ARITHMETICS COMPLETE BOOK BY GEORGE MORRIS PHILIPS, LL.D. PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY HARVARD SILVER-BURDETT Two Book Series BOOK ONE Three Book Series BOOK ONE COPYRIGHT, 1913, BY SILVER, BURDETT AND COMPANY. PREFACE This book completes a two-book course in arithmetic. In closely graded schools it will be found best to introduce it in the fifth grade. In ungraded and loosely graded schools it may be introduced whenever the elementary book of this series has been satisfactorily completed or an equivalent amount of work done. Few pupils will need more advanced work in arithmetic than this book offers ; for, although it is intended for grammar grades, nevertheless it is suited to the needs of the many high schools which find a review of arithmetic profitable. The authors believe that in teaching arithmetic nothing can take the place of abundant and constant drill and practice in the intelligent solution of problems. They believe that pupils should be given a large number of simple, practical problems, rather than a few difficult ones. They are convinced that accuracy is the first essential, and then speed: and that while the pupil should be taught the best method of solving a problem, he should understand the how and why of it, instead of foilowing blindly a rule or a model solution. Attention is invited to the following features of the book : 1. The thorough review and extension of Fundamental Processes, Fractions, Decimals, and Denominate Amounts, Odesigned to perfect the work done in the lower grades. H881 iii 2. The abundance of well-graded up-to-date problems based on facts derived first hand from the most reliable sources, and closely associated with the everyday life of the home, the farm, the market, and a variety of other activities. 3. The treatment of such subjects as Parcel Post, Postal Savings Banks, etc. 4. The explanations of illustrative examples, which set forth in correct form the logical steps leading to results, and which are designed to induce correct habits of thought and orderly arrangement of work. 5. The treatment of Negotiable Paper and Banking, in which are found photographic forms of business papers in everyday use and explanations of them in language free from technicalities. 6. The extensive treatment of Mensuration and the method employed of deriving most of the important principles of the subject. 7. The topical arrangement and the numerous reviews. 8. The placing of the less important subjects in a supplement. 9. The omission of subjects and problems which are obsolete, overcomplex, and impracticable. CONTENTS PAGE DEFINITIONS : INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES Reducing Fractions to Higher Terms and to Lower Terms Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms Reducing Integers and Mixed Numbers to Improper Fraction. Reducing Improper Fractions to Whole or Mixed Numbers . Reducing Fractions to a Common Denominator |