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Johns Hopkins University, 200; appointments, 58, Oysters, pearl, 145.
Smoke formation, 283.
Snake venom, 281.
Snow on Canadian Pacific Railway, 9.
Sorbonne, new buildings of, 133.
Paris as a seaport, 197; exposition, 9; exposition Sparrowe, feeding of, 113.
Specific gravity of air, :66.
Spectre, Brocken, 2:1.
Speed of trains, 409.
Peabody's Thermodynamics of the Steam Engine, 'Spelling reform, 241.
Spencer, Herbert, Autobiography of, 234.
Pedagogics atine Uuiversity of Pennsylvania, 26. Stalactite cave, 421.
Stanley, 370, 371.
Petroleum in Netherlands-India, 405; of Burmab, Staten Island Science Association, 35.
368; origin of, 228.
Steamers on the Pacific, 333.
Steam-pipe covering, 250.
Steel, temnering, 180.
Sling of jelly fieb, 214, 390
Photograpbic chart of the heavens, 57; congress, 42. Stomach acids, 401; brush, 365,
Photography, celestial, 299; in the summer of 1889, Storms, convectional currents ir, 123.
91; modern, 218.
Students in Germany, 368.
Sugar in Persia, 62; manufacture of, 199; produc-
tion, 143, 202; of Java, 235.
Suicides in France, 199; increasa of, 131.
Sulphuric-acid transportation, 166.
Suuset glowe, 137.
Sunshine recorder, 404.
Poison in cured fish, 9.
Surgeon, a centenariap, 233.
Surveys of India, 2:6.
Population of Australia, 56; of Switzerland, 198; of
the United States, 114, 241, 297, 315; in the United Tea, Paraguay, 180.
States, law of, 188.
Teein, care of, 384,
Telegraph, flash, 179.
Telephone on railways, 287; the pulsion, 431.
Telephones and elec circuits, 181.
Telescope, Bruce photographie, 10.
Temperature at great heights, 386.
Temperatures at a distance, 295.
Therapeutics, suggestive, 296.
Prizes, Loubat, 131: of New South Wales Royal Soci- Thermometric bureau of Yale, 113.
ety, 129; of Foyal Danish Academy, 149.
Thompson's " Evolution of Sound " Evolved, 424.
Thunder-storm propagation, 76.
Thunder-storms, tel-phonic prediction of, 273.
Thursion's Developmeut of the Philosophy of the
Psychical Research, Proceedings of the Society for, Tillman's Elementary Lessons in Heat, 270.
Part XIV., 318.
Tobacco and insanity, 264; French and German,
Tone interval sensibility, 348.
Toronto meeting of tbe American Association, 166.
Torpedo-boat, the Halpine, 291.
Trade of Constantinople, 282.
Tree ringe, 112; roots and branches, 403.
gor, 1: Kongo, 279; motor, Sprague electric, 35; elid- largest, in Great Britain, 25.
lug, 179; Weems Electric, 20, 112.
Tuberculosis, congress for, 213.
Rallways in China, 333; in Europe, 57; in the United Tuberculous meat, 177.
Tunnel under the Hudson, 166.
Typhoid-fever, 232; weight of the body in, 203.
Typhus bacilli, 129.
Universities of Australia, 112; of Germany, 196.
Richards's Manual of Machine Construction, 186. University extension, 180; of Jena, 195; ot Tokio, 112.
Rivers of Russia, 196.
Vaccination in Japan, 201; on the leg, 365.
Vegetable pomenclature, 283.
Ventilation from caves, 335, 395.
Vibration in buildinge, 404.
Vignoleg's Life of Charles Blacker Vignoles, 63.
Vloes, diseases of, in France, 198.
Viper swallows its young, 267.
Vision, experiments lu crystal, 313; indirect, 149.
Voice igures, 366; human, growing or decaying, 33.
Volcanic eruption on Osbima, 9.
Salmon, young, 386.
| Walkers Electricity in our Homes and Workshops,
Wallace's Darwinism, 204.
Warren's Mechanics, Part I., 119.
Water analysis, 282; spout off the Bahamas, 315;
spraying, 111; supply of Paris, 56, 436.
Waters of the Great Salt Lake, 444; softening of hard,
Schools, attendance at German technical, 265; in New Waves, height of, 178.
Jersey, 59; technical, in Russia, 181.
Weather prediction by photography, 43; reports
from Havana, 9; review. Pennsylvania, 241.
