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eleven minifters, under the denomination of trustees, in 1701. The powers of the trustees were enlarged by the additional charter, 1723. And by that of 1745, the trustees were incorporated by the name of “ The president and fellows of Yale College, New-Haven.” By an act of the General Affembly " for enlarging the powers and increasing the funds of Yale College,” passed in May, 1792, and accepted by the corporation, the governor, lieutenant-governor, and the six senior assistants in the council of the State for the time being, are ever hereafter, by virtue of their offices, to be trustees and fele lows of the college, in addition to the former corporation. The corporation are empowered to hold estates, continue their succession, make academic laws, elect and constitute all officers of instruction and government usual in universities, and confer all learned degrees. The immediate executive government is in the hands of the president and tutors. The present officers and instructors of the college are, a president, who is also professor of ecclesiastical history, a profesfor of divinity, and three tutors. The number of students, on an average, is about 130, divided into four classes. It is worthy of remark, that as many as five-fixths of those who have received their education at this university were natives of Connecticut.

The funds of this college received a very liberal addition by a grant of the General Assembly, in the act of 1792 before mentioned; which will enable the corporation to erect a new building for the accommodation of the students, to support several new professorships, and to make a handsome addition to the library.

The course of education in this university comprehends the whole circle of literature. The three learned languages are taught, together with so much of the sciences as can be communicated in four years.

In May and September, annually, the several classes are critically. examined in all their classical studies. As incentives to improvement in coinposition and oratory, quarterly exercises are appointed by the president and tutors, to be exhibited by the respective classes in rotation. A public commencement is held annually on the second Wednesday in September, which calls together a more numerous and brilliant assembly than are convened by any other anniversary in the State.

About two thousand two hundred have received the honours of this university, of whom nearly seven hundred and fixty have been ordained to the work of the gospel ministry, VOL.II. NA


INVENTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS. Early in the war Mr. David Bushnel, of Saybrook, invented a machine for jubmarine navigation, altogether different from any thing hitherto devised by the art of man; this machine was so constructed as that it could be rowed horizontally, at any given depth, under water, and could be raised or depressed at pleasure. To this machine, called the American turtle, was attached a magazine of powder, which was intended to be fastened under the bottom of a Mip, with å driving screw, in such a way as that the same stroke which disengaged it from the machine should put the internal clock-work in motion ; this being done, the ordinary operation of a gun lock, at the distance of half an hour, or any determinate time, would cause the powder to explode and leave the effects to the common laws of hature. The fimplicity, yet combination, discovered in the mechanism of this wonderful machine, have been acknowledged by those skilled in physics, and particularly hydraulics, to be not less ingenious than novel. Mr. Bushnel invented feveral other curious machines for the annoyance of the British shipping, but from accidents, not militating against the philosophical principles, on which their success depended, they but partially succeeded. He destroyed a vefsel in the charge of Commodore Symmonds. One of his kegs also demolished a vessel near the Long-isand shore. About Chriftmas, 1777, he committed to the Delaware river a number of kegs, destined to fall among the British fleet at Philadelphia ; but this squadron of kegs, having been feparated and retarded by the ice, demolished but a single boat. This catastrophe, however, produced an alarm, unprecedented in its nature and degree, which has been so happily described by the late Hon. Francis Hopkinson, in a song stiled - The Battle of the Kegs,'

"** that the event it celebrates will not be forgotten, fo long as mankind shall continue to be delighted with works of humour and taste.

Mr. Hanks, of Litchfield, has invented a method of winding up clocks by means of air or wind only, which is ingenious, and practised in New York and other places.

Mr. Culver, of Norwich, has constructed a dock drudge, which is a boat for clearing docks and removing bars in rivers--a very ingenious and useful machine ; its good effects have already been ex

* Sce Hopkinfon’s Works, lately published in Philadelphia.

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perienced in the navigation of the river. Thames, the channel of which has been considerably deepened; this machine will, no doubt, be productive of very great advantages to navigation throughout the United States.

The Rev. Joseph Badger, while a member of Yale College, in 1785, constructed an ingenious planetarium, (without ever having seen one of the kind) which is deposited in the library of that university

Mr. Chittendon, of New Haven, has invented a useful machine for bending and cutting card teeth; this machine is put in motion by a mandril twelve inches in length, and one inch in diameter ; connected with the mandřil are fix parts of the machine, independent of each other; the first introduces a certain length of wire into the chops of the corone ; the second shuts the chops, and holds fast the wire in the middle until it is finished; the third cuts off the wire ; the fourth doubles the tooth in proper form ; the fifth makes the last bend ; and the fixth delivers the finished tooth from the ma. chine. The mandril is moved by a band wheel five feet in dia, meter, turned by a trunk. One revolution of the mandril makes one tooth; ten are made in a fecond; thirty-fix thousand in an hour, With one machine like this, teeth enough might be made to fill cards sufficient for all the manufacturers in New-England.

