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special part of the profession with which the long-continued per- one system or another. The beneficial results upon the health of formance of my official duties has afforded me opportunities to be- the populations are universally recognized, and the sanitary blesscome more familiar.
ings and the advantages in point of comfort are beyond all calculaElectrical Engineering.– Of all the forces of nature, the one tion. Wherever additions and changes become necessary in the which has remained a hidden mystery longer than all the rest, but older cities, wise precautions are generally taken, under the advice which of late has distanced all in the rapidity of its development, and direction of professionally skilled experts, to profit by former and which is certainly destined to excel them all in the extended lessons, and to avoid the errors of the past. range of its useful application, - electricity, -- stands pre-eminent. The most extensive enterprises now in progress in connection
In the prosecution of subterranean or subaqueous operations, with water-works extensions are the improvements embracing the such as tunnelling, mining, sinking of caissons, the use of electric new lake tunnels at Chicago and Cleveland, the new Croton Aquelight is found to be of special benefit. In its incandescent form it duct in the city of New York, and the aqueduct extension in Washis absolutely safe against the dangers from explosive gases, and in ington, D.C. In all these cases the question of greater purity has caisson work it removes the risks and inconveniences incident to been carefully considered in connection with the increased supply. the ready and rapid combustion of inflammable substances under The collection and storing of water-supplies for large cities and the influence of high atmospheric pressure.
manufacturing purposes require, in many cases, the construction of Street-Railways and Rapid Transit. — The rapid growth of extensive reservoirs, with massive dams for the retaining of the reour cities gradually forces the inhabitants to seek their homes in serve supply. The importance of constructing these dams of the suburbs and surrounding country, more or less distant from proper shape and size, and of suitable material and good workmanthe business and manufacturing centres where their employment ship, so as to insure their absolute strength, and give them suffilies. The desire for economy of time, and the necessity for punc- cient resisting capacity against every possible contingency, has been tuality and prompt attendance, have led to the introduction of vari- taught by a recent lesson of frightful experience; and while the ous modes of conveyance, beginning with the street-car tramways responsibility for this calamity may not be placed upon the shoulpropelled by horses, followed more recently by elevated railroads ders of the profession, yet it will be well for its members to look and cable-car lines, and still more lately by the electric railroad ; upon it and remember it as a warning and an example. which latter system has, within a few years, developed much more An investigation of the cause of the failure of the South Fork rapidly than any of the preceding methods.
dam is now being made by a committee appointed under a recent At the close of the past year there were completed and in course resolution of this society, who have just returned from a visit to the of construction, in this country, eighty-five electric railways, com- scene of the disaster. prising about 450 miles of track, and the reports show that during Examinations and measurements of the structure and its surthe last year over eighteen millions of passengers have been carried roundings, and extensive information obtained from various sources, over these lines.
will enable the committee to submit to the society in due time a The cheapness of original construction and subsequent main comprehensive statement of the conditions and circumstances tenance and operation commends their adoption in smaller cities, which have induced and contributed to this most disastrous failwhere the older systems would be out of the question ; and the practicability of their application in situations which would exclude Sanitary Engineering. - The extensions and improvements of cable-lines and horse-traction has led to their introduction in the water-supplies of our cities naturally lead to the adoption of places like my own home, Allegheny City, where an electric rail- measures for the disposal of sewage. The respective merits of the way is now in successful operation, which, in a distance of one mile different methods employed for this purpose have been very ably out of a total length of four miles, ascends, with a speed of fully presented to the profession from time to time, in occasional confour miles per hour, a hill over 400 feet high, upon gradients of 124 tributions to our “Transactions,” by several members of this soper cent, with numerous curves of 40 feet radius, the cars being ciety, who stand pre-eminent in their special calling ; so that all often loaded with 75 people. Upon the lower portion of this line that would now seem necessary in an emergency is the exercise of the electric current is supplied by means of an underground current, sound and impartial judgment in the adoption of the proper method and on the upper portion of the line by the ordinary overhead con- for each special case. ductors.
