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'nt, hurried out of the sanctuary ;--sud- on the exact model of
denly your sight is plunged upon (plongée in Tivoli, the other of
gur) a lake, though which a river forces its The first is destined for the antiquis
way, bearing along the foam occasioned by Poland ; it contains a great number of
its recent fall, near the ruins of a hand- cient Polish armour_shields, helmets, sa-
some aqueduct, which serves as a bridge to bres; it is overhung with standards won in
enable you to make the tour of the lake, the battles with Turks, Crusaders, Austri-
and to obtain a view of the facade of the ans. There stand around at the wall, the

cenotaphs of conspicuous men of old; those “Following the flowery banks of this ri- of great generals and poets; some with some ver, you reach an isle, where there is placed relics of bories, some empty-all with apa monument of black marble, on which propriate emblems and mottos. That of an rests a figure of white marble, in the re- ancient poet, Kochanowski, hung over with posing attitude of the St Cecilia of Bernini a lyre ; that of Copernicus with a sublime at Rome, which changes the interest of inscription-Sta Sol. In a dim under vault the inscription, Et in Arcadia ego,' of this temple, an obelisk of black Carpa to that inspired by the epitaph on the tomb, thian marble is placed, to the memory of

J'ai fait Arcadic et j'y repose.' the Prince Poniatowski, who fell in the bat" Then you have the picturesque ruins of tle at Leipsic. The Emperor Alexander the ancient habitation of the god Pan; the having visited this temple, adorned hereafsacrifice to Esculapius, surrounded by his ter its cupola, which was open, with a large attributes ; the isle of offerings, which you glass made expressively for this purpose; reach by a flying-bridge, fixed to the banks through which a dim and sombre day-light by cordage.' The circus, constructed on falls on the glorious remains of the ancient the Grecian model, and of the same size, is Poles. filled with monuments of marble, and of “ The other, that is the Gothic temple, Oriental granite of the highest antiquity. contains chiefly the antiquities of middle A chapel, lately constructed at the gate ages, of all foreign countries and nations ; leading from the park, and in the middle they consist mostly in ancient and modern of a meadow enamelled with lowers, is tomb-stones rare books and manuscripts above all remarkable. Its massive exte. -portraits. Among the last is to be seen, rior gives it the majestic appearance of the Portrait of Raphael, painted by him. à sarcophagus. It is elevated on four self, on wood. Besides, this splendid seat of arches, which serve as supports to it. It is Prince Czartoryski's--who, like the Dukes ornamented in the interior by some co- of Weimar in Germany, are Mecænasses of pies in Sepia, of the works of the best learned men in Poland, and who themselves painters, by Seydelman, an artist celebra- bear a high literary character is enriched ted for the spirit and truth with which he by the largest library in Poland, containgives the character of the painters after ing about 110,000 volumes, in different lanwhom he designs. Among these, there is guages. Especially, there is the richest the Virgin, after Raphael, Sacrifice of store of manuscripts, particularly relating Emanuel, after Rembrandt,--Repose in to the history of Poland.” Egypt, after Ferdinand Boll, Magdalen, after Bottoni, and others.

POSTING, we are informed, has " Delille has consecrated this spot, by reached the highest degree of perfechis admirable description of it in his im- tion in Poland. The postillions are mortal poem, LES JARDINS.

active, sober, intelligent, and trust" But the most beautiful place in Po- worthy. The

horses, chiefly from the land that has been equally chaunted by De- Ukraine and Russia, are indefatigable, lille, is Pulawy, the usual country residence strong, although small

