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A KEY TO THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS.
The polytheism of the ancients, strokes of light; and Apollo was also
with all its variety of fables, will more the god of the sun, whose motion =;, direasily be understood if an inquiry be marks the progress of days and years.
made into the attributes of the twelve He was likewise the god of inborn gerio da divinities, who composed that council nius, and intuitive knowledge, which core being of which Jupiter was the head; for are the native light of the mind, or the oda Tin each of these gods represented a men- inspiration which it has in itself. But fino tal power. But the other deities, such archery was attributed to Apollo, as
as Eros, Bacchus, Pan, or Pluto, who master of the darts of light, and vibra-, Nimem were extraneous to this assembly, pre- tion was recognized in the twanging of compressided over regions of nature, or over the bow. The most abstract idea of is no external affections, and circumstances. Apollo is motion, in reference to somebelow The names of the deities, who entered thing else, which is at rest. This is ve, crte into council with Jupiter, have been found in vibration, and also in irradia
preserved in two verses of Ennius; tion. tube, is but they are not mentioned by him in Diana, the sister of Apollo, was their proper succession. The right or- the representative of the
power der is, Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, bound, which is in the leg, and she De itt Vulcan, Neptune, Vesta, Mars, Ve- was the goddess of the moon, which nus, Ceres, Minerva, Mercury. The sends back reflected light. She was
also the goddess of hunting, or swiftJuno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Ve- with her robe tucked up to her knees.
ness of pursuit. She was represented pus, Mars, Mercurius, Jovi, Neptunus, Vulcanus,
The bow might be attributed to her, Apollo.
as expressing the power of elasticity.
But the most abstract idea of Diana is " Their reference to the mental reflection or return. Diana, expresspowers is as follows. Jupiter repre- ing rebound from touch, remained alsented the head as wisdom, and was
ways a virgin. JURTETA ZEUS, " Jupiter prudent in his “Vulcan represented the foot. He counsels," not the external affection of was the god of terminated figure, and love
, as Eros, who, according to He- of mechanical re-action. He presided Siod, was a much elder deity. But, over artificers, because the fabrication Jupiter
, although considered, by the of metals into shape is by the applicaancient poets, as a finite being himself, tion of contrary power, and because was supposed, as the head, to have most the meeting of the hammer with the relation to infinitude, and hence, the anvil is like the stamping of the feet eagle was attributed to him as his mes
upon the ground. senger.
Neptune, who presided over the " The goddess Juno, who was the sea, was considered, by the ancients, sister of Jupiter, represented the love as the god of intellect. He represented of variety, and presided over
how and the chest, or the love of the ideal; as magnificence, and over separateness; the motion of the sea represents the for splendour comes from difference, measuring of fixed form, by moveable not from uniformity. The peacock being. His Greek name, Poseidon, was said to be sacred to her, from the may signify the drinking of form, from brightness of its plumage ; and Iris,
ποσις and ειδος. .
But his Latin name or the rainbow, was called her messen has been supposed by some to be deger, either as proceeding from the wa rived á nando, from swimming; and tery vapours of the atmosphere form- he may represent the power of buoying into separate drops, and descend- ancy in general. The diverging form ing as rain, or, as shewing the separa- of the two outer prongs of the trident tion of the different colours.
expresscs the tendency towards in"Apollo, the god of harmony, represented the vibrating power of the “ Vesta, the goddess of the earth, thigh, or, more abstractedly, motion, represented the heart, or the fixedness as the measure of duration. Another of being, and its reference to seat or kind of music is produced by the place. She was also said to be the
goddess of fire, by which was probably “ Ceres represented the belly, or meant heat; for the ancients did not the powers of nutrition, and therefore understand the true distinction be- presided over agriculture. tween heat and light, but often spoke “ Minerva represented the part of of them together as one element. Vesta the arm between the elbow and band. was drawn in a car by lions; which Like Mars, she was a warlike deity, may signify that she presided over but she was also the goddess of reason, quadrupeds, because they are peculiar that is, not of intellect, like Neptune, to the earth, and the lion is the chief but of the active power of inferring of them.
and judging, and of the knowledge of “Mars, the god of war, represented tendency, or whitherwards. She likethe upper part of the arm, which is wise presided over weaving and spinthe part from whence proceeds the ef- ning. The owl was sacred to her, fort of throwing a spear, or slinging a
because she was the goddess of specustone, or striking. This deity, most lative vision, or what the Greeks called abstractly, represented the beginning oqaris, the knowledge of boundary, but of violent motion, from whence collie without sensation. sion.