CONSTITUTION AND COURTS OF JUSTICE. The revolution, which so essentially affected the governments of most of the colonies, produced no very perceptible alteration in the government of Connecticut. While under the jurisdiction of Great Britain they elected their own governors, and all subordinate civil officers, and made their own laws, in the same manner, and with as little controul, as they now do. Connecticut has ever been a republic, and perhaps as perfect and as happy a republic as has ever existed ; while other States, more monarchical in their government and manners, have been under a necessity of undertaking the difficult task of altering their old, or forming new constitutions, and of changing their monarchical for republican manners, Connecticut has uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track, both as to government and manners; and, by these means, has avoided those convulsions which have rent other States into violent parties.

The constitution of Connecticut is founded on the charter which was granted by Charles II. in 1662, and on a law of the State. N02

AgreeAgreeably to this charter, the supreme legislative authority of the State is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, twelve assistants or counsellors, and the representatives of the people, ftiled the General Assembly. The governor, lieutenant-governor and assistants, are annually chosen by the freemen in the month of May. The repre- . sentatives (their number not to exceed two from each town) are chosen by the freemen twice a year, to attend the two annual feffions, on the second Thursdays in May and O&tober. This Affembly has power to erect judicatories for the trial of causes, civil and cri. minal, and to ordain and establish laws for settling the forms and ceremonies of government. By these laws the General Assembly is di. vided into two branches, called the Upper and Lower Houses. The Upper House is composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor and assistants. The Lower House of the representatives of the people. No law can pass without the concurrence of both Houses. The judges of the superior court hold their offices during the pleasure of the General Assembly. The judges of the county courts, and jultices, are annually appointed. Sheriffs are appointed by the gover. nor and council, without limitation of time. The governor is cap. tain-general of the militia, the lieutenant-governor lieutenant-gene. ral. All other military officers are appointed by the Assembly, and commiflioned by the governor.

The mode of electing the governor, lieutenant-governor, assistants, treasurer and secretary, is as follows: the freemen in the several towns meet on the Monday next after the first Tuesday in April annually, and give in their votes for the persons they chuse for the faid offices respectively, with their names written on a piece of paper, which are received and sealed up by a constable in open meeting, the votes for each office by themselves, with the name of the town and office written on the outside. These votes, thus sealed, are sent to the General Assembly in May, and there counted by a committee from both Houses. All freemen are eligible to any office in government, In chuling affiftants, twenty persons are nominated, by the vote of each freeman, at the freeman's meeting for chuling representatives in September annually. These votes are sealed up, and sent to the General Assembly in October, and are there counted by a committee of both Houses, and the twenty persons who have the most votes stand in nomination ; out of which number the twelve who have the greatest number of votes, given by the freeinen at their meeting in April, are in May declared affiftants in the manner above mentioned.


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The qualifications of freemen are, quiet and peaceable behaviour, a civil conversation, and freehold eftáte to the value of forty shillings per annum, or forty pounds personal estate in the list, certified by the select men of the town; it is necessary; also, that they take the oath of fidelity to the State. Their names are inrolled in the town-clerk's office, and they continue freemen for life, unless dis. franchised by sentence of the superior court, on conviction of misdemeanor.

The courts are as follow :-The justices of the peace, of whoin a number are annually appointed in each town by the General Af sembly, have authority to hear and determine civil actions, where the demand does not exceed four pounds. If the demand exceeds forty fhillings an appeal to the county is allowed. They have cognisance of small offences, and may punish by fine, not exceeding forty fit

lings, or whipping, not exceeding ten stripes, or fitting in the stocks. : There are eight county courts in the State, held in the several coun

ties by one judge, and four justices of the quoruin, who have jurisdiction of all criminal cases arising within their respective counties, where the punishment does not extend to life, limb, or baniliment. They have original jurisdiction of all civil actions which exceed the jurisdiction of a justice. Either party may appeal to the superior court, if the demand exceeds 2ol. except on bonds or notes vouched by two witnesses.

There are several courts of probate in each county, consisting of one judge. The peculiar province of this court is, the probate of wills, granting adminiftration on intestate estates, ordering distribution of them, and appointing guardians for minors, &c. An appeal lies from any decree of this court to the superior court.

The superior court consists of five judges. It has authority itą all criminal cases extending to life, limb, or banishment, and other high crimes and misdemeaners; to grant divorces; and to hear and determine all civil actions brought by appeal from the county courts, or the court of probate, and to correct the errors of all inferior courts. This is a circuit court, and has two stated sessions in each county annually. The superior and county courts try matters of fact by jury, or without, if the parties will agree.

There is a supreme court of errors, consisting of the lieutenantgovernor and the twelve affiftants; their sole business is to determine writs, of error brought on judgments of the superior court, where the error complained of appears on the record. They have two


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