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II. Paraphrase :
I. A free oral translation of the author's thought into the individual vocabulary; grammatical, to the point, containing nothing more, nothing less, than the original.
2. Synonyms. III. Structure: 1. Comparative length (as in poems like Scott's
“Lay of the Last Minstrel”).
(a) Arrangement and variety.
(6) Origin (very rarely). 2. Special words. (a) Uncommon--in their nature; in their
use. (6) Of peculiar force. (c) Archaic. (d) Obsolete. (e) Of special beauty. (f) Of noticeable origin. (8) Favorite words--much used by the
V. Allusions :
5. Local. VI. Figures :
1. Of syntax (Ellipsis, Asyndeton, etc.)
(2) Exclamation, etc., etc. VII. Melody :
1. Rhythm, etc. 2. Intentional, or instinctive alternation of
vowel sounds—of liquids, etc., etc.
SOME VARIETIES OF EXERCISES.
1. Metaphrases, Paraphrases (See pages 86 and 88).
2. Words and all their Derivatives, simple and compound.
3. Phrases; made from clauses and vice versa ; words from phrases and vice versa.
4. Etymology of words selected from the lesson by the teacher; of words of the pupil's own selection.
5. Grammatical Construction; separation of connected discourse into its component parts, with the function of each part.
6. Expand metaplıors; condense similes; analyze both.
7. Change figurative language to plain-language.
8. Change all the dependent clauses in a piece of connected discourse to participial or other phrases, and vice versa.
9. Determine subjects of paragraphs, stanzas, etc. Make topical analysis of a poem, essay, play or story.
10. Study of connectives and connecting ideas of a piece of writing. • II. Connection, Purpose, and Relation to the whole of selected passages.
12. Change poetical language in a poem to the language of prose, making no change in those portions which are not of themselves poetical.
13. Change a given piece of prose or verse into prose of one-syllabled words.
14. Change the rhyming words in a piece of verse into good synonyms, not rhyming, but preserving the accent.
15. Write iambic pentameter or tetrameter couplets and quatrains, on given subjects.
16. Change bombastic or otherwise faulty newspaper language to good English.
17. Change plain statements (connected discourse) to figurative language.
18. Select beautiful, strong, curious, mimetic, melodious, uneuphonic, harshi, or sonorous words from a given piece of writing, and mention their effect in the connection in which they are found.
19. Give the function of any character in a poem, story, or play.
20. Decide upon the necessity of any scene in a dramatic poem studied.
21. Trace the thread of the plot in each scene of the same.
22. Change direct discourse to indirect and vice versa, and either to dialogue.
23. Write a short composition on a. given subject without using' (a) prepositions, (6) conjunctions, (c) descriptive adjectives, (d) compound tenses, (e) adverbs, (f) superlatives. (Give at six different times.)
24. An original short story to be read to a six-year child.
25. Change to good English prose (a) the speech of — in Shakespeare's —-, Scene, Act—; (6) of - in Spenser's “Faërie Queen"; (c) of - in Chaucer's “Squier's Tale."
26. Write an alphabet of admired passages from (a) Milton; (6) Wordsworth; (c) Tennyson; (d) Shakespeare's comedies; (e) Shakespeare's tragedies; (f) Carlyle's “Hero Worship” and “Sartor Resartus "; (8) Lowell; (h) Hawthorne.
27. Annotate the first twenty lines of (a) “Comus”; (6) “ Lycidas”; (c) “Lady of the Lake”; (d) Keats's “Hyperion"; (e) Shelley's “Skylark";(f.) first—or any selected-paragraph of “Sartor Resartus”; (8) Tennyson's “Princess,” beginning — and ending —–, etc.
28. Write an imaginary conversation with Mr. Longfellow on his “Evangeline,” or with - on his
29. Write a short composition in which all verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs are of Anglo