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known to fall in such abundance that the earth, by measurement, has received fix, five inches on a level, in the short space of four hours. *
The quantity of water which falls in rain and snow, one year with another, amounts to from twenty-four to thirty-fix inches. + In the northern parts of this district the snow falls in larger quantities, lies longer, and the cold is more steady and intense, by many degrees, than in the southern ; hence the climate of the former is more agreeable in winter, and that of the latter in summer. The more weather is generally in the month of July; but intensely warm days are often felt in May, June, Auguft
, and beptember. Dr. Rittenhouse fays, that during his residence in the country, in the State of Pennsylvania, he never had passed a summer without discovering frost in every month in the year, except July. The greatest degree of heat upon record in Philadelphia, in 1789, was 90°. The standard temperature of air in Philadelphia is 521 degrees, which is the temperature of their deepest wells, and the mean heat of their common spring water. There are seldum more than four months in the year in which the weather is agreeable without a fire; in winter, the winds generally come from the north-west in fair, and from the north-east in wet weather. The north-west winds are un commonly dry as well as cold.
The climate on the west fide of the Allegany mountains differs materially from that on the east fide, in the temperature of the air, and the effects of the wind upon the weather, and in the quantity of rain and snow which fall every year. The fouth-wesi winds on the west side of the mountain are accompanied by cold and rain. The temperature of the air is seldom so cold or so hot, by several de grees, as on the east side of the mountain.
On the whole, it appears that the climate of this division of the United States is a compound of most of the climates in the world-it has the moisture of Ireland in the spring--the heat of Africa in summer--the temperature of Italy in June-the sky of Egypt in au, tumn-the snow and cold of Norway, and the ice of Holland in winter-the tempefts, in a certain degree, of the West-Indies in every season and the variable winds and weather of Great-Britain in every month of the year.
From this account of the climate of this district, it is easy to ascer. tain what degrees of health, and what diseafes prevail. As the inha
bitants have the climates, so they have the acute diseases of all the countries that have been mentioned. Although it might be fupposed, that with such changes and varieties in the weather, there, would be connected epidemical diseases and an unwholsome climate, yệt, on the whole, it is found in this district to be as healthy. as any part of the United States. *
The colony of New-York was settled by the Dutch, who named it the New-Netherlands. Charles II. refolved upon its conquest in 1664, and in March granted to his brother the Duke of York, the region extending from the western banks of Connecticut to the eastern shore of the Delaware, together with Long Island, conferring on him the civil and military powers of government. Colonel Nichols was sent with four frigates and three hundred foldiers to effect the business. The Dutch governor being unable to make resistance, the New-Netherlands submitted to the English crown in September, without any other change than of rulers. Few of the Dutch removed : and Nichols inftantly entered upon the exercise of his power, as deputy-governor of the Duke of York, the proprietary.
In July 1673, the Dutch re-possessed themselves of the province, by attacking it suddenly when in a defenceless state. By the peace in February following it was restored. The validity of the grant, while the Dutch were in quiet poffeffion, having been questioned, the Duke of York thought it prudent to obtain a new one the following June; and Edmund Andros having been appointed governor, the Dutch resigned their authority to him in October. Thus was NewYork regained; but the inhabitants were again enslaved to the will of the conqueror; for being admitted to no share in the legislature, they were iubject to laws to which they had never assented.
"To be relieved from a fervitude that had degraded the colony, and now gave
diflatisfaction to every one, the council, the court of alsizes, and the corporation of New York, concurred in foliciting the Duke 66 to permit the people to participate in the legislative power."
* The foregoing remarks are grounded on the authorities of Dr, Rush and Dr. Mitchil, who have published the result of their inquiries in Mr. Carey's Museum, vels. 6th and 7th.
The Duke, though strongly prejudiced against democratic aflemblies, yet, in expectation that the inhabitants would agree to raise money to discharge the public debts, and to settle fuch a fund for the future as might be sufficient for the maintenance of the government and garrison, informed the lieutenant-governor, in 1692, that “he intended to establish the fame frame of governinent as the other plantations enjoyed, particularly in the choofing of an affembly.”
Mr. Dongan was appointed governor in September, and instructed to call an affembly, to consist of a council of ten, and of a house of representatives, chofen by the freeholders, of the number of eighteen members. The ailembly was empowered to make laws for the people, agreeable to the general jurisprudence of the state of England, which should be of no force, however, without the ratification of the proprietary. “ Thus the inhabitants of New-York, after being ruled almost twenty years at the will of the Duke's deputies, were first admitted to participate in the legislative power.”
An affembly was called on governor Dongan's arrival, which palsed an act of general naturalization, in order to give equal privileges to the various kinds of people then inhabiting the province; together with an act ! declaring the liberties of the people ;” as also one "for defraying the requisite charges of government for a limited tiine.” The legislature was convened once more in August 1684, when it explained the last act. These seem to have been the only assemblies called prior to the revolution.
