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Jabour be not effectually done at once, it must be done in a fucceffion , of time.
In the intervale land on Connecticut river, wheat often yields forty, and sometimes fifty bushels to the acre ;
but in common upland, if it produce twenty bushels, it is reckoned profitable, though it often falls short of that. Indian corn will sometimes average thirty or forty, but it is to be observed that this latter grain does not produce so largely, nor is the grain so heavy on new as on the old lands well cultivated. This, however, is owing much to the lateness of the season in which it is planted; if planted as early on the newly burnt land as on the old, it will be nearly as good. Of all grains, winter rye thrives best on new lands, and Indian corn or barley on the old. Barley does not succeed well in the new land, nor is flax raised with any advantage, until the land has been cultivated for some years. The fame may be said of oats and peas, but all kinds of esculent roots are much larger and sweeter in the virgin soil than in
The mode of clearing and cultivating new lands has been much improved within the last thirty years. Forty years ago it was thought impossible to raise Indian corn without the plough and the hoe. The mode of planting it among the burnt logs, was practi. fed with great success at Gilmantown, about the year 1762, and this easy method of cultivating soon becaine universal in the new plantations. It is now accounted more profitable for a young man to go upon new, than to remain on the old lands. In the early part of life
, every day's labour employed in fubduing the wilderness, lays a foundation for future profit: besides the mode of subduing new Jand, there has been no improvement made in the art of husbandry, The season of vegetation is short, and is almost wholly employed in preparing, planting, and tilling the land, in cutting and housing fodder, and gathering in the crops. These labours succeed invariably, and must be attended to in their proper season; so that little time can be spared for experiments, if the people in general were dispofed to make them. Indeed, fo sudden is the fucceffion of labours, that
upon any irregularity in the weather, they run into one another, and, if help be scarce, one cannot be completed before the other suffers for want of being done. Thus hay is often spoiled for want of being cut in season, when the harvest is plentiful. It is partly from this cause, partly from the ideas of EQUALITY with which the minds of husbandmen are early impressed, and partly M2
from a want of education, that no spirit of improvement is feer among thein, but every one puriues the business of fowing, plant, ing, mowing, and raising cattle, with unreinitting labour and unde. yiating uniformity.
Very litt'e ufu is made of any manure except barn dung, though marl may be had in many places, with or without digging. The mixing of different ft ata is never attended to, though nature often gives the hint by the rain bringing down fand from a hill on a clay bottom, and the grass growing there in greater beauty and luxuriance than elsewhere. Dung is seldom suffered to remain in heap over the summer, but is taken every spring from the barn, and either spread over the field and ploughed in, or laid in heaps, and put into the holes where corn and potatoes are planted.
Gardens in the country towns are chiefly left to the management of women, the men contenting themselves with fencing and dig. ging them; and it must be laid, to the honour of the female sex, that the scanty portion of earth committed to their care, is often made productive of no small benefit to thcir families.
As the first inhabitants of New Hampshire çame chiefly from the south-western counties of England, where cyder, and perry were made in great quantities, they took care to fock their plantations with apple trees and pear trees, which throve well, and grew to a great size. The first growth is now decayed or perished, but a succession has been preserved, and no good husbandman thinks his farm com plete without an orchard. Perry is still made in the old towns, bor: dering on Pascataqua river, but in the interior country the apple tree is chiefly cultivated. In many of the townships which have been settled since the conquest of Canada, young orchards bear well, and cyder is yearly becoming more plentiful,
Other fruits are not much cultivated; but from the specimens which some gardens produce, there is no doubt but that the cherry, the mulberry, the plum, and the quince, might be multiplied to any degree. The peach does not thrive well, the trees being very fhortlived. The apricot is scarcely known. The white and red currant grow luxuriantly, if properly fituated and cultivated. The barberry, though an exotic, is thoroughly naturalized, and grows spontaneously in hedges or pastures.
It has often been in this State a subject of complaint, that grain, Hax and esculent vegetables, degenerate. This may be afcribed to the feed not being changed, but fown successively on the fame soil
or in the fame neighbourhood, for too long a time. “ The Siberian wheat for several years produced good crops; but becoming at length naturalized to the climate, it shared the fate of the common kind of wheat, and disappointed the expectations of the farmer, Were the feed renewed every five or fix years, by importations from Siberia, it might be cultivated to advantage.” It must be observed, that the Siberian wheat which was fown in New Hampshire, about twelve years ago, was carried from England, where it had been fown for several preceding years. Whether an intermediate stage is favourable to the transplantation of feed from north to south, and the success of its cultivation, may be worthy of inquiry. With respect to plants, which require the whole season to grow in, it is obferved, that the removal of them from south to north, ought to be by short stages ; in which case they accommodate themselves by infenfible degrees to the temperature and length of the vegetațing term, and frequently acquire as good a degree of perfection in foreign climes as in their native foil. Such are the resources of nagure !"