The system most generally used in this country now, and which But while undoubtedly the electric railway will be generally pre- will no doubt be preferred for a long time to come, is that of comferred in the immediate future, it is by no means to be inferred that mon water-carriage by means of the so-called combined" plan the cable-lines are to be considered as the motors of the past. On of discharging all sewage and storm-water together through comthe contrary, their use will not only be continued, but greatly ex- mon outlets into adjacent rivers, lakes, or tidal waters. The obtended, wherever the conditions and circumstances favor their jectionable features of this method consist in the pollution of the adoption. Among the advantages which they possess, are uni- streams and lakes, from which, in turn, the water-supply may have formity of motion, generally satisfactory speed, and the ease with to be drawn; and the injurious effects caused by the deposit and which, in times of heavy travel, the vehicles can be multiplied and periodical exposure of offensive matter upon the shores of tidal combined into convoys; and the facilities which they afford to con- waters. verging horse-car lines, whose carriages they can attach to their In order to overcome, at least partially, these objectionable feaown at the points of junction, saving thereby transfer of the pas- tures, modifications of this method have been tried, consisting in a sengers. The machinery used at the power-houses of some of the filtration and chemical purification of the sewage so as to reduce principal cable-lines is of very superior character, and some of the the offensive portions, and to render their final deposit into the details employed are models of skill and ingenuity. Noteworthy streams of the district comparatively harmless. The methods emamong these are the engines of the Brooklyn Bridge cable-line, ployed for some time at Pullman, III., and more recently at Orange, which many of us admired during the excursion at the time of the N.J., are samples of this system. last annual meeting, and which are very interestingly described n Under the provisions of a law passed by the Legislature of a recent contribution to our “ Transactions " by Mr. Gabriel Lever- Massachusetts in 1886, the State Board of Health is authorized to ich, one of our members, and at one time secretary of this society. investigate, through a commission of experts, the effect of sewage
Elevated railways propelled by steam must necessarily remain discharge upon the streams and inland waters of the Commonconfined to larger cities, where the volume of traffic promises a re- wealth, and to recommend to the courts annually plans in remedy turn for the capital invested in their expensive construction, and of existing evils. Acting upon the reports of this board, several where the distances to be reached are sufficiently great to make the cities are now making preparations for the disposal of their sewage saving of time, by means of their superior speed, an inducement by various methods of purification and dilution. In connection for patronage.
with some of these systems, the fluid portion of the sewage is utilWater-Works. The introduction of water-works is now so ized as a fertilizer of farm-land. extensive in this country that there are but very few cities or towns By the general introduction of natural gas as a domestic fuel in of more than five thousand inhabitants which are not supplied with Pittsburgh and other Western cities, a large amount of kitchengarbage and house-sweepings, which heretofore were regularly to be washed down again into the ditches by the first shower of burned with the solid fuel then in use, can no longer be disposed rain. And this performance is repeated year after year, under the of in that way; and after various unsuccessful attempts to bury provisions of our statutes, and by the consent of a law-abiding them, deposit them in the rivers, and burn them in open air, a num- but much-suffering people. During the spring and fall, we struggle ber of specially designed furnaces were built for the destruction of through the mud manfully as best we can; and when winter comes, these accumulations, to which are now added the offal from and the bottom literally drops out of the roads, we quietly compose slaughter-houses, the leached out bark from tanneries, and all ourselves, and contentedly stay at home. garbage from the public markets. The heat created by the com- Some years ago, while out on an exploring expedition for a railbustion of these waste substances is successfully utilized for gen- road in southern Ohio, I was compelled to hibernate, so to speak, erating steam in boilers attached to the furnaces, which, without with my entire party, for nearly a month, in a lonely village among the addition of any other fuel, except what is required for ignition, the hills of Wills Creek in Noble County; and, when I made an supply the motive power for operating the machinery in adjoining effort to advise my employers of our situation, I was cheered by factories; so that these establishments not only improve the sani- the comforting assurance of the postmaster that my letter would tary condition of the community by the prompt and radical destrac- certainly go out just as soon as the roads dried up. tion of vegetable and animal refuse, otherwise liable to decay on A saint ray of hope, however, is just beginning to dawn in some our hands, but also furnish a cheap fuel-supply for industrial pur- parts of the country, most conspicuously in Ohio, where, under the poses.
