Графични страници
PDF файл

vated, or, pasture for flocks or herds; grain, wildflowers, grasses, or weeds, and kinds; soil, its color and quality, what adapted for ; bushes or trees, stumps and rocks; fences and gates; color in the different seasons; once forest ? Moist spots or springs, streams; value in money ; value in landscape, whether agreeable or commonplace, or picturesque ; relation to the remainder of the farm ; ill or well-cared for, clear of rubbish ; ditches. Suggestions for improvements.

As part of the preparation for the lesson read froin this list:

“ Field Notes,” E. R. Sill.

“ Home Thoughts from Abroad," Robert Browning.

“ Excursions" (selections), H. D. Thoreau. “ The Excursion,” by Wordsworth (selections). “ Michael,” by Wordsworth.

“Sir Gibbie,” by George Macdonald. . Example 5.--A Woodland :

Suggestions : Extent, direction of greatest length; kinds of trees, mainly; other kinds; undergrowth and varieties; flowers and vines ; flowering trees; mosses and lichens; wild fruits and nuts; pools, streams, or springs; knolls and hollows ; birds, nests, and songs; animals and their homes and food; burrs and thorns ; edible roots, barks, shoots, and buds; insects; aspect in winter, summer, spring, and autumn; probable age; advantage to the neighborhood ; fallen trees and stumps; layers of old leaves ; sprouting plants; fungi; wind among the trees; strange appearance of some trees (as sycamore or buttonball, white walnut, and birch); odors; pleasant nooks; "trees easy to climb”; “fun” to be got out of the forest; natural forest, how planted ? artificial forest, how, when, for what? girth of the largest trees; uses of the forest; fire in the forest.


Longfellow's “ Evangeline ” and “ Hiawatha" (parts).

Emerson's "In My Garden." Thoreau's “Maine Woods." Maurice Thompson's “By-Ways and Bird Notes."

Bryant's “Inscription for an Entrance to a Wood.”

Example 6.-A cañon or gorge :

Suggestions: Extent, length, width, and direction; formation, by water? by what water? depth ; inclination of sides; springs; vegetation ; rocks; picturesqueness; animal life ; historical possibilities as connected with the life of man; temperature as compared with that of open, level land; effect of storms on it; and such other topics as are applicable from the preceding examples.


PHENOMENA OF NATURE. AS this is one of the most difficult kinds of A composition for young children and young people, it should not be attempted until after some facility has been acquired by practice in simpler kinds of writing. Whatever is undertaken should be from personal observation. Many of the more ordinary natural occurrences, as thunder-storms, snow-storms, high winds and the like, may be made subjects of lessons, immediately after they take place. In the introductory conversation, obtain from the class the results of their observation and experience in the rain, or other storm. Ask questions concerning the appearance of trees, people, animals, houses, streets, roads, streams, and forests; about the direction of the wind, the temperature, the size of the drops, the sky and clouds, the distant hills or forests, the flower-gardens and fields.

Suggestion: Snow-storm; storm at sea ; earthquake; flood; land-slide ; eclipse of the sun, of the moon; shower of meteors; foggy day; sprouting of grain, or other seed; changes

1 an acor

of caterpillar; growth of a tree, from an acorn ; freezing of a stream or pond. Example 1.-Seed sprouting :

Tie tightly a round piece of coarse bobinet, or “ wash blonde," over each of two or three plain glass goblets, allowing it to sag in the middle ; fill the glasses with water until it just reaches the sagging net; lay in each, in the water on the net, two or three squash, pumpkin, pea, or any other easily-sprouting, large seeds, and set the glasses in a window, or on a table near one. Add more water as evaporation requires. Soak for a day or two large squash seeds enough for the whole class to have one apiece; show by means of these the seed-leaves, the little germ, and the place where the root will start out. Then tell them to watch the seeds in the glasses, on the net, so that they can tell what happens, when and in what order. If practicable, get drawings of each stage of the growth, and during the time have a little journal kept. Example 2.Nut sprouting :

Fill a clear jar with water two-thirds full ; suspend an acorn, or other large nut (native) by a string over a stick, so that it touches the water. Set in the school-room where the children can see it. Example 3.Transformation of Caterpillar :

Take a branch of dill, parsley, parsnip, or carrot, on which are banded green caterpillars ; select the two largest of these ; put the branch with the insects into a large, clean fruit or other jar, open at the top. Keep unwithered branches and leaves constantly in the jar, removing the caterpillars each time to the fresh branch and throwing out the old. When the insects stop feeding and begin to wander about, allow them to crawl into a clean jar in which are two or three dry sticks set slanting; tie over the mouth of the jar some coarse net, until they settle on the sticks; then take out and set up in a vase or bottle, so that the metamorphosis can be seen. The insects will remain quiet for a short time, then each will spin two threads (one posteriorly, and one around the forward part of the body, by means of which they strap themselves to the sticks), and again remain quiet for a little while. The beginning of the change from caterpillar to chrysalis will be indicated by paleness of the green skin, and a curious wriggling motion ; the change will then take place in a few minutes.

The transformation from the chrysalis to the perfect form will occur in eleven days, in a sunny place; in fourteen, in the shade. Or, if the time of the first change be late in the summer, the third transformation may be delayed until the following spring, as the last brood of this species remains in the chrysalis state through the winter.

Dark, spiny caterpillars found feeding on wil

« ПредишнаНапред »