Agriculture is, and always will be, the chief business of the people of New Hampshire, if they attend to their true interest. Every tree which is cut down in the forest, opens to the sun a new spot of earth, which, with cultivation, will produce food for man and beast. It is impossible to conceive what quantities may be produced of beef, pork, mutton, poultry, wheat, rye, Indian corn, barley, pulse, butter and cheese, articles which will always find a market. Flax and hemp may also be cultivated to great advantage, especially on the intervale lands of the large rivers. The barley of New-England is much efteemed in the middle States, and the demand for it is so great, as to cácourage its cultivation ; it is, besides, a kind of grain which is not liable to blast. Hops will grow on almost any foil, and the labour attending them is fo inconsiderable, that there can be no excuse for neglecting the univeșsal cultivation of thein. The consumption of them, and consequently the demand for them as an article of commerce, is continually increasing.
The first neat cattle imported from Europe into New-Hampshire, pere sent by Captain John Mason and his associates, about the year 1633, to stock their plantations, and to be employed in drawing lum. þer. These cattle were of a large breed, and a yellow colour, procuped from Denmark. Whilft the business of getting lumber was the chief employment of the people, the breeding of large cattle was more attended to than it is now. Calves were allowed to run with the cows, and fuck at their pleasure. Men were ambitious to be distinguished by the fize and strength of their oxen. Bets were frequently Jaid on the exertions of their strength, and the prize was contended for as earnestly as the laurel at the Olympic games. This ardour is not yet wholly extinguished in some places; but as husbandry hath gained ground, lefs attention is paid to the strength, and more to the fatness of cattle for the market, and calves are deprived of part of their natural food, for the advantage of making butter and cheese.
As the country becomes more and more cleared, pasture for cattle increases, and the number is continually multiplied. From the upper parts of New-Hampshire, great herds of fat cattle are driven to the Bofton market, whence the beef is exported fresh to NovaScotia, and falted to the West and East-Indies.
At what time and by whom the horse was first imported, does not appear. No particular care is taken by the people in general to improve the breed of this majestic and useful aniinal, and bring it to that perfection of which it is capable. The raising of colts is not accounted a profitable part of husbandry, as the horse is but little ufed for draught, and his flesh is of no value. The proportion of horses to neat cattle is not more than one to twenty. Few livé and die on the plantations where they are bred; some are exported to the Weft-India islands, but the most are continually shifted from one owner to another, by means of a set of contemptible wretches called horse-jockies.
Affes have been lately introduced into the country. The raising of mules deserves encouragement, as the exportation of them to the Weft-Indies is more profitable than that of horses, and they may be
ufed to advantage in travelling or carrying burthens in the rough and mountainous parts of the wilderness.
Sheep, goats, and swine, were at first sent over from England, by the affociates of Laconia. Sheep have greatly multiplied, and are accounted the most profitable stock which can be raised on a farm. The breed might be renewed and improved by importing from Barbary, the mufiton, which is faid to be the parent stock of the European, and consequently of the American sheep. Goats are not much propagated, chiefly because it is difficult to confine them in pastures. Swine are very prolific, and scarcely a family is without them. Den ring the funmer, they are either fed on the waste of the dairy and kitchen, or ringed and turned into fields of clover, or permitted to run at large in the woods, where they pick up nuts and acorns, or grub the roots of fern; but after harvest they are shut up, and fatted on Indian corn. The pork of New-England is not inferior to any in the world.
Domestic poultry of all kinds are raised in great plenty and perfe&tion in New Hampshire. In some of the lower towns they have a large breed of dunghill fowls, which were exported from England about twenty years past; but this breed is permitted to mix with the common fort, by which means it will, in time, degenerate. The
ock of all domestic animals ought frequently to be changed, if it is the wish to preserve them unimpaired, or restore them to their ori. ginal perfection.
CAVERNS, STONES, FOSSILS, AND MINERALS. Among the many rocky mountains and precipices, fome openings appear, which are generally supposed to be the haunts of bears and Tattle-suakes, and are rather objects of dread than of curiosity. A particular description of one of these caverns in the township of Chester, by Peter French, an ingenious young gentleman, deceased, shall be given in his own words.
6 At about five miles distance from Chester meeting-house, and very near the road leading to Concord, is an eminence called RattleInake Hill. Its base is nearly circular, and about half a mile in diameter. It is very rugged, especially on the southern fide, where it is almost perpendicular, and its summit frowns tremendous, about four hundred feet high. In this side, at the height of ten yards, is an aperture in the rocks, of about five feet high, and twenty inches broad, which is the entrance to what is called the Devil's Den, concerning which, many frightful stories are told, to increase the terrors of the evening, among the children of the neighbouring villages; and, indeed, I have observed the eyes of men atsume a peculiar brightness, while recounting the imaginary dangers which they had there fortunately escaped.
"This entrance is about fix feet long, it then contracts its height to two feet and a half, and displays its breadth horizontally on the right, fifteen feet, where it is irregularly lost among the contiguous rocks. This form of the cavity continues about ten feet, when 3