provisions of a recent law, a number of free turnpikes are being Streets and Highways. — Nearly all the larger cities of this built, of quite a superior character, by special tax levied upon the country have now passed the experimental stages of their street- adjacent property. paving experiences, and have by this time entered upon a period of The beneficial results of this wise system of improvements are more permanent and substantial improvements in that department very great, and highly appreciated by the people, and it is sincerely of municipal engineering. The days of wooden roadways, the to be hoped that other States will profit by the example. Nicholson, the cedar, and locust blocks, will soon be remembered Canals and Hydraulic Engineering. - The days of ordinary only as things of the past, like plank roads of earlier date. The canal navigation in the interior parts of this country may well be various compounds with which, at one time or another, nearly all considered as numbered with the past. With the exception of the our city streets have been plastered over and poulticed, have Erie Canal, which still maintains to some extent its character as a cracked and split, shrunk, melted, and evaporated, and been carried waterway of commerce, and excepting some parts of the canals in off piecemeal, in course of time, by the persistent adhesion of their eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, and Illinois, ill-flavored mixtures to the boot-heels of the weary pedestrians in these primitive transportation lines have either been abandoned enhot weather. The abominable cobble-stones, which have jarred tirely, after outliving their short period of usefulness, or they are our nerves and dislocated our spinal columns in years gone by, are now merely utilized for carrying bulky products between local finally relegated to the by-streets and back alleys. Such make- points, or for the supply of hydraulic power to manufacturing shifts may answer the purpose for a while in new towns of rapid establishments. growth, where better materials are not readily attainable, and Still more discouraging are the immediate prospects for the variwhere first cost is a paramount consideration; but they should ous maritime canal projects. The Panama Canal, upon which very never be renewed to the extent that has been the case so often, in large sums of money have been expended, has finally been abanspite of the most convincing experience, and contrary to the best doned, after many unsuccessful efforts of its projectors to raise the counsel of professional advisers. The sums of money wasted in funds still required for its completion, and after, as a last resort, repeating these mistakes would in many instances have gone far modifying the original plans of a sea-level canal to one with locks. towards carrying out much more permanent and substantial im- But notwithstanding this momentary failure, I most sincerely hope provements.
- and I honestly believe — that it is yet reserved for American For streets in the vicinity of freight-stations, or of manufacturing engineering skill and American enterprise to resurrect and successestablishments employing heavy teaming, and for streets with fully carry forward this great and important project to its ultimate steep gradients, pavements should be made of stone blocks of completion. basalt, trap-rock, granite, or hard limestone, laid upon a bed of The Tehuantepec Ship Railway, which, for the purpose on hand, broken stone ballast, topped off with sand or fine gravel, well may properly be classed with the maritime canals, has not met rammed, and joints filled with cement grouting or coal-tar; for thus far with the encouragement which its importance and the unstreets used by lighter traffic or carriages only, a well-laid pave- qualified indorsements of eminent professional talent would seem ment of pure asphalt upon a bed of stone ballast answers the pur- to justify. Probably the sad fate of its Panama rival, which places pose very well, if prompt attention is given to the maintenance and it for the present out of the range of active competition, may assist necessary repairs ; for parks and suburban pleasure-drives, a good in reviving the ship-railway project to which our lamented fellowmacadamized road, well drained, and constantly kept in condition, member, the late Capt. Eads, devoted his energies during the last affords a very superior and comfortable highway,
years of his useful life. Of late years, pavements of hard burnt fire-clay brick have been New interest is being manifested in the old ship-canal project extensively laid in many cities and towns of the Middle States, across the Isthmus of Nicaragua, which, in the matter of demonwhere the supply of this material is very abundant and remarkably strable feasibility, undoubtedly has many points in its favor. cheap. In some towns of West Virginia and eastern Ohio such Among other ship-canal projects in active progress may be pavements have been laid for less than a dollar per square yard. mentioned the Cape Cod Canal, which was commenced in 1880, They make smooth roadways, are easily kept clean, and last very and which will, when completed, connect the Bay of Cape Cod, by well under moderately heavy traffic. This pavement is especially way of Herring River, with the head of Buzzard Bay in Massawell adapted for cities of medium size, which cannot well afford more chusetts. expensive kinds, and yet require something more substantial and The magnificent success of the ship-canal at Sault Ste. Marie, not durable than either asphalt or macadam.
only as an engineering project but also as a commercial enterprise, But if there is one thing which needs reformation more than any has surpassed all expectations; and since its completion the traffic other, it is the condition of our common country roads. If it is upon the northern lakes has been multiplied to such an extent that true that the highways of a people are a measure of their civiliza- it has been found necessary to build an additional canal and a new tion, then we cannot complain if we are classed as an inferior type lock of larger dimensions even than the one now in use. The of low barbarians. The good nature with which we submit to the direct impulse given by the completion of this canal to the lake imposition of the annual road-tax is only equalled by the sublime navigation, and the indirect effect upon the general business of that resignation with which we accept the result of the effort which region of country, have stimulated the work on the hydraulic canal swallowed up our money. Our Western members all know what at Sault Ste. Marie, from which great results are expected ; and they is meant by "working the roads.” It means to plough a furrow have also hastened the operations in progress for deepening and on each side, and scrape the mud into a ridge in the middle, simply widening the channels through the shallow parts of Hay Lake,
whereby the route from Lake Hyron to Lake Superior will be considerably shortened and generally improved.