“ Mercury represented the hand, “ Venus represented the capacity and was the god of thieves. He prefor generation, and presided over in- sided over traffic, which is giving and crease. She was the goddess of beau- receiving; and one of his attributes ty, because all continuous beauty in was the purse. He was the god of outlines is from the unequal increase wrestlers, from grasping. His statue of quantities, or the unequal diminu was placed at the meeting of roads, tion of quantities on the opposite side, from pointing. He was called the inwhich is the same negatively. Hesiod ventor of the lyre, because it was playsays she was accompanied by Eros, ed upon by the hand; and therefore, and followed by Himeros, or Desire; although Apollo was the god of harwhich last was her offspring.
mony, Mercury presided over practical
skill in music. He was the god of;b Τη δ'Eρος ωμάρτηςε, και "Ιμερος έσπετο καλός
eloquence, probably from gesture in Γεινομένη τα πρώτα. .
arguing and persuading. And, as the hand is the most moveable part
, he But, according to the same authority, the first appearance Eros, or love,
was considered in general as the deity was immediately after the birth of who presided over ingenuity, cleverEarth from Chaos.
ness, and rapidity of apprehension.
COCHELET'S SHIPWRECK." The art of bookmaking flourishes The work, however, is not without on both sides of the Channel. The interest; it is written in an easy flownarrative of the wreck of a French ing style, and if it communicates nomerchant ship on the coast of Africa, thing new, it at least gives a lively pic--the captivity of part of the crew who ture of that small portion of Africa yielded to the empressemens of some through which our author and his of the wandering Arabs, who are al- companions passed, and of the manways on the watch for sea mercies, and ners of the Moors and wandering Arabs who, after kindly inviting them to of the desert. land, seized their persons, and plunder Mais commencer avec le commencea ed their ship--and their subsequent ad- ment,—the book is the production of ventures till ransomed by the Consul M. Charles Cochelet, a passenger in at Magadore, is dilated into two good- the brig Sophie, going out " former ly Svo volumes, adorned with lithogra- un etablissement agricole," or in other phic engravings, and accompanied with words, to settle in Brazil. an appendix of pieces justificatifs. The Sophie sailed from Nantes, on
Naufrage du Brick Français La Sophie, perdu le 30th Mai, 1819, sur la Cose occidentale d' Afrique, et Captivité d'une partie des Naufragés, avec de nouveaux renseignmens sur la ville de Timectou, par Charles Cochelet, ancien payeur en Catalogne, l'un des Naufragés, 2 Tom. 8vo. Par. 1821.
I can see nothe 14th of May, 1819, and on the than you do where we are. 13th of the same month, was wrecked thing:' In the mean time, the ship, im.
about twenty leagues to the north of pelled by the force of the wind, was driven ed the Cape Bojodoré. "The ship, it seems, time she struck, a shock which endanger
farther upon the shoal, experiencing, every bor de was carried out of her course by the
ed the masts. A thick fog surrounded us warlike a
currents, which, as is well known, set and obscured our view of the land; a feeble
to the eastward along the African twilight shewed it indistinctly; and from like lige coast, and which M. Cochelet thinks, the configuration of the clouds, we inaagin
it is high time were put an end to ; ed ourselves in a gulph, surrounded on all ne doit on pas esperer que les auto- sides by immense rocks. At length the rités maritimes prendront enfin des ship became completely fixed, and expe
mesures propres a prevenir ces acci- rienced no other motion than that produwered by dens.” We fear it will not be easy to ced by the sea beating upon her. In an
prevent such accidents in ships ma- . instant the sails were furled, and we sucnaged like the Meduse frigate, or the ceeded, by unheard-of efforts
, in getting brig Sophie.
the long boat into the sea. An anchor was The Captain wished first to make carried out to the north-west, but all our Madeira , and then the Canary Islands, attempts
to heave the ship
off were in vain ;
our misfortune was irreparable, and as the for the purpose of correcting his lon- day dawned, the horrors of our situation gitude, but missed them both ; when were revealed to us. It was not in the midst abreast of the latter islands, how- of islands, as we believed, that cruel desti. ever, he had a good observation for ny had thrown us, A flat sandy beach, the latitude, and as no land was in without bounds, presented itself to our sight, he ought in common prudence view—it was on the main land-on Africa to have stood to the westward. On the
--on that inhospitable and barren coast, 29th, they were, by observation, in lat. that has always been the terror of mariners.
