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low leaves will show similar changes. Put into a jar as above and feed on fresh willow-leaves. Some differences in the metamorphosis will be observed.
Feed two or three silk-worms in the schoolroom, if mulberry or osage orange leaves are to be had near.
NOTE. Let the objective point in this exercise be kept in sight by the teacher; namely, that the pupils are to learn how to record happenings in the actual order of their occurrence. Insist on accuracy.
LOCAL GEOGRAPHY. M APS of the surrounding country, farms, bays, M islands, etc., within the school region, together with accounts of their productions, will make interesting work for most classes. Streams, springs, hills, and mountains, slope of land, watershed, quarries, forests, lakes, ponds (from the standpoint of their importance to the country), their relation to its climate and productiveness, their relative position, size, altitude, etc., are entertaining topics, easily made intelligible even to very young children, and tending, as do most natural history subjects, to cultivate the habit of observing.
With a weathercock, rain-gauge, thermometer and barometer, all or any one of these, interest in many natural phenomena is easily awakened, and various subjects usually considered in the study of Physical Geography are made somewhat familiar to young children, and the way is open to later and broader knowledge.
Pupils may be appointed weekly, in turn, to take charge of the instruments, and to keep at the same time an accurate record of their readings. Observations of clouds, whether high or low, kinds and direction of movement, winds, rain-fall, snow-fall, temperature, etc., are easily made and recorded. Let the pupil who keeps the record of changes and directions of winds take observations at three stated times each day, and particularly at such other times as marked changes occur. He may record these for the benefit of the class, by drawing through a given center a line showing the directions from which and to which the wind blows; thus, ordinarily he will have three lines marked with arrow-heads; when unusual disturbances occur, he may add, in colored chalk, the necessary lines showing these. All of these records, with the dates, should be kept in a book for reference.
The rain-gauge and weathercock can be manufactured by the boys. If the records are accurately kept, instructive comparisons may be made after great storms.
Ambitious teachers, well situated in country schools, with comparatively few pupils, may find it possible to make physical or relief maps in the school-yard, showing thereby river-systems, moun: tain chains, lake-systems, water-sheds, islands, etc., etc. A large, level yard, sand, stones, earth, sod, bits of broken window glass (for bottom of lakes, etc.), blue string (rivers), twigs, clay, etc., etc., answer well for materials. Make railroad maps of broom-straws, cut into lengths, of fine wire, gravel, common pins, etc. Reproducing bits of their own region thus, then telling how they did it, will be less like work than play.
Details concerning vegetable and mineral productions, native animals, domestic animals, curiosities, manufactures, shipping, pleasant places for rambles—in short, the natural resources of any region are the natural materials for pupils to use in gaining knowledge and the power to give it to others in oral or written discourse. No such knowledge can be had without observation investigation, insight; the spur to investigation need not be very sharp when once the way has been pointed out.
CUGGESTIONS: This city, town, village,
county, parish, township, district, or neighborhood was settled when? By whom? Under what circumstances, and for what reasons? How did the earliest settlers live? Who was the most distinguished among them? For what? When did they build churches and school-louses? Why were they obliged to have a jail, or prison? Did they have whisky saloons before they had a prison? Who were their best men? What was the business of their best men? Were any of them distinguished in the late war? Did any of them fall in battle? Who and at what battle? Was there any learned man among them? Is there now living any distinguished person who was one of these settlers ? What kind of schools did they have at first? What kind have they now? How many more people are there here now than at the settlement ? If the place has more people, why has it increased ? If fewer, why? Are the people, at present, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, or mining? Who are its chief public