A project is now being agitated, contemplating a direct connection between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan across the narrow portion of the peninsula between Marquette and Escanaba, whereby the passage through the Sault Ste. Marie would be entirely avoided, and much distance saved for the traffic between Lakes Superior and Michigan.
In the extension of the river-walls in New York harbor, under the Department of Docks, large concrete blocks are being used, weighing from 60 to 75 tons, and requiring hoisting-machinery of extraordinary size and power to place them in position. Similar blocks are being placed in the walls along the lake-front in Chicago, where they have been found to resist effectually the action of the waves in places where all former methods of protection have failed.
Railroads. — Sixty years ago railroads were unknown in this country. At that time the population of the United States consisted of 12,000,000 people. To-day we operate 160,000 miles of railroad, and our population has increased to 60,000,000 people. In 1830 the aggregate wealth of the United States was less than $1,000,000,000 : at present it is estimated at $ 56,000,000,000. Just how much of this phenomenal prosperity may be due to the railroads, it is, of course, impossible to conjecture; but it may be safely assumed that they have very largely contributed to the result. While the population has increased during the last fifty years about 350 per cent, the ratio of increase of the railroad mileage for the same period has been nearly four times that of the population, which would seem to indicate that they have not only supplied a want of the past, but have kept well up with the contemporaneous growth of the country, if they have not, indeed, advanced beyond its actual necessities. The railroad mileage of the United States is now fully one-half that of the total railroad mileage upon this globe, while our population is only about one-twenty fourth part. and our area of territory only about one-twentieth part, of that of the inhabited world.
You have all heard the familiar illustration about girdling the equator a dozen times, more or less, with our railroad-tracks; but it will no doubt please you to know, that, since you heard the statement last, enough additional rail has been laid to give the equator another twist; and I might further supplement the illustration by the assurance that we have now a sufficient supply of materials in the tracks of this country to build a railroad to the moon. Over these 160,000 miles of railroad we carried last year 475,000,000 people, and transported 600,000,000 tons of freight. Upon these lines are engaged 1,000,000 employees. Their equipment consists of 30,000 locomotives, 21,000 passenger-cars, 7,000 baggagecars, and 1,000,000 freight-cars. The capital invested in their construction and equipment amounts to $8,000,000,000, and the yearly disbursements for labor and supplies exceed $600,000,000.
The creation of these vast properties has been accomplished by aggregation rather than by preconcerted systematic development. The trunk lines of the present day are to a great extent composed of pieces of road originally built by local enterprises, and absorbed from time to time by lease or purchase, to constitute with other acquisitions, in connection with some specially constructed connecting links, the various systems under the management and control of the leading railroad companies of the country.
The recent revival of the temporarily abandoned Hudson River Tunnel project, and the proposed tunnel under the river at Detroit, are enterprises demanded by the necessity of continuous transportation lines for the through traffic of our railroads.
The numerous accidents which happen at points where public highways cross the railroads at grade, in spite of alarm-bells, watchmen, and safety-gates, have led to the enactment of laws in some of the Eastern States looking towards a gradual abandonment of existing crossings and the absolute prohibition of new ones in the future. During the years 1887 and 1888 there were abolished in Connecticut 93 grade-crossings, at a cost of $625,000. In Massachusetts a special committee of the Legislature has recently reported upon this subject, recommending that all dividend-paying roads eliminate annually 5 per cent, and all non-dividend-paying roads 24 per cent, of their grade-crossings at the joint expense of the railroads and communities, and that in future no grade-cross
ings shall be permitted. It is to be hoped that the beneficial results of these wise measures will induce other States to take this subject under serious consideration.
