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United States of America.
GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE American Republic, of which we have in the preceding
volume given a general account, consists of three grand divisions, denominated the NorTHERN, or more properly EASTERN, MIDDLE, and SOUTHERN States.
The first division, the Northern or Eafern States, comprehends
RHODE ISLAND, District of MAINE, belonging
CONNECTICUT. to Massachusetts, These are called the New England States, and comprehend that part of America, which, since the year 1614, has been known by the name of New-ENGLAND.
The seconil division, the Midille States, comprehends
TERRITORY, N. W. of OHIO.
The third division, the Southern States, con.prehends
TERRITORY S. of OHIO,
Or NORTHERN or EASTERN STATES.
SITUATION, BOUNDARIES, &c.
EW-ENGLAND lies between 41 and 46 degrees N. Lat. and between 1 degree 30 minutes, and 8 degrees E. Lon. from Philadel. phia ; and is bounded north by Lower-Canada ; east, by the province of New-Brunswick, and the Atlantic Ocean; south, by the same ocean, and Long-Iland found; west, by the State of New-York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its west line, beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long-Itland found at the south-weft corner of Connecticut, lat. 41 degrees, runs a little east of north, until it strikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eastward almost to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Its climate is very healthful, as is evinced by the longevity of the inhabitants; for it is estimated that about one in seven of them live to the age of seventy years; and about one in thirteen or fourteen to eighty years and upwards.
North-west, west, and south-weit winds, are the most prevalent: East and north-east winds, which are unelastic and disagreeable, are frequent at certain seasons of the year, particularly in April and May, on the fea coasts. The weather is less variable than in the Middle and especially the Southern States, and more fo than in Canada. The extremes of heat and cold, according to Fahrenheit's thermometer, are from 200 below, to 100° above o. The medium is from 48° to 50°. The inhabitants of New-England, on account of the dryness of their atmosphere, can endare, without inconvenience, a greater degree of heat ihan the inhabitants of a moister climate. It is fupposed by fome philosophers, that the difference of moisture in the atmosphere in Pennsylvania and New-England is such, as that a perfon might bear at least ten degrees of heat more in the latter than in the former.
The quantity of rain which falls in England annually, is computed to be twenty-four inches; in France eighteen inches, and in New. England from forty-eight to fifiy inches; and yet in New-England they luifer more from drought than in either of the forementioned countries, although they have more than double the quantity of rain. Thele tists evince the remarkable dryness of the atmosphere in this