6. It would be impossible to paint the 270.4; and on the evening of the same day, land was seen about eight leagues What fate awaited us on this detested re
grief that took possession of each of us. to the east ; but still, with inconceiva
The conduct of the officers under marks, “ il eut eté prudent a mon
these circumstances, was not less exavisde virer de bord;” but this opinion traordinary. We are not told that any he kept to himself, “retenu par un
attempt was made to lighten the ship'; sentiment d'amour propre qui m'em- they suffered themselves to fall into pecha de' temoigner une frayeur a la- the power of the natives, although the quelle d'autres pouvaient bien n'etre weather continued moderate, and their pas accessibles.' At length about half boat was riding safely by a hauser in past three in the morning of the 30th, the lee of the vessel; the whole crew the ship struck. The coolness and dis- only consisted of thirteen, and they cipline of the crew are thus narrated: knew that the Canary islands could
not be more than twenty or thirty " The moon set about 40 minutes past leagues distant.
three in the morning, and in less than an After passing to and fro several op hour
, the sun would have shewn us our si- times between the ship and the shore, tuation ; the sea, which till then had been the natives got possession of the offismooth, and often calm, began to be agi- cers, passengers, and one sailor, in all, lated by a strong breeze from the north; six persons. The sailors, with greater all at once a violent shock was felt. The ship struck at the heel, and beat upon the prudence, kept on board, and, after a meks
, avec un fracus epouvantable. M. feeble attempt to rescue their superiMeria exclaimed, " We are lost." I sprung ors, set sail, and, in two days, made from my cabin. We threw ourselves into the island Fortaventura. M. Cochelet each other's arms, and each endeavoured to and his friends took care to land their inspire the other with resignation ; but how trunks and luggage, intending, no dificult the task to possess it in so dread. doubt, to proceed by the diligence, ful a situation, when numbers at the same but the natives very unceremoniously instant behold their end approaching, and took possession of their goods and chatabandonment of every earthly affection! I tels, and obliged them to assist in una Fent upon deck, and in the midst of con
loading their ship, which they did kternation and tumult, heard nothing but
very leisurely, and then burnt her. cries of take in sail-boist out the
The savages into whose hands they boat." I asked the terrified captain, what he had thus fallen, are represented as the thought of this frightful event.
most hideous inonsters that exist in can I think?" he replied; “I know no more
human shape, and as the last link in
the chain that connects man with the to them, for they appeared to take a plea. brute creation.
sure in it, which they expressed by shouts On their landing, their chief, na- of laughter, of the coarsest and most in. med Fairry, gave them a most graci- sulting nature that can be imagined.” ous reception, holding out one hand, The most unreasonable of all their in token of friendship, and with the demands, however, was in sending other pointing to heaven, and repeat, them aloft to unbend the top-sails
. ing “ Allah akbar," “ God is great." The only expedient that occurred to He then led them to a sand hill, kindly them, to enable them to obey this offering to carry their arms, and shewed command, was to cut away the masts. them the desert, with the purpose, no doubt, of letting them know how en
“ During more than two hours, we apo bain fa tirely they were in his power.
plied the axe with redoubled force. They
gave way at last, but with such a crash, peber “ If this was his object, he accomplish that I was struck with the effect produced met e ed it completely ; for it was impossible for by the noise of their fall, reiterated as it me to observe without disr.ay this sea of was, for a long time, among the hillocks of sand, the horizoni of which mingled itself sand, by echoes, of which perhaps, till det with a sky of fire ; and the calm and silent then, they were unconscious. For the first immobility of which was a thousand times time, without doubt, the silence of many more striking than the agitation of the ocean ages had been disturbed. So violent and during a tempest."
transient a commotion, rendered more
dreadful still the calm by which it was The politeness of the natives was succeeded, and with which this frightful soon changed for the most capricious desert was reinvested, perhaps for ever.” tyranny and contempt. By the women, in particular, they were obliged For about ten days they were emto perform the most abject offices- ployed in plunder. The natives shewe prepare their food, of which they did ed the most astonishing, want of disnot deign to give them a share, or dig crimination in their selection of the in the sand for a scanty pittance of booty. Money and provisions were brakish water.