The most noteworthy engineering feature in connection with the general progress of railroad construction in this country is the building of bridge structures upon a constantly increasing scale. In 1862 I triangulated the positions and laid the foundations for the piers of the channel span of the Ohio River bridge at Steubenville. This was the first iron railroad-bridge over any of the navigable tributaries of the Mississippi River. The length of its channel span was 320 feet, and it was the longest iron truss ever attempted up to that time. It was designed by Mr. J. H. Linville, still a member of this society; and it has carried in safety, and without accident, the traffic of one of the principal Western connecting lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad for twenty-five years, and is now being replaced by Mr. Henry G. Morse, also a member of this society, giving way to a double-track structure. TOday twelve railroad-bridges span the Ohio River between Pittsburgh and Cairo, and two more are in progress of construction. There are fourteen railroad-bridges over the Mississippi, and fifteen over the Missouri. Many of these structures have spans of 500 feet, and one of the projected bridges over the lower Mississippi was designed with a span of 730 feet; but this plan, I understand, has been abandoned, and a cantilever structure adopted in its place.
The erection of these large bridges has become a special business in this country, and the leading contractors engaged in that pursuit have acquired wonderful skill in the performance of this dangerous and difficult work. Few people appreciate the risks and hardships encountered, and the courage and judgment required, in dismantling an old railroad-bridge and erecting a new one in its place, with a deep and rapid river running underneath, a strong wind blowing, and a hundred trains passing daily over the frail, temporary supports, which must carry the traffic during the replacement. The mere erection entirely new structures, free from the encumbrance of moving traffic, is considered an easy job.
In October last, the contractors engaged in the erection of the bridge at Cairo swung free and clear a 520-foot span in six days, and in November last the same parties erected the trusses of another span of 520 feet length in 44 hours, and more recently they erected a 400-foot span in 31 hours, the wind blowing a gale nearly all the time.
The successful completion during the past year of the Hudson River cantilever bridge at Poughkeepsie reflects great credit upon the builders and engineers in charge ; and the equally successful completion and skilfully conducted erection of the Hawkesbury Bridge in New South Wales adds new fame to the same firm of contractors, whose leading partners are all prominent members of this society.
Whether the limit of possibilities in bridge construction will be reached in the execution of Mr. Gustav Lindenthal's design of a railroad suspension-bridge over the Hudson River, with a span of 2,800 feet, resting upon towers 500 feet high, and carrying, in addition to wagon-ways and foot-walks, six railroad-tracks, at a height of 150 feet above water; or whether the projected crossing of the British Channel will require still larger dimensions, are problems which may perhaps interest at some future day the younger members of this society.
NOTES AND NEWS. ACCORDING to an ancient superstition, says Garden and Forest, the beech is never struck by lightning ; and so general has been this belief, that a gentleman recently thought it worth while to write to an English journal that he had been told of a lightningshattered beech in Ireland. Beliefs of this sort are rarely without some degree of justification in fact, and it would be interesting to know whether in this country the beech has been observed to possess any greater immunity from electrical dangers than trees of other sorts.
The Gardeners' Chronicle says that the gingko is proving itself one of the best trees for street-planting in smoky cities, thriving in the most impure atmospheres, and having as yet been attacked
by no insect or fungus disease. In this country, according to Gar. indicated in each ocean square has also been changed slightly. Inden and Forest, no extensive use has been made of the gingko as stead of representing a north-east wind, for instance, by an arrow a street tree except in Washington, where of course it is not sub- pointing away from the centre of the square at the south-west point jected to the test of an atmosphere impregnated with smoke. If it of the compass, it is now represented by an arrow pointing toward is, indeed, able to withstand the most unfavorable conditions, it the centre at the north-east point of the compass. This is remight be more generally adopted; for it grows rapidly, its shape garded as more graphic than the old method, the point of each well adapts it for association with architectural forms, and the arrow giving, at a glance, the true direction of the wind (the point peculiar character of its foliage always makes it interesting to the from which it blows). popular eye.