, and full of fire of the Prince Czartoryski. Nature, art, and action. The celerity with which taste, expence, all seem to have been combined to adorn it. It is situated on the pro

the traveller is conveyed from stage to minent banks of the Vistula. The buildings stage is agreeable in many respects. are shaded over with an extensive park, or Even on " postes doubles," he is not rather dark grove; where, in a beautiful obliged, as in Germany, to kick his variety, are to be seen, Chinese Kiosks and heels while the horses are baiting. The precipices, hermitages and subterraneous public carriages, which regularly tragrottosa colossal statue of the dying vel on the great roads, are on the moClarinda, supported by Tancred, in white del of those in England. They travel rock for the deceased friends of that illus- night and day. At every post-house, trious family. These, and such like

ob- (station

de poste,) a register is kept, jects, strike the attention of a traveller ; yet

in which travellers are entitled to enit is not a place of beauty alone, but also ter any

complaints they may have to of veneration. To it the natives resort,

as make of the postboys, &c., whose dein pilgrimage, to gratify their patriotic feel. ceptions, inattention, or impertinence, inga; for there are two temples-one built if established, are severely punished.

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76 is under the super- themselves, Poland, from its geois

direction generale des phical position (the bulwark of Geran Those who do not wish to many,) was continually subject to the travel post, may find in every place invasions of the Turks, the Tartars,

voituriers in great numbers, among the Swedes, the Cossacks, &c. Thus whom are many Jews, who will con repose and tranquillity, so necessary tract to convey them, at a small ex for purposes of improvement, if obpense, distances of 20 or 30 miles, or tained at all, were necessarily employfarther, travelling at the rate of 10 or ed in repairing the ravages of war. 12 miles a-day. * When arrived at the But a few years of peace have shewn end of the stipulated journey, the voic that the spirit of improvement is not Lurier is sure to meet with a fare back wanting, if the means are afforded. again, and the traveller with the means The Soil in general is fertile, and of further conveyance. The probity produces a great variety of different of these voituriers is well established, kinds of grain. Wine, bread, and cofand they may be safely entrusted with fee, are universally allowed to be of valuable effects, or money, to be con- surpassing excellence. “ If you want veyed to distant places. These advan- your coffee strong, ask for Polish coftages in travelling will be further in- fee; if weak, call for German." Farcreased by the rapid improvement of merly, the Hungarian wines were conthe roads, which proceeds with activity sumed in great quantity, and they are under the superintendance of govern- still to be met with of ancient vintages ment.

at the tables of rich proprietors, and, The Forests are of great extent, above all, of ecclesiastics, who have particularly those in the north. Not- kept them more than a century in withstanding this, the roads are safe; their cellars. Of late years the French and accidents of robbery or murder have introduced a taste for their own committed, are almost unheard of in wines, which are now to be met with, Poland.

in variety and good, in all the small THE VILLAGES are of great length, towns and private houses. English and consist

of thatched wooden houses. ale and porter are now a common beThose of the better order of peasants verage ; and champagne, mixed with contain spacious and commodious a a profusion of seltzer water, is the partments. Of late years, houses of usual cooling drink in the hottest seastone are often met with. In many places there are as it were colonies of THE PEASANTRY, who are declared gentlemen farmers. They are the de- free by the constitutions of 1791, 1807, scendants and worthy rivals of those and 1815, though not very far advan. nobles who, under the name of pos- ced in civilization, are laborious, and polite, have given such proofs of devo- abound in good qualities. They are tion and fidelity to their native land, devoted to their landlords, and are and from whom also the most celebra- easily guided to improvement

. They ted individuals, and the most distine are not in general proprietors of the guished families, take their origin.

soil, but possessors of portions allotted The richest inhabitants of the cities, them by their landlord, (Seigneur, as well as the nobles, have all their who receives his rent in labour, the Chateaus, or country houses, with peasant working for him so many days parks and gardens, which rival in beau- in the week, called by the French ty, and in the works of art which adorn corvée ; 4 this practice is restrained by them, those of France and Germany. laws preventing its abuse. Every peso These mighty improvements are only sant may quit his landlord if injured the work of later years. While all or dissatisfied. In some districts the other nations were making exertions peasants rise to be farmers, both hereto extend their commerce and their ditary and for terms of years; and it territory, to build new cities, and ge- is hoped that the condition of this nerally to improve and to beautify class will improve from day to day.