the great objects of their avidityOur author was sent off to the ship buttons were more valued than diato assist in searching for argeono, or monds—the finest laces lay neglected money. It was in vain to intimate on the beach, or were used to tie the that he could not swim--prompt obe- mouths of sacks--but, above all, to a dience was necessary, and he contri- literary man, the dispersion of so many ved, with some difficulty, to get on works of merit, was most afflicting. board. He found the Africans engaged in a
“How many copies of works of merit furious attack on two pigs, these un- have seen thousands of volumes, containing
will be for ever deprived of readers! I clean animals being the abhorrence of the most opposite sentiments, borne equal. all true Musselmen. Having no pro- ly by the wind into the interior of the dea visions but what the ships afforded, sert." and being withal but indifferent judges of salt meat, before eating any part of
Letters and newspapers were equalit they constantly called on our French- ly scattered ; the touching rememmen to distinguish the beef from the brance called up by one of the latter, pork, by lowing like cows, or grunt
we shall not attempt to translate. ing like hogs,
“ L'autre rendait compte de la belle reWhen the ship beat so high that presentation d'Athalie, que recemment on the ladies could go off, they were ob- venait de donner avec tant de pompe à l' liged to act as stepping-stones, to as opera. Je me rappelai avec douleur, qu'un sist them in ascending the ship's sides. mois s'etait a peine ecoulé depuis que
meme j'avais assisté a ce spectacle, dont “ They placed themselves, without cere- j'avois admiré la magnificence. Que de mony, upon us, and afterwards made use reflexions vinrent alors m'assailir ! Je jetai of their hands to finish their clambering. tristement ces feuilles a mes pieds, elles If you consider that they were the most me causaient trop de regrets, par les sourepulsive creatures in the world, and al. venirs qu'elles me retracoient.” most destitute of clothing, you will have little difficulty in believing that it was a In the midst of these melancholy very singular task for us to supply the reflexions the captain came up with a place of stepping-stones to these women. face of satisfaction, announcing the It seemed, without doubt, very diverting apparition of two " jolies Parisiennes,
y take whom a disaster similar to their own ing to the Emperor of Morocco; they ved by had thrown on this inhospitable coast. entered the town in the evening, but, 20. M. Cochelet thought the poor man's upon the cry of “Nsara !" or " Chris
in head turned by his misfortunes; he tians !” the inhabitants pursued them of 18 however followed him, and saw, by with hootings and imprecations, and
the glimmering fire in their tent, two they were with some difficulty protectladies“ en veritable costume de bal,” ed by their escort. They were lodged
one of them in a robe “de crepe rose, in a pavilion in a garden belonging to set garnie des fleurs, et l'autre une robe de the Emperor, and committed to the des satin blanc, brodée en lames d'argent.' charge of two renegades, a Spaniard
Both of them had caps and feathers of and an Italian, who treated them with HOLE RE the last Parisian fashions.
the utmost hospitality and kindness “I had not yet been able to see the divine The description of this delicious garfigures which such elegant equipments led den recalls the stories of the “ Arabian
me to ascribe to their wearers. I approached Nights." bis nearer, and, to my great astonishment, unen i der those beautiful coverings, which our Pa 66 Perhaps none ever passed by such
risian “marchandes de modes' had, without a sudden transition from a situation so doabe, prepared for other heads, I see the miserable to one so transporting. A mo
borrible Sinné, with his frightful hair, and ment before we were abandoned to the de met my maser Hamet, who was no less terri- most painful disquietudes, in the midst of ble."
a crowd of infuriated savages, and now,
inaccessible as we were to their approach, On the 10th of June a party of Be- the tranquillity which was procured us by douin Arabs arrived ; they were dis- that isolated state which was the constant tinguished from their former friends object of all our desires. This change, by the splendour of their dress and from one condition to another, was so raarms, and their noble and imposing pid, that the cries and imprecations which demeanour; they were commanded by we had heard appeared to us the effect of a
Sicli Hamet, a chief who is well known dream. The most complete silence reigned Das having rescued Ryley and his com- around us: the noise of some spouting panions, and also the crew of a ship ing of the woods, agitated by a light breeze,
streams of water, and the hollow murmurbelonging to Glasgow, which was wrecked on the same coast about six alone disturbed the calm of a delightful years ago. Sidi Hamet purchased the into a garden of vast extent. The dark
evening. We found ourselves transported Frenchmen from the natives, and on
ness prevented us from judging of its beauthe 17th set out with them on their ty, but the perfume of orange trees, with route through the desert for Wednoon, which the air was scented, promised us a or Onadnoun, as it is here spelt. delicious abode.
A journey in the desert can never “ A magnificent alley, embellished on become a party of pleasure. The suf- both sides with groves of that fruit tree, led ferings of the party are related in the to a pavilion, situated at the end of the same minute and lively manner, but garden. do not admit of abridgment. Previous
56 As soon as day-light appeared, I be. to their arrival at Wednoon, Sidi gan to examine the place where I was Hamet sold them to the Cheik Berouc, had as yet but an imperfect idea. Advan
astonished to find myself, and of which I who resided there, and from thence cing to the terrace, which was contiguous they transmitted a statement of their to the pavilion, I beheld the vast extent of case to Mr Wiltshire, the English Con- the garden, concerning which I could not sul at Mogadore.
form a correct judgment the evening beThe French agent there forwarded fore. This first impression which one feels, their case to the consul at Tangier, but cannot express, when the return of day and through his intervention they unfolds to view a delightful, and, as yet, kere ransomed by the Emperor of Mo- unknown situation; the freshness of mornracco. After remaining three months ing; the perfume exhaled from a thousand at Wednoon, during which one of their orange-trees covered with blossoms; the companions died, they proceeded to appearance of so many overflowing foun
tains, so many sources of enjoyment, to
which we had been as yet strangers, left a They were now mounted on mules, delicious impression on all our minds. but their sufferings had not yet ended; “ The height of the walls which surexhausted with heat and fatigue af- round the garden first arrested my atten. ter a journey of six days, they arrived tion : they are as high as those of the town, at Tarodant, a populous town belong- and indented in the same manner.