- The Brooklyn Academy of Science, a society incorporated - The true eating banana, or “madura,” is said to be unknown Aug. 22, 1888, has opened a free reading-room in their rooms in in northern countries, the varieties we import being simply those Warner Institute, Willoughby Avenue and Broadway, in that city. which are used in the land of their growth for cooking-purposes. The various scientific journals will be upon the tables, and there is Garden and Forest states that many varieties of the madura are no charge to the public. Donations of papers will be greatly aprecognized, each of which is distinct in flavor. The smaller are preciated. the more delicious; and the smallest of all, the so-called “lady
A boiler may be inspected to-day and found to be safe under finger banana,” with a skin hardly thicker than paper, is the most
a working pressure of one hundred, and be weakened to.night by highly prized. Green cooking-bananas are peeled, and roasted in
low water so as to be dangerous to-morrow with fifty pounds pressthe ashes, and eaten with butter; partially ripe ones are boiled for Yet, as the Age of Steel says, it may explode a month hence a few minutes with the skin on, and eaten with sirup or honey; and with sixty pounds pressure and plenty of water, but the cause is as ripe ones are sliced lengthwise, and fried in olive oil or butter.
certainly low water as if it had exploded when the water was low. - It will be new to some Americans, even though they know
There is but one sure remedy, and it is a simple one. Put on a that peaches are commonly cultivated under glass in England, to
real safeguard, something simple, which has been tried, and proven be told that cherries are also grown in this manner. A correspond
to be trustworthy. ent of the Gardeners' Chronicle recently described the cherry- According to the British Medical Journal, the programme house at Gunnersbury Park, where many different varieties afford of the Leeds meeting of the British Medical Association in August fruit at different times during the season. When the trees are next * is developing in such manner to afford the ample started into growth," he says, a temperature of 45° by day, and promise of a meeting of great scientific as well as social interest, 40° by night, is maintained. When they are in flower, plenty of and one which will be worthy of the traditions of this great medical air is given, and the bees are encouraged to work among the blos- centre." soms as much as possible. Scarcely any fire-heat is employed : in
The sacred lotus (Nelumbium speciosum) has become estabdeed, it had been employed only once or twice in order to keep out
lished in a pond in New Jersey, and proves hardy, although the frost. At the time of powering, plenty of ventilation is given, top surface of the water is frozen over during the winter. The history and bottom. As soon as the fruit has set, the house is closed up
of its planting, by E. D. Sturtevant, is given in Garden and Forest somewhat, and the temperature kept quite cool until the stoning
for April 10, with a fine photo-engraving of the spot, showing hunprocess is over; then it is kept a little closer, as when the fruit has
dreds of open flowers. stoned it ripens quickly. It is a little difficult to thin out the fruit previous to the stoning stage, as it is uncertain which fruit will There seems to be every prospect, according to Engineering, mature, and which fail. A good watering is given to the trees he- that the efforts made by the French engineers to entertain the fore they get into flower, and then water is applied with modera- American party of engineers will be very successful. It is intended tion until the fruit has set. Cherries appear to do best, and set that an hour and a half or two hours should be spent in Calais to their fruit more freely, when somewhat dry at the roots, whether
examine the new harbor-works there; and the special train which the trees are planted out or in pots, and it appears to be quite cer
the Northern Railway of France has so liberally placed at their tain that all flower more freely when worked on the mahaleb than disposal will make a détour and stop near St. Omer, to give the when on the cherry stock.”
engineers an opportunity of inspecting the great hydraulic canal
lifts. On the day after their arrival in Paris nothing official will be - The following interesting report to the United States Hydro
done, but on the following morning a formal reception will be held graphic Office from the American steamer “ Indiana," Capt. W. I.
at the offices of the French Society of Civil Engineers.
The party Boggs, seems to indicate a normal condition of the Gulf Stream in
will then breakfast with M. Eiffel on the first story of the tower, the regions and during the times stated : “From noon of May 22
and will afterwards ascend to the top in detachments. A part of (latitude 40° 20' north, longitude 60° 8' west) to noon, May 23
this day will also be spent in an organized visit to the exhibition. (latitude 40° 46' north, longitude 54° 29' west), experienced a cur- The Ville de Paris has made arrangements for an excursion through rent setting N. 68° E., drist 16.4 knots. The temperature of sea
the Paris sewers, and further visits to the exhibition and elsewhere was noted every two hours : maximum temperature, 72° ; mini
will be paid. One of the most interesting of the latter will be the mum temperature, 60° ; mean temperature, 66°. From noon of
compressed-air installations of the Popp Company. Altogether, May 24 (latitude 41° 15' north, longitude 49° 3' west) to noon, May
though the Paris programme is not yet complete, it is certain to be 25 (latitude 43° 49' north, longitude 43° 47 west), current set N.