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• The Polish mile is nearly six English miles.
+ A practice of this sort prevailed a few years ago, and perhaps still prevails

, in Nor thumberland, where the cottagers were obliged to do bondage work, as they called it for the landlord,


“ THE Jews, more numerous in Po- reign relative to them. He wishes to nem land than in any other country, multiply his prudence with experience. Their chief every day, and already form a very import abuses, however, have been in some degres ant part of the population of the country.* repressed by placing checks upon the maSober, economical, and industrious, they nufacture and sale of spirits by the Jews, would have all the qualities essential in who made this traffic a terrible engine in mercantile traffic, were their character free the corruption and ruin of the peasantry, of from the tarnish of craftiness, a want of whose property they thus obtained the disgood faith, and the trickery which they em- posal. They have also, in general, been ploy in their transactions. Having inte- ejected by the country gentlemen, from the rest only for their guide, they are as yet inns which they formerly tenanted, and far from meriting that consideration and which they kept in the state of desolation confidence which is usually granted in com- and discomfort we have already described, merce; and yet they have contrived to get and which rendered it necessary to carry possession of the principal share of the in- beds, kitchen utensils, and provisions on ternal traffic, that great branch of national every journey. In this state of things, riches. They might thereby come to con- (which is now in a great measure done stitute one of the chief links of society, if away,) it is pleasing to know that the de. their religion, their laws, and their customs,' ficiencies of the inns were counterbalanced did not prescribe to them interests abso~ by the hospitality of the gentry, where the lutely ecxlusive in their nature. It is this traveller was sought for, and met with that absolute insulation, spiritual and personal, welcome and attention, that affability and if I may so speak, that makes them a se- politeness, which have ever characterized parate people in the very heart of Poland. the nation of Poland." Probably this is the source of that hatred and contempt with which they are treated,

We take leave of this little work by and which, instead of modifying by degrees saying, that it is elegantly got up, both all that is pernicious to society in their si in typography and embellishments; tuation, only serves to concentrate them still that it is usefully and neatly put tomore.t. The Jews have hitherto proved a gether, and that it contains ten times stumbling-block to our legislators, and no as much information as is generally to thing has been done by the present sove. be found in such publications.

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+ “There have in the last two years (1819, 1820,) appeared many works dedicated to the improvement of this people. The counsellor Müller, a literary character of distinction, promises a work on this subject, which is eagerly expected by the public."

+ These observations apply to the Jews throughout the world; and, thoughi charity would look forward with hope to an amendment as well of their faith and character, as of their condition in society, we behold with awe, in their present insulated, and, alas! detested situation, the accomplishment of prophecy, and the

fulfilment of the curse which hangs over them.

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A NEW EDITION OF DON QUIXOTE. We have no intention or inclination new edition of Don Quixote general to entertain our readers with any re- attention, we are quite sure, it must, marks of our own on the great master ere long, command, and general fapiece of Cervantes. Inileed nothing, vour, we think, almost as certainly. We think, can be more sickening than We have had in England no less than the affectation, not uncommon among four distinct translations of the best our modern reviewers, of entering up- of all romances, and none of them bad on long disquisitions concerning the ones; but it strikes us as something merits of authors quite familiar to all very strange, that until now we should the world-whose fame is settled — never have had any edition whatever whose works are immortal—to be ig- of any one of these translations, connorant of whom is to be ignorant of taining notes, to render the text intelevery thing.

ligible. The few miserable scraps comWe cannot, however, omit the op- monly found at the foot of the page, in portunity of calling attention to this the editions either of Smollett or Mot

The History of that ingenious Gentleman, Don Quixote de la Mancha ; translated from the Spanish, by Motteux. A new Edition, with Copious Notes; and an Essay on the Life and Writings of Cervantes. In five volumes, 8vo ; Hurst, Robinson, and Co. London ; Constable and Co. Edinburgh.

4 0

Vol. XI.