Weeds, destruction of, 150.
Weir's Our Cats and all about Them, 270.
Weismann's Essays upon Heredity, 237.
Welding rails, 166.
Whales as dangers to navigation, 166; under water,
Sewage disinfection, 281; precipitation, 203; purlii- | Wheat rust, 148, 405; smut, 369.
White-lead process. 299.
Wbitham's Steam Engine Design, 119.
Wilson's The State, 338.
Wind, velocity of, on Eiffel Tower, 402.
Silk, artificial, 109; danger lu, 281; exhibition, 215; 1n Wines, California, 42; in France, 59.
Woolsey, T. D., death of, 9.
World's fair, 28, 78, 96, 114, 132, 146, 150, 182, 218, 252,
268, 300, 370.
Wright's Ice Age in North America, 118.
Sinners, the breeding of, 232.
Yellow-fever inoculation, 435; Dr. Sternberg on, 235.
Skulls of Germans, 333.
Zoologists' Congresa, 316.
A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. SEVENTH YEAR. 8637
SINGLE COPIES, TEN CENTS. VOL. XIV. No. 335 NEW YORK, JULY 5. 1889
$3.50 PER YEAR, IN ADVANCE.
THE THOMSON-HOUSTON ROAD IN BANGOR, ME.
THE accompanying cuts illustrate the new electric railway which has been put in at Bangor, Me. One of the cuts shows the car on Main Street Hill, opposite the Opera House, a grade of 7 per cent ; and the other, the car in West Market Square, the very heart of the city. The road at Bangor is three miles in length, single track, with three turnouts, and contains many sharp curves and grades, the most severe of which is a curve of 35 feet radius, which occurs on a grade of 7 per cent. There is one stretch of the road, about
The power-plant consists of one 80-horse-power ThomsonHouston generator, with the necessary station-fittings, which is driven by a 14 by 13 Armington & Sims engine, running at a speed of 250 revolutions per minute. This is the only tramway which has ever been constructed in Bangor, and it has, from the very start, given the utmost satisfaction, but one schedule trip being missed since the day of starting, May 21. The travel has been very heavy, averaging 1,600 passengers per day, and on one day 3,000 were carried by three cars. The success of the road has been such, that extensions have been asked for in many parts of
three-fourths of a mile in length, which has five curves and an the city, and it is probable that before long the equipment will be average gradient of 5 per cent. No difficulty, however, is experi- greatly increased. enced here, and the cars climb these grades with a scarcely perceptible diminution of speed. The nature of the overhead work
THE USE OF OIL ABOARD UNITED STATES NAVAL necessitated by these can readily be seen from the accompanying
VESSELS. map, on which the situation of the road is indicated by a heavy
MANY hundreds of reports have been published on the “ AtlanThere are four 16-foot cars, made by the Newburyport Car tic Pilot Chart," and elsewhere, relative to the great benefits deManufacturing Company, which are handsomely finished, and rived by means of the use of oil to prevent heavy seas from breakequipped with two 15-horse-power Thomson Houston motors. ing on board vessels. By far the greater number of these reports Three cars are in operation from 6 A.M. till 11.30 P.M., the fourth have been received from merchant vessels, very many of which being held in reserve for special occasions.
have undoubtedly been saved, with all on board, by the use of a
few gallons of oil in the manner recommended by the United States from coming on board. Oil was used a part of two days, while Hydrographic Office. The following reports from United States hove to. naval vessels show that even aboard men-of-war, with their com- Finally, the "Yantic,” Commander C. H. Rockwell, U.S.N., enplete equipment and large crews, the use of oil is regarded as of countered a terrific hurricane, May 21, in latitude 38° 35' north, the greatest value :
longitude 68° 30' west. While on her beam ends, with heavy sea Commander W. C. Wise, U.S.N., commanding the “Juniata," sweeping over her, “ oil in large quantities was thrown overboard on passage from Hong-Kong to Singapore, used oil on three oc- from the weather bow, and even in that terrible scene its effect casions during a typhoon in the China Sea, Sept. 28 and 29, 1888. was immediately apparent." "Oil was used, and marked effect shown in lessening amount of water coming on board. . . . A bag containing oil was towed from
A HISTORY OF HABITATIONS. the weather bow, and decreased the violence of the seas to a marked degree."
