« ПредишнаНапред »
dividually, also making several paraphrases from these, and determining which comes nearest to expressing the ideas of the original ; and (3) with still others in which they write the paraphrases at once, without the intervention of the synonym writing. With the reading-book before them, let each now write a paraphrase of some short story, aiming to tell in his own words all it contains.
This can be followed by paraphrases written from memory of a poem or story read; and by oral paraphrases of any portions of any text-book lessons in any branch of study.
Note I. The dictionary should be freely and constantly employed. Instruction in its proper and effective use should be carefully given until all know its various kinds of helpfulness.
NOTE II. Paraphrasing should always precede the memorizing of any piece of writing to be used as the basis of other lessons.
NOTE III. Taking for granted that all common words are understood will be likely to prove an error.
NOTE IV. Paraphrasing, in its various oral and written forms, should be required in all (even in well advanced) classes in English. In the study of Shakespeare, Milton, and other English classics the objective point in paraphrasing should be the expression of the thought in good English prose
LESSONS FROM POEMS.
DICTATE a short, simple, narrative poem
requiring accuracy in copying, punctuation, etc. Call for a metaphrase, after the meaning of the poem has been studied silently; this will show whether the language of the poem is understood. After the poem has been read aloud by one or two of the best readers in the class, the whole (including the author's name) may then be committed to memory.
A careful paraphrase, in which the pupils may supply imagined details, not expressed in, but suggested by, the poem, naturally comes next.
At this point the class may be taught to write a list (1) of the various events, personages, and places in the story; (2) of the heads, or topics, in their order; and (3) of the topics of each stanza, or division of the poem.
After some practice of the kind, show that there must be in every piece of good writing a natural connection and relation of thought; a continuous thread running through the whole composition. When this is clearly seen, attenlion may be paid for some time to tracing out the connections, relations, and interdependencies of the various ideas in the poem under consideration.
With advanced classes this will necessarily lead to the study of grammatical construction; indeed, it may with very young classes, if use be made of the understanding only to determine what each part of the construction tells. Example :
“ Around the fireside at their ease
There sat a group of friends, entranced
With the delicious melodies.” “What does · Around the fireside'tell ?” “ • Around the fireside' tells where they sat." “ What does · At their ease'tell ?” “* At their ease' tells how they sat.” “What does “There' tell?” “There' only begins to tell something." “Sat’tells what a group did.” “Of friends'tells the kind of group," etc.
As a concluding lesson, older pupils may write about the poem, embodying in the paper the results of their study. After several exercises of the kind they may include notice of the vocabulary, figures, etc., and may make a comparison between the poem in question and any other that they have thus studied. They may then write the substance of the poem in dialogue form.
The teacher may now ask: “ Are there any pictures in the poem? Are there any persons described in it? What do you learn from it that is not told in it? What have you learned from it that you did not know before? What has it made you think that you never thought before? Would you have liked it better in prose? Why, or why not? Is there a word in it that you would like to change? ”.
Suitable Short Poems.* "A Fable—The Mountain and the Squirrel.”— Emerson.
“ Abou Ben Adhem.”—Leigh Hunt. “Opportunity.”—Edward R. Sill. “ Lucy."—Wordsworth. “Ozymandias of Egypt.”—Shelley. “ Pictures from Memory.”—Alice Cary. “ The Emperor's Bird's Nest."-Longfellow. “Haroun Al Raschid.”—Longfellow. “The Three Kings.”—Longfellow. “The Sermon of St. Francis.”
Suitable Longer Poemis.t “ The Bell of Atri.”—Longfellow. “ The Norman Baron.”—Longfellow. “The Birds of Killingworth.”—Longfellow. “The Shoemakers.”—Whittier.
* Simpler poems must be selected for very young children. + Not to be committed to memory.
“The Palm Tree.”—Whittier. “John Gilpin.”—Cowper. “Goody Blake and Harry Gill.”—Wordsworth. “Fidelity.”_Wordsworth. “The Fountain.”— Wordsworth. “An Order for a Picture.”—Alice Cary. “ The Closing Scene.”—T. B. Read. “The Cloud.”—Shelley.
“To a Lady with a Guitar.”—Shelley (beginning at “The artist who,” etc.).
“Excelsior.”—Longfellow. “The Village Blacksmith.”—Longfeliow. “ A Parable.”—Lowell. “The Singing Leaves.”—Lowell. “The Falcon of Ser Federigo.”—Longfellow. “ Light and Shade.”—Jean Ingelow. Many poems contained in school readers.
NOTE. Do not use any of these that are likely to be understood with difficulty. If a short explanation does not make the matter clear in any poem chosen, leave it for something else until later.