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mentioning. The Amadis de Gaul appears to have been

cote, full as it is of al- used as his text. Indeed, there are so many to history and romance, re- allusions to romances of chivalry, and $ mained, to all intents and purposes, much of the amusement arises from the hopwithout annotation, comment, or exa py imitation of these works, and the ridicuplanation, and of course, of the read- lous point of view in which the incidents that ers of Don Quixote, very few ever un- compose them are placed, that I cannot help derstood the meaning of Cervantes. A attributing some affectation to those, when thousand of his happiest hits went for unacquainted with the species of wruing, prenothing and a Spanish reader,

with tend to possess a lwely relish for the adren a translation of the bare text of Shake- tures of Don Quirote. It is not to be speare in his hands, had just as good tion of the pleasure which we feel in the

doubted, however, that a considerable pora chance to understand Shakespeare, perusal of Don Quixote, is derived from as the English reader had to under the delineation of the scenery with which stand the author, who, though writing it abounds the magnificent sierras–M. in a different form, is, perhaps more mantic streams and delightful vallies of a than any other the world has produ- land which seems as it were the peculiar ced, entitled to be classed with Shake region of romance, from Cordoba to Ronspeare.

cesvalles. There is also in the work a This great blank has now been ably happy mixture of the stories and names of and fully supplied ; and the English the Moors, a people who, in a wonderful dereader is in possession of an edition of gree, impress the imagination and affect the Don Quixote, not only infinitely supe- heart, in consequence of their grandeur

, gal rior to any that ever before appeared lantry, and neisfortunes ; and partly, perin England, but, so far as we are able haps,

from the many plaintive balads in whick to judge, much more complete and sa- their achievements and fate are recorded." tisfactory than any one which exists in It has been apparently the object of the literature of Spain herself. The this edition to render all these allumerit of devising and proposing such sions, of which this intelligent critic an edition rests, we believe, with the speaks, intelligible ; and we, in so far late much regretted John BALLAN. as a hasty perusal goes, are of opinion TYNE, who did not live to see the ac- that its object has been completely accomplishment of his favourite plan. complished. The text used is that of Had John Ballantyne lived, we doubt Motteux, and this is, we think, out pot he would have endeavoured to pro- of all sight, the richest and best-aleure for the works of the author of though the editor himself seems to hint, Waverley a similar accompaniment of now and then, something not unlike a annotation and illustration--but we partiality for the much older version hope the publishers of that author will, of Shelton. Shelton's Quixote is unere long, think of doing so; for, in doubtedly well worthy of being stutruth, we have no sort of doubt that died by the English scholar; but it is many of those romances, abounding aso far too antiquated an affair to serve the they do in minute and careless allu- purposes of the English realer. That sions to old songs and old tales, are al- of Motteux is, if not so literally accumostas imperfectly understood, at least rate, quite as essentially and substanout of Scotland, as the romance of Cer- tially so; and Motteux, she translator vantes has hitherto been here and else- of Cervantes and Rabelais, possesses where. Mr Dunlop, who, in his his a native humour which no other transtory of fiction, has a most excellent lator that we ever met with has apa chapter on Don Quixote, speaks as fol- proached. lows

It is only by extracts that we can • The great excellence, however, of the hope to give any idea of the manner in work of Cervantes, lies in the readiness which the present edition bas been with which the hero conceives

, and the executed ; and, therefore, we shall gravity with which he maintains, the most absurd and fantastic ideas, but which al quote a few specimens without further Ways bear some analogy to the adventures preamble. The first volume contains in romances of chivalry; In order to place an Essay on Cervantes' Life and Wriparticular inoidents of these fables in a lu- tings, in which the reader will meet dicrous point

of view, they were most care with many particulars which must be fully perused nnd studied by Cervantes. new to him,-unless he bappens to The Spanish romances, however, seem have seen the Spanish Lives written chiefly to have engaged his attention, and by Pellicer and the Royal Academy,