The French have always exhibited a fondness for the study of On April 4 and 5, 1889, the " Swatara,” Commander John Mc- comparative architecture, and have made themselves masters of a Gowan, U.S.N., was in a hurricane in latitude 41° south, longitude peculiarly interesting portion of art history in which other peoples go west. On the previous day the wind had veered from west- have scarcely made more than beginnings. For some years the south-west to north-west, and then to north-north-east. From 9 story of the evolution of the dwelling has been known chiefly P.M. to 4 A.M. it blew with a force of 11, and the wind shifted to through“ The Story of a House,” by M. Viollet-le-Duc, which has
west, kicking up an ugly confused sea. The ship had been hove been the most accessible, if not the only, work of its kind extant. to on the port tack early in the morning, with oil-bags over at the In the Paris Exhibition of 1878, one of the most interesting feafore and mizzen chains. Their effect was such that not a drop of tures was the “Street of Nations," which was lined with typical water came on board. April 5, scudding with the wind about two specimens of architecture of all lands, and was unquestionably the points on the starboard quarter and an oil-bag towing at the star- most complete exhibition of comparative architecture that had been board fore-chains, “the angry-looking crests simply disappeared, made up to that time. The present exhibition, however, has, leaving one to wonder what had become of them." Again, on the thanks to the rare skill and energy of M. Charles Garnier and a 8th, “ Blowing a living gale of wind, force 11, having backed from body of enthusiastic assistants, an exhibition of comparative archinorth-west to north-north-west. Hove to, and put oil-bags over tecture that is by far the most elaborate yet attempted. A series of from fore and mizzen chains, with excellent results. The sea was thirty-two edifices have been erected on the Quai d'Orsay, representexceedingly heavy, and the ship rolled deeply; and although con- ing the evolution of the dwelling, from the earliest form of a rude siderable water came on board, yet not once did a sea break over breakwind and cave, to the completed residence of the Renaissance. the rail. The angry, towering crests of the huge waves disappeared It is an unfortunate fact that much of the material for such a display as if by magic."
exists only in a fragmentary or much-scattered form. The dwellLieut. C. F. Norton, U.S.N., of the “ Kearsarge,” reports that in ings of antiquity are known to us chiefly by meagre descriptions, the storm of the 6th, 7th, and 8th of April, off Hatteras, they used rough, sketchy carvings in the sculptures, and other data that are oil with good effect, pouring it through the forward water-closet. quite as apt to mislead as to indicate the right direction. Yet M. At first, olive-oil was used, which did fairly well; but later they Garnier has not been content to accept mere hearsay, nor even to used lard-oil, and that gave perfect satisfaction, keeping the water adopt the results of the imagination, but, on the contrary, has availed himself of all possible authorities, and as the result has prepared a series of dwellings, which, if not authentic in all their details, are still sufficiently correct to be accepted as the best obtainable, and which are certainly nearer the originals than has been reached by any previous attempts. In designing these edifices, the idea has been to exhibit the actual dwellings of the masses of the people rather than to represent the palaces of the rich and the powerful; and the rule has also been laid down, to represent the most ancient form, where there has been any great deviation in styles, because the more modern variations are more familiar, and have been more frequently reproduced. Both these limitations, admirable in themselves, have added to the difficulty of the task M. Garnier laid out for himself; for the houses of the rich are more frequently described by ancient writers than those of the poor, and
Gauls, Greeks, and Romans. In 395 A.D. the Roman Empire was divided, and the two parts exhibit distinct features of architectural types. In the West the Roman civilization was overthrown by several invasions, all resulting in distinct architectural types. These were the Huns, the Germans and Franks, and, last in point of date, the Scandinavians. After Europe had passed through the convulsions caused by these inroads, we have the civilizations of the Romanesque period, the middle ages, and the Renaissance. In the East other events were shaping the destinies of humanity. The Roman civilization lasted here some ten centuries ; but it soon lost its earlier characteristics, and developed into the Byzantine. This was further developed in the Byzantine architecture of the Slavs and the Russians, while the Mohammedan invasions of the Arabs and the Turks soon destroyed its distinctive character. All
the descriptions of the more ancient forms are necessarily less these developments have been admirably summarized by M. Garreadily interpreted than those near at hand.
