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stated sessions annually, viz. on the Tuesdays of the weeks preceding the stated sessions of the General Assembly. '

The county court is a court of chancery, empowered to hear and determine cases in equity, where the matter in demand does not exceed one hundred pounds. The superior court has cognisance of all cases where the demand exceeds that fum. Error may be brought from the county to the superior court, and from the superior court to the supreme court of errors, on judgment in cases of equity as well as of law.

The General Assembly only have power to grant pardons and reprievesto grant commissions of bankruptcy—or protect the persons and estates of unfortunate debtors.

The common law of England, so far as it is applicable to this country, is considered as the common law of this state. The report of adjudication in the courts of king's bench, common pleas, and chancery, are read in the courts of this State as authorities ; yet the judges do not consider them as conclusively binding, unless founded on solid reasons which will apply in this State, or fanctioned by concurrent adjudications of their own courts.

The feudal system of defcents was never adopted in this State. All the real estate of intestates is divided equally among the children, males and females, except that the eldest son has a double portion.

And all estates given in tail must be given to some person then in being, or to their immediate issue, and shall become fee simple estates to the issue of the first donee in tail. The widow of an inteftate is entitled to a third part of the personal estate for ever, and to her dower, or third part of the houses and lands belonging to the intestate at the time of his death, during her life.

PRACTICE OF LAW. The practice of law in this State has more fimplicity, but less precifion, than in England. Affiftants and judges are empowered to issue writs through the State, and justices through their respective counties. In these writs the substance of the complaints, or the declarations must be contained, and if neither of the parties thew good reason for delay, the causes are heard and determined the same term to which the writs are recurnable. Few of the fictions of law, so common in the English practice, are known in this State. The plaintiff always has his election to attach or summon the defendant. Attornies are adınitted and qualified by the county courts. Previous

to their admission to the bar, they must study two years with a prac. tifing attorney in the State, if they have had a college education, and three years if they have not ; their morals must be good, and their characters unblemished, and they must sustain an examination by the attornies of the court of the county where they are admitted, and be by them recommended to the court. When admitted to the county court, they can practise, without other qualifications, in any court in the State. There are, upon an average, about fifteen attornies to cach county, one hundred and twenty in the State; a very great proportion for the real exigencies of the people. Yet from the litigious spirit of the citizens, the moft of them find employment and support. There is no attorney-general, but there is one attorney to the State in

each county.

MODE OF LEVYING TAXES. All freeholders in this State are required by law to give in lists of their rateable estate, such as horfes, horned cattle, cultivated and uncultivated land, houses, shipping, all forts of riding-carriages, clocks and watches, filver plate, money at intereft, &c. and of their polls, including all males between fixteen and seventy years of age, unless exempted by law, to persons appointed in the respective towns to receive them, on or before the 20th of August annually. Thele are valued according to law, arranged in proper order, and sent to the General Affembly annually in May.

The sum total of the list of the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of Connecticut, as brought in to the General Assembly in May 1787, was as follows :

£. Sum total of the fingle list

1,484,901 6 4 Aflefsments

47,790 9 One quarter of the four-folds

1,176 9 4

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Total 5.1,533,867 18 58

Having thus taken a general view of the New-England States, we cannot help obferving, that present appearances warrant us in concluding that industry and happiness are in a very great degree blended in them, that they offer every encouragement for the former, and furnish every thing necessary to promote the latter in a virtuous mind. In these States, the principles of liberty are universally under stood, felt, and acted upon, as much by the fimple as the wise, the weak as the strong. Their deep-rooted and inveterate habit of think ing is, that all men are equal in their rights, that it is impossible to make them otherwise; and this being their undisturbed belief, they have no conception bow any map in his senses can entertain any other. This point once settled, every thing is settled. Many operations which in Europe have been considered as incredible tales or dangerous experiments, are but the infallible consequences of this principle. The first of these operations is the bufiness of election, which, with the people of New-England, is carried on with as much gravity as their daily labour. There is no jealousy on the occasion, nothing lucrarive in office; any man in society may attain to any place in the government, and may exercise its functions. They believe that there is nothing more difficult in the management of the affairs of a nation, than the affairs of a family ; that it only requires more hands. They believe that it is the juggle of keeping up impositions to blind the eyes of the vulgar, that constitutes the intricacy of state. Banish the mysticism of inequality, and you banish almost all the evils attendant on human nature.

