government. But Churches, insisting that Easter day the Bishop of Rome approved of the should always be held on a Sunday. murder of the Emperor Mauritius,

200. Fast days were ordered by and sanctioned the usurpation of Phoecclesiastical authority.

cas, who in return aided the pope in 250. Patriarchs were appointed to bringing the Church under subjection preside over certain districts of the to him at Rome. Church.

528. Pope Felix declared the clergy 320, Constantine persecuted the by divine right were exempt from the pagans,

power of the civil magistrate, and 335. Monasteries and nunneries were only censurable for their miswere established.

conduct by the Church. 337. Monks went about selling the 530. Two popes were chosen, Bonibones of the martyrs.

face II. and Dioscorides; the dispute 338. Bishops wero to rank accord- was only settled by the death of the ing to the size of their cities; this led latter.-The infallibility of the pope to the supremacy of Rome, as the was asserted out of this controversy, largest city.

that a pope not rightly elected, can340. Invocation of the saints first not be infallible.—Praying to the Virrecommended.

gin Mary was now customary.-Pur366. A riot at the election of the gatory was devised and contradicted; Bishop of Rome, and 137 persons it remained doubtful in the sixth cenkilled.

tury. 370. Laws made for persecuting 592. Praying for the dead was pracheretics.

tised.-The procession of the Host 380. Crosses of wood and metal was now invented. ysed by worshippers,

600. Indulgences were sold ; at first for past sins, as a mitigation of a / and the traditions of the Church were long and severe penance, and after- deemed as sacred as if delivered by wards for future sins.

the inspired apostle St. Peter. 606. The title of Pope as Head of Churches were dedicated to the Virthe Church was established.

gin Mary and other saints. The cri624. The pope's bull sent into Eny- minals who escaped into a church land, to Justus, Bishop of Canterbury, were free from arrest; this encouraga ceremony tending to give the pope ed murder, robbery, and cowardly asthe power of appointing bishops, who sassination.--No man was to marry a were heretofore elected.-Money col-woman to whom his father had been lected for the Church patrimony in all godfather in baptism. ---Abstinence the large cities, exclusive of the poor- from certain meats and drink on cerfund. The other Church property in tain days, was deemed meritorious. land, was called by the names of the 610. All-saints' day instituted, the saints, as St. Peter's in Rome, St. number of feasts having filled the Ambrose in Milan.

calendar. 640. The pope was called Father of 618. Fasting on Saturdays forbidfathers, and Supreme Pontiff of all den on pain of excommunication. bishops.

680. Painted sculptures of the cru649. Pope Martin assumed the cifixion were ordered to be put up in power of a council, condemning three churches; sometimes a lamb or a bishops and their writings, from his dove represented the Saviour and the own authority, as Bishop of Rome.- Holy Ghost to the attention of worThe pope excommunicated Maurus, shippers. -Severe and oppressive Bishop of Ravenna, who excommuni- edicts were issued against all who cated the pope in return. The pope differed from the canons of the Church. then declared Maurus stripped of the - The pope declared it was unlawful priesthood, but the exarch supported for an archbishop or primate to exerMaurus, and he executed his func- cise his power, without a bull sent to tions till his death, leaving it in charge him from Rome. with his successor not to submit to 734. Gregory III. sentenced the the power assumed by the pope. Emperor Leo to lose his empire, and

680. The sixth council was declar- be excommunicated, for refusing to ed to be equal in authority with the allow the worship of images. bible, and they excommunicated pope 756. Pope Leo III. crowned CharHonorius.-With all the infallibility lemagne, who then adored the pope of the pope and councils, the doctrine and kissed his feet, and afterwards of two wills in Christ was asserted, invested the pope with the exarchate and the opposers condemned ; at an- of Ravenna.-The pope withdrew the other time it was denied, and the as- obedience of the monks in every part sertors condemned.-In like manner of the world from their own bishops Arianism was in favour, and in dis- to himself. grace, at different times.