nier in the “Guide Historique” of M. Ammann, to the exhibition of M. Garnier has divided habitations into two great classes, dwellings. those of prehistoric time, and those of historic. The former period The structures begin with a simple breakwind. Then man found begins with the appearance of man upon the earth, and comes that the shelter of the caves was more durable, and finally a rude down to the time when nations, properly so called, were formed, · hut was attempted. Then begins the long series of artificial and history begins. The historic period includes two subdivis- houses. There is a rude hut supposed to be contemporary with sons: the first relating to those peoples who have contributed to the dolmens. A lake-village, modelled after those of Switzerland, the advancement of civilization ; and the second including those is the most elaborate portion of this group, and corresponds to the who, while leaving characteristic monuments, have stood, as it age of bronze. The age of iron is represented by a hut modelled were, on one side, and not influenced the general growth of cul- after a terra-cotta model found at Lake Albino, near Rome. Then 'ture. The models at Paris are arranged in three great groups un- come the dwellings of historical times, beginning with an Egyptian der these general heads; but, apart from this classification, there house. This is designed in the style the monuments have familiaris another, which, while not especially observable in the arrange- ized us with. A corridor opens into apartments on either side ; ments of the edifices themselves, is of the highest historical im- and the building, which is two stories high, is surmounted by an portance. The historic period includes, first, early or primitive open balcony. The dwellings of the Assyrians were built on too civilizations, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Phænician, Hebrew, great a scale to permit them to be reproduced as a whole, so M. Pelagic, and Etruscan; and, second, the civilizations arising from Garnier has contented himself with a portion of one only. Two the Aryan invasions, including the Indians, Persians, Germans, types are represented, — one a tent taken from a bas-relief pre
served in the British Museum, and the other a part of a palace. It from Africa, and an Indian hut from North America. The collecwas not possible to secure an authentic representation of a Phe- tion is closed by houses from ancient Mexico and Peru. nician house, although the suggestions and opinions of the most
BARR FERREE. competent critics have been followed. The result is therefore not much more than a high probability, but as such it possesses great
NOTABLE DERELICTS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC. interest. The dwelling has a stone base, with the upper part of wood, ornamented with long slender columns, and with a balcony Of the many wrecks afloat in the North Atlantic Ocean, none above.
has as interesting a history as the Italian bark “ Vincenzo PerLike the Assyrians, the Hebrews have two kinds of dwellings, – , rotta." Abandoned Sept. 18, 1887, this vessel has been repreone a tent, modelled after a carving in an Egyptian tomb dating sented graphically on every edition of the “ Atlantic Pilot Chart" from before the time of Moses ; and the other a stone house, with published since that time. Her wonderful drift began in about a flat terraced roof. Here, also, there is want of authentic mate- latitude 36° north, longitude 54° west ; and on April 4, 1889, when rial, and the result cannot be regarded as more than approximate. last reported, she was about 60 miles north of Watling's Island, in The Pelagic hut is a simple one of large stones, while the Etruscan the Bahamas. She had thus made good a distance of about 1,400 residence consists of a stone basement taken from an ancient terra- miles in a general south-west by west direction in one year six cotta model, and an upper portion of wood, with an open-roofed months and sixteen days. She has been reported twenty-seven balcony, which is consessedly the personal fancy of the architect. times in all, and when last seen had mizzenmast and about ten feet The result, however, may be regarded as near the actual truth as of mainmast standing, foremast gone, end of jibboom broken off, our present knowledge permits.
and port anchor on bow. This completes the first series, and we come to those peoples On Nov. 26, :888, the schooner “Ethel M. Davis " was capsized whose civilization has been affected by the Aryan invasions. First in a hurricane, in latitude 35° 4' north, longitude 70° 52' west. is the Hindoo house, a tall, narrow affair, built after a bas-relief
Her crew was rescued after having been adrift four days. The from the top of Sanchi, though the architect has availed himself of schooner eventually righted, and began a long voyage, unguided, the criticisms of Mr. Fergusson. The Persian house comes next. in the general direction of the Gulf Stream. She was last seen It is in two parts,
one closed, intended for the women; the June 8, 1889, in latitude 42° 36' north, longitude 57° 38' west, and other, with a dome of enamelled brick, is the public part, and in- at that time had about three feet freeboard in waist, forecastle and tended for the master himself and his friends. It is designed after
poop well above water. Her poop-house is painted white, and information furnished by M. Dieulafoy. Then comes a German shows out well; mainmast gone, bowsprit and ten feet of foremast village, - rude wooden cabins, with an elevated structure on poles, standing; general drift, about 900 miles north-east by east ; time, which serves as a sort of observatory. Close to this is the Gaul
six months eighteen days; number of times reported, fifteen. house, - a circular hut of wood, stone, and beaten earth. The for- The same hurricane that wrecked the “ Ethel M. Davis " also mer is taken from the bas-reliefs of the column of Trajan, while brought disaster to the schooner “ David W. Hunt." This vessel the latter is taken from a host of authorities that render it probably was abandoned Nov. 25, 1888, in latitude 34° 30' north, longitude exact. A Greek house of simple construction comes next.