When the Duke became King of England, he refused to confirm that grant of privileges to which as Duke he had agreed. He established a real tyranny, and reduced New-York once more to the deplorable condition of a conquered province.
NEW JERSEY. New-Jersey, which was also taken from the Dutch (who were confidered as having no right to any of their settlements in these parts of America) was included in the grant to the Duke of York. The Duke disposed of it to Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, in 1664, who being sole proprietors, for the better settlement of it agreed upon certain constitutions of government, so well relished, that the eastern parts were foon considerably peopled. One of the ftipulations was, “no qualified person, at any time, shall be any ways molested, punished, disquieted, or called into question, for any difference in opinion or practice in matters of religious concernments,
who does not actually disturb the civil peace of the province ; but all and every such person and persons may, from time to time, and at all times, freely and fully have and enjoy his and their judgments and consciences, in matters of religion, they behaving themfelves peaceably and quietly, and not using this liberty to licentiousness, nor to the civil injury or outward disturbance of others; “ any law, ita, tute, or clause contained, or to be contained, usage or custom of the realm of England, to the contrary thereaf in any wise notwith, Itanding.'*
The lords proprietors further agreed, " for the better fecurity of all the inhabitants in the province--that they are not to impose, NOR SUFTER TO BE IMPOSED, any tax, custom, subsidy, tallage, assessment, or any other duty whatsoever, upon any colour or pretence, upon the said province and inhabitants thereof, other than what shall be imposed by the authority and consent of the General Assembly.”+ What can more strongly express the then opinion of Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, as to the parliament's having no right to tax the inhabitants of the province, poffessed by them as lords pros prietors !
Lord Berkley sold his moiety of the province to John Fenwick, iq trust for Edward Byllinge and his assigns in 1674. After which the proprietors, E. Byllinge, William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas, and Edmond Warner, of the Quaker perfuafion, agreed with Sir George Carteret upon a division, 1676; and that hủs moiety should be called New Eaft-Jersey, and their's New Weft-Jersey. The agree, ment respecting the not imposing or suffering to be imposed any tax, &c. was adopted; the other ftipulation is worded fomewhat differently; "no men, nor number of men upon earth, hath power or authority to rule over men's consciences in religious mat ters; therefore it is consented, agreed and ordained, that no person or persons whatsoever within the province, at any time or times hereafter, fhall be any ways, upon any pretence whatsoever, called in question, or in the least punished or hurt, either in person, estate, or privilege, for the sake of his opinion, judgment, faith, or worShip towards God, in inatters of religion ; but that all and every such person and persons may, from time to time, and at all times, freely and fully have and enjoy his and their judgments, and the exercise of their consciences, in matters of religious worship, throughout all the
* Smith's History of New-Jersey, p. 513.
+ Ibid. p. 517.
province."* It was also agreed, “that all elections be not determined by the common and confused way of cries and voices, but by putting balls into balloting boxes, to be provided for that purpose, for the prevention of all partiality, and whereby every man may freely choose according to his own judgment and honest intention.”+
Soon after, many Quakers resorted to West-Jersey from England, and the country filled apace. But the people early experienced the dreadful effects of arbitrary power. Major Andros, the governor of New-York, imposed ten per cent. on all goods imported at the HoarKill, I and demanded five per cent of the settlers at arrival or afterward, though neither Weft-Jersey, nor the Hoar-Kill, was legally under his jurisdiction. They complained of the hardship from the first, but bore it patiently, till about 1680, when application was made to the Duke of York, who referred the matter to the council, where it rested for a considerable time, and then was reported in their favour, and the duty ordered to be discontinued. Among the arguments used by Messrs. William Penn, George Hutchinson and others, chiefly, if not all quakers, in the paper prefented to the Duke's commissioners, were these, “powers of governo ment are expressly granted in the conveyance Lord Berkley made us, for that only could have induced us to buy it; and the reason is plain, because to all prudent men, the government of any place is more inviting than the soil; for what is good land without good laws ? the better the worse. And if we could not assure people of an easy and free, and safe government, both with respect to their spiritual and worldly property, that is, an uninterrupted liberty of conscience, and an inviolable possession of their civil rights and freedoms, by a just and wise government, a mere wilderness would be no encouragement ; for it were a madness to leave a free, good, and improved country, to plant in a wilderness, and there adventure many thousands of pounds, to give an absolute title to another person to tax us at will and pleasure. Natural right and human prudence oppose. such doctrine all the world over, as says, “ that people, free by law, and under their prince at home, are at his mercy in the plantations abroad.” The king's grant to the Duke of York is plainly reftric. tive to the laws and government of England. Now, we humbly con
* Smith, p. 528, 529.
of Ibid. 535. I Corrupted by time into Whore-Kill. The names of many rivers, in NewYork government particularly, terminate with kill, which means bolla river and rivulet.