711. Kissing the pope's toe, first 690. Certain writers were now call- submitted to by the Emperor Justied the Fathers of the Church, and nian, became a regular ceremonial. their authority stated as the rule of 789. The worship of images was faith and doctrine, however deficient made a law of the Church. of scriptural authority. Anathema 800. The pope laboured to attach was pronounced on all who did not substantial power to his title of Head believe every thing they delivered, al- of the Church; the Eastern bishops though they delivered many things in- opposed it in vain.-A veneration for consistent and contradictory. This the CHAIR of St. Peter, as a divine enforced the practice of prayer for the right to universal supremacy, was now dead, adoring relics, and working mi- invented.—The appeals of disputing racles by them; canonizing the saints, clergy were now made to the pope, and offering prayer to them; and also instead of being decided by the archthe doctrine of purgatory, whereby bishop of the diocese, in each nation Catholics at their death are deprived of Christendom.--The missionaries of the cheering hopes of heaven, and were instructed to proclaim the power led to look to a place of torment, un- and supremacy of the pope.The til money buys them out of it. The pope granted privileges to missions, Bishop of Rome wore a triple crown; I to monastic orders, and particular churches and convents; among other earth, as successor of St. Peter, and inventions, sending the pallium now vicegerent of Christ.--A power was greatly increased the power of Rome. assumed by the pope of making arti- The Eastern church, so far as it cles of faith. differed or withstood the Roman, was 963. John XII. had been chosen decreed as heretical. --The monaste- pope at the age of eighteen years; be ries were united in attachment to the was deposed for adultery and perjury. pope, and formed a powerful auxiliary -Tumult and disorder attended the to strengthen Rome, and depress the election of ten popes in this century. independence of the provincial clergy.-Benedict V. was carried away pri-The papal decretals and canon laws soner to the emperor, and so was his of Rome were compiled and published successor.--John XIII. was strangled for the direction of the churches in by one who aspired to the chair.general.

Boniface VII. robbed the treasury of 884. The posterity of Charlemagne St. Peter, and fled.-John XVI. bebeing driven out of Italy, the pope, came an exile; during these disturbHadrian III., ordained that the popes ances the Church had frequently no should for the future be consecrated head.—The Archbishop of Rheims without applying to the emperor; and took on him the care of the French in the election of the bishops and ab- church.-The pious bishops of Gerbots, the emperor was forbidden to many promoted a reformation, to preinterfere.-Four popes of the ninth vent these disorders. - Peter-pence century led very bad lives.-Impiety, was paid in England.—The translavice, and confusion reigned in Italy. tion of Bishops was frequent.--MarPopes were excommunicated by their riage forbidden on Sundays or in Lent. successors, their acts annulled, and -Bells were consecrated. The form even their administration of the sacra- of solemn canonization of a saint was ments declared to be void. Six popes introduced. were driven out by those who aspired 956. Popes changed their names ; to their places. Romanus X. did the Octavian was the first who did so, to same to Stephen VI. which Stephen procure an election. had done to Formosus. Theodorus 1062. Pope Alexander sold several II. authorized all the acts of Formo- bishoprics in Germany and England. sus, and John X., who succeeded 1050. Gregory VII. succeeded in Theodorus, confirmed the acts of For- assuming the title of Pope, excluding mosus, and condemned the judgment all other bishops from using that title, of Stephen VI. Two popes were put though it originally only signified to death, Leo III. by Christophorus, “ father.”—The cardinals began to who became pope, and was afterwards wear red hats, and the election of put to death himself.-In this time it popes was limited to them.-Bishops was affirmed and denied that a woman swore fealty to the pope.-Bishops was elected pope. Father Paul says were forbidden to condemn any one it is doubtful, but certainly as strange who appealed to the pope.-Gregory things did occur in this time.—The VII.cited Henry the emperor to appear Greek church entirely separated from before him, and he was excommunithe see of Rome.

cated for not attending the summons. 890. The observance of Lent in - The 23d proposition of the Dictatus England, and many nunneries, were Papæ declares, that the pope becomes established.--The Roman ritual used holy by the merits of St. Peter. The in churches.-Churches and altars pope engaged the emperor's eldest were consecrated, and burials in son to rebel against his father.- Pope churches.