a very full, hospitable, and attractive one. 51° E., drift 23 knots. The temperature of sea was noted every
– The Engineering and Mining Journal says, “ It will be retwo hours (and during hours of darkness every half-hour): maximum, 64°; minimum, 54°; mean, 62° ; twenty-four observations be
membered that some enterprising associated press agent startled ing taken." It is interesting to note, in this connection, that during
the country a few weeks ago by announcing that the Standard Oil the above period, and for fully a week previous, no general storms
Company had wired from the Media works to Philadelphia for two
hundred bull-dogs, which news item the telegraph editors and occurred in the regions referred to. On the contrary, the winds were variable in force and direction, seldom reaching a force of 6
“ home correspondents' of some of the metropolitan dailies ingen(Beaufort's scale).
iously enlarged into a small-sized sensation, lasting a day or two,
until it was discovered that the • bull.dogs' wanted were merely Attention is called to certain changes that have been adopted harmless listing-jacks of a particular style. As an example of how on the “ Atlantic Pilot Chart " for July, which, it is thought, will so much remarkable literature is floated, observe the following jucommend themselves to all who have occasion to use it. The most dicial and editorial comment of one of our technical exchanges in important of these is the enlargement of the area represented, the its issue of June 22, at which late date it does not seem to have yet eastern limit being now 10° east longitude (instead of 4°, as here- 'caught on :' *The Standard Oil Company has, however, introtolore). This allows the whole of the North Sea to be shown, duced a new style of watchman, which we think will be efficient. more of the Mediterranean than before, and the entire Gulf of The company has suffered a good deal by tramps and loafers getGuinea. The system by means of which the prevailing winds are ting too near its tanks and smoking, and thus setting fire to the gas
generated by the oil, which ignites easily; and it has now given an countries are represented. Several of those nationalities are beorder to a dog-fancier's association for two hundred bull-dogs, ginning to put themselves forward as appreciable factors in the to range in age from six months to a year, the price to be fifteen politics of the world, and, what is of more interest to the manufacdollars each. The dogs are to be placed where the company has turer, they constitute the richest and largest customers in European distributing-stations, and used in the field to guard the large iron and North American markets. Especially this is the case with retanks that are full of oil. The bull-dog watchman certainly has gard to agricultural machinery of all kinds, and those exhibiters this merit over the average biped private watchman, that he neither are fortunate who are well represented in this respect. smokes, drinks, nor goes to sleep on watch.'”
- Mr. Henry William Bristow, F.R.S., died on Friday, June 14, - We learn from Nature that the Russian Academy of Sciences at the age of seventy-two. In 1842, according to Nature, he was offers a prize of $2,500 for the best inquiry into the nature and appointed a member of the staff of the Geological Survey of the effects of the poison which develops in cured fish. The objects of United Kingdom. Mr. Bristow published various works on competitors must be : " (1) To determine, by means of exact ex- mineralogy and geology, and was the author of the mineralogiperiments, the physical and chemical nature of the poison which cal articles in Brande's “ Dictionary of Science, Literature, and develops in fish; (2) to study, by experiments on animals, its action Art," and of articles on minerals and rocks in Ure's “ Dicupon the heart, the circulation of the blood, the organs of diges- tionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines.” He became a fellow tion, and the nervous system ; (3) to determine the rapidity of its of the Geological Society in 1843, and of the Royal Society in 1862, absorption by the digestive organs; and (4) to study and describe and an honorary fellow of King's College, London, in 1863. He the characteristics which may serve to distinguish contaminated received the diploma of the Imperial Geological Institute of Vienna, fish from such as are not contaminated." The fifth and sixth and from the King of Italy the diploma and insignia of an officer of questions, with which it may be impossible for any one to deal the Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus. satisfactorily, relate to the means of preserving fish from the de
In reference to the destructive volcanic eruption on the Island velopment of the poison, and to the question of counter-poisons and the medical treatment of poisoned persons. The competition
of Oshima (better known to the Western world as Vries Island), it is open to all. The memoirs must be sent in, either in manuscript
seems that the first news of it was brought to Yokohama by the or printed, before Jan. 1, 1893, and may be written in any one of
master of a passing steamer, who described the mountain Miharaithe following languages: Russian, Latin, French, English, Ger
zan as being in fiercely active eruption on the morning of April 13. man. If none of the papers is deemed worthy of the fuil prize, the
The eruption was of such a nature that it attracted attention on
board the steamer at a great distance. Afterwards it was asceraccumulated interest upon the above-named sum may be handed
tained that the outbreak was at the western base of the mountain. over to the author who presents the best solution of some part of the problem.
