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Lessons, 67, 72, 47 and 43. Second Reader, Lesson 15, 9, 1, 83, and 75.)
(1.) Lady, winding yarn held by a boy; goes to sleep; another boy looks in ; beckons ; holds up apples; shows fish line and pole, etc. Boy tries to get yarn off ; tangles it ; lady wakes up, etc.
(2.) Mother sewing ; daughter reading ; boy comes in whistling ; tosses hat under table ; pulls girl's hair ; sits on stool and meddles with sewing-basket; upsets it; teases mother for cake in drawer ; gets it, etc., etc.
(3.) Two boys sitting on a fence (backs of chairs, their feet on a board laid across the seats), eating apples and reading the New York Weekly (supplied for the occasion by the teacher). A girl comes along with a book-bag and lunch basket; the boys jump down from the fence, bow, and hide the paper behind them; give the girl apples. The girl has seen the paper; begs for it, and finally gets it; shows by gesture and expression her disapproval; ridicules the pictures; holds it up to tear it, and as if to make the boys promise not to read it ; shows a book with pictures, etc., very interesting, etc.; offers it to them; tears the paper into bits, the boys helping. All go off to school together, the boys carrying the book-bag and lunch basket.
(4.) Boy sitting by table working examples in
arithmetic; can't make them come right; pulls his hair, frowns; rubs out; tries again; grows angry ; slams book and pencil on the table; tilts back in the chair, etc. ; tries again ; pitches the book across the room ; snatches his hat and a base ball bat and runs out of the room. Scene 11.–School, same boy at the black board ; does not know his lesson ; sent to his seat, etc., etc., with any variations that would be probable.
(5.) (For High School and upper grammar grades.) An elementary lesson in Physics and an experiment in Chemistry, both in dumb show, brief and clear.
(6.) (For the same.) A short scene from the “ Merchant of Venice," or “ Julius Cæsar," acted in character without words.
After such lessons in higher grades, the teacher might say: “You may begin a composition with these words: “It was Friday afternoon in the 'Golden River'school. Miss Brown, the teacher, sat at her desk writing in the daily register. The scholars also were all quietly busy, looking over the exercises which they were about to recite. As soon as two o'clock came—' Now you may go on and write a careful account of this afternoon's work."
NOTE. Let every such lesson be an attempt at truth-telling as to happenings, order, etc.
PICTURES. LOR the first exercise under this head, choose T a large engraving of as good a kind as possible, and hang it where it can be seen by the class. Let the introductory lesson consist of seeing and telling what is in the picture, with some attempt at interpreting its meaning, its title being, of course, unknown. If the pupils do not see all or most that is literally represented, by question and suggestion lead them to notice what they have omitted.
Disregarding the original intention of the picture, talk a few minutes about what stories could be “made up" to fit it; then ask for a trial of what can be done in this way, each pupil giving names to the persons, place, etc., represented. Next, call for a literal description of the picture, written in letter form to a friend.
Large photographs of celebrated paintings, historical and mythical, may be used with great advantage; but the invented narrative in this case should be omitted and the account of the real story substituted, from an oral version or reading by the teacher. (See list of subjects, page
130.) Such photographs can be obtained easily, without great expense, from the Soule Photographic Co., 338 Washington Street, Boston, or from any good picture store.
Small good woodcuts from old magazines (Harper's, Century, St. Nicholas, Harper's Weekly, etc.) make good material for separate subjects of this kind for each member of the class. See that the cuts are, first, good, as woodcuts, or as whatever else they are supposed to be, and, second, of suitable subjects. Before these are to be used, select as many pictures as there are pupils in the class, cut them out neatly, without titles, and paste each, by the upper edge only, to a sheet of foolscap paper near the top of the first page, leaving room for a name to be written above. At the lesson-hour distribute these; have each pupil put his name in the space reserved for it and then write a story to suit the picture, with the aim of making it as interesting as possible. Take up the papers at the end of the time and give them out the next day, and every day until finished. The best of these should be read to the class by the writers, but without distinguishing them as the best; or, it inay be better in some classes to call for six or eight in the usual manner.
NOTE I. The same pictures may be used again and again, if care is taken in putting them on the sheets.
Note II. If the teacher has not already found out what pupils are reading unprofitable or harmful books and papers, this exercise will be likely to inform her. Much may be done for individual pupils by means of knowledge so gained.
NOTE III. Some geographies and other illustrated text-books contain pictures, on the cover as well as inside, which may be used in this way.