Victor Ill. succeeded, by intrigues 915. The pope still was elected by and rebellions, to force the emperor the clergy, senate, people, and sol- to resign to his son, who was crowned diers. Theodora, a prostitute, gained by the Archbishop of Mentz.--Pope the election for her public favourite, Pascal II. declared that no layman John X.-John XI. was pope at the should interfere in the collation of age of twenty years. The Pope of benefices, and that it would be unjust Rome prohibited other bishops, arch- and heretical to give up the investibishops, or primates from using the ture of bishops and abbots to the emtitle of Pope. --The pope assumed that peror, and yet be shortly after did he had all power in heaven and in himself.—The office of the Virgin Mary


was composed.-Self-flagellation was slave-holding, is it not more unjust in ordained meritorious.--Doing pen- the planters to possess themselves, ance for others was invented. The and to keep possession of, their unoffeasts of the four seasons devised.- fending fellow-men? Robbery (exAbstinence on Friday and Saturday cept murder) is one of the greatest of decreed.—Mass for the living restrict- crimes. Now, sir, I ask which would ed to one each day, and a second be the greater robbery of the two: to mass was permitted for the dead. rob me of my property, or to rob me (To be continued.)

of myself? to seize and carry away my property, or to seize and carry away myself? If there are greater or

less degress of turpitude in theft, to MR. EDITOR.

rob me of my wife or children must SIR,~I know not a periodical work be a robbery of the greatest magnitude. which possesses so much indepen- Prostitution in a female wipes off all dence as does the Imperial Maga- modesty and delicacy ; so the long-conzine. I have often perused it with tinued prostitution of British justice pleasure and profit: You have here has obliterated every feature of mercy some of my thoughts on a long-con- or sympathy in West India planters troverted subject, viz. West Indian to African negroes! slavery. That 50,000 Europeans have The Africans are charged by the held, and do hold, in slavery 800,000 planters with a long catalogue of Africans, is not more astonishing than vices: they are said to be lazy, ignounjust! That these Africans should rant, deceitful, revengeful, malicious, be considered, as British subjects, thievish, &c. &c. But, sir, are Euroamenable to British law, is an as- peans free from these vices ? Are the sumption unparalleled in ancient or nations who have enslaved them guiltmodern history. Were it known that less of these charges ? If Europeans one white British subject was held in have set them the example of theft, in slavery by any organized government, stealing them from Africa, is it matwould not the British government de ter of surprise or reprehension that m nd the liberation of such subject, such enslaved Africans should take at the peril of such government? the liberty of helping themselves to

European nations have constituted such things as their wants require ? Africa is

a forest of sport and profit.In time of war, if a French ship Gold dust and elephants' teeth have fight and take an English ship, and not been more the merchandise of place such English ship and crew unEuropeans, than the African human der French sailors, if such English race!! Africa has been robbed of crew rise in opposition to such French millions of its sons and daughters, to crew, repossess such ship, and cast be made the subjects and slaves of overboard or destroy such French crew, Europeans! This is a monstrosity is it not considered as an act meritohardly to be credited! European rious and praiseworthy? What right governments must have shut their eyes have European nations to interfere to colonial injustice, or this traffic had with Africa, with regard to these vices? ceased to exist long ere now! Spain, Would England be justified in atPortugal, and France have had the tempting to correct the volatility of honour of commencing this merchan- the French, or the inactivity of the dise of blood ; England has followed | Spanish nation? To depopulate Afthe example ; and as if to bring up rica by European nations, and to her lee-way, she has been more deeply make slaves of Africans, merely be. engaged in this traffic than even her cause they exhibit the depravity of predecessors.

human nature,--is a remedy worse than Were this traffic uncommenced,- the disease! Were it a just charge were such a plan now to be proposed against the British nation, that it is to the British government,- I verily arrogant and overbearing, would we believe that the king, lords, and com- take correction kindly from France, mons of Great Britain would, as with Spain, or Russia? would we bow with one voice, spurn such a proposition. submission to the rod ? Sir, I will If it were considered as an act of in-aver, that, according to the civilized justice in European governments to state of European governments, there deprive the planters of the right of | is not one justly held African slave in

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