From this it would appear that a new crater has been formed, as
the old crater is at the top of the mountain, though there is a place – Arrangements have been made for a daily exchange of tele- to the south-west whence smoke is always issuing from the sands. graphic weather reports between Washington and Havana during The Japan Weekly Mail, from which this information is taken, the present hurricane season. Early and reliable information can gives the following historical account of this remarkable volcanic be obtained at any branch hydrographic office.
island. Miharaizan, according to the oldest Japanese historical - The forecast of weather on the Atlantic for July by the United
records, was an active volcano so far back as 684 A.D., but the States Hydrographic Office is that generally fair weather will pre
earliest authentic notice of its activity appears to have been taken vail. Occasional moderate gales, frequently accompanied by elec
in 1421, when the sea boiled, and the fish died in shoals. In 1684 tric phenomena, will be felt north of the 40th parallel ; and West
an eruption commenced which lasted seven years; and in 1703 Indian hurricanes are apt to occur, especially during the latter
there was a great earthquake and tidal wave, and part of the island part of the month. Frequent fogs may be expected over the Grand
broke down, and formed the present harbor. In 1777 the mounBanks, along the northern coast of the United States, and in the
tain was in active eruption, and the island was covered several
inches deep with ashes, such phenomena being almost constantly neighborhood of the British Isles. Icebergs are liable to be encountered in the vicinity of the Grand Banks, between the 46th and
repeated from that date till 1792. It was then quiet till 1837, and 53d meridians, as far south as latitude 42° 30' north. Field-ice
more or less in action for the following twenty years. Another should be looked out for to the eastward and southward of New.
lull then took place, when, in 1868, it again broke out, and con
tinued foundland and off the coast of Cape Breton Island.
action four days. The next eruption occurred in 1876,
and lasted nearly two months. The most destructive eruptions of - On July 22 an electric exhibition will open at St. John, N.B., Miharaizan were probably those of 1781 and 1789, as during the to last ten days. This is in honor of the opening of the Cana- latter the village of Shimotaka was entirely destroyed, and the dian Pacific Railway to St. John.
people and their houses were completely buried in ashes. There – The Canadian Pacific Railway, in spite of its northerly latitude,
are at present six villages on the island, containing a population of seems to have overcome the snow difficulty. The total detentions
five thousand persons, mostly fishermen. during the past winter from this cause were only seven hours, the Maria Mitchell, the well-known astronomer, until recently snowsheds and split and glance fences protecting the line in a very professor of astronomy at Vassar, died June 28 at Lynn, Mass. perfect manner, though some very heavy avalanches fell in the Miss Mitchell was born in Nantucket in 1818, and inherited her Selkirks.
love of astronomy from her father, a bank cashier who made a - People may walk until they are fatigued through the almost
hobby of astronomical investigations. It was one of Miss Mitchell's
ambitions to discover a telescopic comet, an ambition that was endless buildings on the Champ de Mars, and yet fail to find any great and striking object by which they would especially remem
satisfied in 1847. For this discovery a medal was presented to her ber the exhibition of 1889. The place is filled with evidences of
by the King of Denmark, although, doubting the reality of her
discovery for a time, Miss Mitchell had delayed publishing it, untiring industry and skill on every side, but there is a strange absence of great novelties. We believe, however, that the exhibi
a delay which came near losing her the honor, as European tion will be famous for four distinctive features, in the first place,
astronomers had found the same comet, and made earlier pubfor its buildings, especially the Eiffel Tower and the Machinery
lication. It was through the earnest presentation of her case by
Edward Everett that the medal reached this famous woman asHall; in the second place, for its Colonial Exhibition, which for
tronomer. the first time brings vividly to the appreciation of Frenchmen that they are masters of lands beyond the sea; third, it will be remem- - Theodore Dwight Woolsey, president of Yale College from bered for its great collection of war material, the most absorbing 1846 to 1871, died July 1. He was born in New York, Oct. 31, subject nowadays, unfortunately, to governments, if not to individ- 1801. Besides his Greek text-books, published early in his career, uals; and, fourth, it will be remembered, and with good cause by his sermons and essays, President Woolsey wrote the well-known many, for the extraordinary manner in which South American “ Treatise on International Law.”