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both of which have been produced thy of his admiration. In our own within the last thirty years, conse try, almost every thing that any temible quently long subsequent to the date of man would wish to hear said about Don the last and best English LIFE-that Quixote has been said over and over again written by Smollett. The author by writers, whose sentiments I should be concludes his disquisition in these sorry to repeat without their words and

whose words I should scarcely be pardoned terms:

for repeating. * Even had Cervantes died without wri “ Mr Spence, the author of a late ingeting Don Quixote, his plays, (above all, nious tour in Spain, seems to believe, what his Interludes and his Numancia ;) his I should have supposed was entirely exGalatea, the beautiful dream of his youth; ploded, that Cervantes wrote his books for his Persiles, the last effort of his chastened the purpose of ridiculing knight-errantry; and purified taste ; and his fine poem of and that, unfortunately for his country, his the Voyage of Parnassus, must have given satire put out of fashion, not merely the him at least the second place in the most

absurd misdirection of the spirit of heroism, productive age of Spanish genius. In re but that sacred spirit itself. But the pracgard to all the graces of Castilian compo- tiçe of knight-errantry, if ever there was sition, even these must have left him with such a thing, had, it is well known, been out a rival, either in that, or in any other out of date long before the age in which age of the literature of his country. For, Don Quixote appeared ; and as for the while all the other great Spanish authors spirit of heroism, I think few will sympaof the brilliant CENTURY of Spain, (from thize with the critic who deems it possible 1560 to 1656,) either deformed their wri. that an individual, to say nothing of a natings by utter carelessness, or weakened tion, should have imbibed any contempt, them by a too studious imitation of foreign either for that or any other elevating prin. models

, Cervantes alone seized the happy ciple of our nature, from the manly page medium, and was almost from the begin. of Cervantes. One of the greatest triumphs ning of his career, Spanish without rude of his skill is the success with which he ness, and graceful without stiffness or af- continually prevents us from confounding fectation. As a master of Spanish style, the absurdities of the knight-errant with

he is now, both in and out of Spain, ac the genergus aspirations of the cavalier. 1 knowledged to be first without a second; For the last, even in the midst of madness,

but this, which might have secured the im we respect Don Quixote himself. We pity mortality and satisfied the ambition of any the delusion, we laugh at the situation, but man, is, after all, scarcely worthy of being we revere, in spite of every ludicrous acmentioned in regard to the great creator of companiment, and of every insane exertion, the only species of writing which can be the noble spirit of the Castillian gentle. considered as the peculiar property of mo. man; and we feel in every page, that we dern genius. In that spacious field, of are perusing the work, not of a heartless which Cervantes must be honoured as the scoffer, a cold blooded satirist, but of a first discoverer, the finest spirits of his own, calm and enlightened mind, in which true and of every other European country, have wisdom had grown up by the side of true

since been happily and successfully em experience,--of one whose genius moved {ployed. The whole body of modern ro. in a sphere too lofty for mere derision-of

mance and novel writers must be consider one who knew human nature too well not ed as his followers and imitators ; but to respect it-of one, finally, who, beneath among them all, so varied and so splendid a mask of apparent lenity, aspired to comsoever as have been their merits, it is, per mụne with the noblest principles of huhaps, not going too far to say, that, as yet, manity; and, above all, to give form and Cervantes has found but one rival. expression to the noblest feelings of the

“The learned editor of the Spanish national character of Spain. The idea of Academy's edition of 1781 has thought fit giving a ludicrous picture of an imaginary occupy .

of a very considerable personage, conceiving himself to be called volume with an inquiry into the particular upon, in the midst of modern manners and merits of Don Quixote. I refer to his la- institutions, to exercise the perilous vocaborious dissertation all those who are un tion of an Amadis or a Belianis, might willing to admire any thing without know- perhaps have occurred to a hundred men ing why they admire it or rather, why an as easily as to Cervantes. The same geerudite Doctor of Madrid deemed it wor neral idea has been at the root of many


the space

As a specimen of the style of his criticisms take this: he approves of the introduce tion of a Roque Guinart in Don Quixote, because in the Odyssey there is a Polypher mus, and in the Æneid there is a Cačus. And yet this man must have at least read Cervantes' own preface to his work, in which that pedantic species of criticism is so powerfally ridiculed, “ If thou namest any giant in the book, forget not Goliah of Gath,” &c.

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