72° 30' west. She was last reported May 26, 1889, in latitude 45° jection at one side serves to accommodate strangers. The walls 30' north, longitude 41° 30' west, at which time she had her bowhave, among other inscriptions, the name of the proprietor, “Hera
sprit and jibboom complete, stumps of two masts broken off about cles habite ici; que rien de mauvais n'y entre." The Roman fifteen feet from deck; general drift, east-north-east about 2,000 house, which comes next, is an exact reproduction of a Pom- miles; time, six months ; number of times reported, twenty-two. peiian villa. The plan and details of this edifice have been pre- The schooner “ Palatka” bids fair to rival the above vessels in pared with the greatest care.
point of interest. She was abandoned April 10, 1889, off Hatteras, A new element in civilization is now introduced by the invasions
and was last reported June 4, 1889, in latitude 43° 20' north, longiof the barbarians. The first represented are the Huns, who lived tude 56° 34' west. She was then water-logged and on fire, stern in a wagon, and had no regular dwelling. A Gallic-Roman house
high out of water, no masts standing. Like the “ Ethel M. Davis of the filth century follows, and is built of fragments of other and David W. Hunt," she is right in the highway of the great buildings, which gives it a very peculiar appearance. The Scandi- bulk of transatlantic commerce, and a serious menace to naviganavian house dates from the fourteenth century, and is of wood, tion. In one month and twenty-five days she has made good a with a granite foundation. It has been designed after the sugges- distance of about 1,200 miles, on a general north-east by east course; tions of the Swedish architect Boberg, who has made a special number of times reported, twenty-one. study of early Scandinavian dwellings. Three other buildings The above four derelicts were all timber-laden, and this accounts bring us almost to our own times. These are, first, a Romanesque largely for their great tenacity and buoyancy, at the same time house of the time of the successors of Charlemagne (tenth century); rendering their destruction no easy matter. Commander C. H. second, one of the middle ages (twelfth century), and contemporary Rockwell, U.S.N., of the United States steamship Yantic,” rewith St. Louis; and the third, a specimen of the civil architecture cently engaged in blowing up wrecks, says, “ From the experience of the Renaissance, a reproduction of a sixteenth-century house at thus far gained in the work, I am convinced that lumber-laden Orleans.
derelicts are very tenacious, and can only be overcome by repeated Four other examples complete the list of the civilizations con- blows from explosives of great power. These continued will untributing to the general culture of humanity. These are a Syrian doubtedly do the work.” (Byzantine) house of the time of Justinian (sixth century), which is an exact copy of one restored and drawn by the Marquis de Vogüé.
PROGRESS OF ENGINEERING.1 It is of stone, as wood was scarce in that part of Syria. A Slavic house, almost a primitive affair, comes next, and is close to the The provision of the By-Laws of this society which requires Russian house of the fifteenth century. This latter is in two parts, that its president shall deliver, at the annual convention, an adone for men, and one for women, - with an external staircase.
dress upon the progress of engineering during the preceding year, No material for an authentic dwelling of this period was to be has been observed by my predecessors in various ways. While had, but the edifice possesses characteristic features. An Arab some of the former presidents have confined themselves strictly to house of the eleventh century carries us into an entirely different the constitutional provision, by general reviews of the professional civilization. The building is not a representation of any standing progress and scientific advancement of the period, others have edifice, but is a combination of authentic elements. Lastly comes dwelt more in detail upon some specific subjects of particular ina Soudanese dwelling, which, though comparatively modern, is, by terest at the time. I trust I may be permitted, in this instance, to reason of its very strangeness, one of the most interesting of the give you first a cursory glance of the field at large, and then conentire collection. This brings us to the third section of the series, fine myself more particularly to a review of the progress in that those illustrating isolated civilizations. There are houses of China
1 Address of Max J. Becker, president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and Japan, huts of the Eskimo and Laplanders, a negro village delivered at the annual convention of the society at Seabright, N.J., June 20.