The people being habituated to the election of all kinds of officers, the magnitude of the office makes no difficulty in the case. Every officer is chosen with as little commotion as a churchwarden. There is a public service to be performed, and the people say who shall do it. The servant feels honoured with the confidence reposed in him, and generally expresses his gratitude by a faithful per. formance.

Another of these operations is making every citizen a soldier, and every soldier a citizen; not only permitting every man to arm, but obliging hini to arm. This fact, told in Europe previous to the revoJution, would have gained little credit; or at least it would have been regarded as a mark of an uncivilized people, extremely dangerous to a well-ordered society. Men who build systems on an inversion of nature, are obliged to invert every thing that is to make part of that system. It is because the people are civilized, that they are with fafety armed. It is an effect of their conscious dignity, as citizens enjoying equal rights, that they wish not to invade the rights of others. The danger, where there is any, from armed citizens, is only to the government, not to the society; and as long as they have nothing to revenge in the goveronient (which they cannot have while it is in their own hands) there are many advantages in their being accuftoined to the use of arms, and no possible disadvantage.

Power

Porver, habitually in the hands of a whole community, loses ail the ordinary associated ideas of power. The exercise of power is a relative term ; it fupposes an opposition, something to operate upon. We perceive no exertion of power in the motion of the planetary system, but a very strong one in the movement of a whirlwind; it is because we fee obstructions to the latter, but none to the former. Where the government is not in the hands of the people, there you find opposition, you perceive two contending interests, and get an idea of the exercise of power; and whether this pouver be in the hands of the government or of the people, or whether it change from side to side, it is always to be dreaded. But the word People in America has a different meaning from what it has in Europe. It there means the whole community, and comprehends every human creature; hence it is impoffible but the government must protect the people, and the people, as a natural consequence, support the government as their own legitimate offspring.

VOL. II.

O

MIDDL

MIDDLE STATES.

YEW-YORK,
NEW JERSEY,
PENNSYLVANIA,

DELAWARE,
TERRITORY N.W.OF OHIO.

BOUNDED north, by Upper Canada, from which they are fepa.

DED rated by the lakes ; caít, by the New-England States ; fouth, by tho Atlantic ocean, Maryland, Virginia; and the Ohio river, which fe. parate them from Kentucky; west, by the Millisñppi river.

RIVERS AND BAYS. The principal tivers in this district are, the Hudson, the Dela. ware, the Susquehannah, the Ohio, the Missisippi, and their branches. York; Delaware, and part of Chesapeak bays are in this district.

CLIMATE. The climate of this grand division, lying almost in the same latitudes, varies but little from that of New-England : there are no two successive years alike; even the same successive feafons and months differ from each other every year : and there is, perhapsi but one steady trait in the character of this climate, and that is, it is uniforinly variable: the changes of weather are great, and frequently sudden. The range of the quicksilver in Fahrenheit's thermometer, according to Dr. Mitchell, is between the 24th degree below, and the 105th degree above cypher; and it has been known to vary fifty degrees in the course of twenty-fix hours. Such alterations are much more confiderable along the coast than in the interior and midland parts of the country; and, wherever they prevail

, are accompanied with proportionate changes in the air, froni calms to winds, and from moifture to dryness. Storms and hurricanes fometimes happen, which are so violent as to overset veífels, demolih fences, uproot trees, and unroof buildings. Droughts, of fix weks or two months continuance, occur now and the:, Rain has been

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