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mind contemplates, and is placed a- chooses, to apply it to them, and to estis gainst, a single other particular exist- shew its relation to them. And there ist eod ence, the mind is, itself, in the cate- fore, the act of reasoning by inference gory of argós Ti, or opposed to what. must be in other categories ; for, woBut when it contemplates two or more dality is only the exemplar, accords pats particular existences, in relation to ing to which, the activeexertion should each other, it, then, is not only in the be made. category of relation itself, but also is contemplating separateness and va

CHAPTER IV. riety. Aristotle, in writing of this cate

The Category of so, where, -Diana. gory, places, in it, some things which

The category of so, where, is where si les pared belong to subsequent categories, such in relation to particular existence; as, te pued as proportion, and relative position. where on the face of the earth;

where is not in an unreflected line CHAPTER III.

till some other particular existence is likivad.

applied to it. This category, thereThe Category of wws, how,--Apollo. fore, is as the point, at which a con

tinuous ray is reflected. The first The category of res, how, or man- form of surface is from line reflected any ner, is continuous particular existence. into an angle, which gives the form For number is without character in of surface in the angle, and between itself; nor can there be character, un- the parts of the line. The extension less in the extension of unity. Man- of plane form must, always, begin ner, therefore, is as unity extended into within the curve or arc of a continuother circumstances, or as the radia. ous line, and may be extended, from tion of a line from particular existence. thence, to infinitude, as the parts of Therefore, how, or through what, the line diverge: and, therefore, the may be called the category of Apollo, crescent is the sign of surface and reas shooting forth lines of light. The flexion. Where is also the category continuity of line is capable of being of elasticity, or the turning back of extended' to infinitude, and turned the continuous extension of particular in every possible course through the being, on meeting with other particudifferences of mode; but still, so long lar being. This may be called the as it remains continuously extended, category of Diana, the huntress, who it has not absolute freedom, like that moved on the face of the earth. kem of colour or number. But line, by bound is from surface not penetrated; being broken into parts, attains to a and the Greek name, Artemis, sigtiiperfect and infinite freedom, and be- fied whole, or unbroken into by any comes capable of being dispersed in thing external. Diana was called Triany manner, and of seceiving variety formis, because surface is above, and in separate character.

beneath, and horizontally. To the To this category belongs also musi- same category belongs also sight, which cal tone, as expressing continued du- is by rays reflected from the face of ration. A ray is the first type of mu- objects seen; and rays

when coming sic, and refers to the fixed position unreflected, are reflected on meeting from whence it set out, and measures with that which sees. Therefore, the time which has been between. But sight and surface, and local position, tone is vibration in extended unity, in the particular, belong to this caand gives the feeling of mode or cha- tegory. And, as reflection is always racter ; for vibration is change of form in the contrary order to that which is in that part which vibrates.

reflected, it is most likely that miModality, or through what, may be micry, or the repetition of opposite called the first pattern of inferential likeness, belongs also to the category reasoning. Modality is the extension of Diana; for it is certain that miof single particular existence, and in- micry is closely connected with elasferential reasoning is the carrying of ticity. the same thing into different circumstances. But, inferring is a voluntary

CHAPTER V. exertion of the mind's active power, by which it takes some notion, and

The Category of sei, wher,-Vulcan. carries it into what circuinstances it Tue category of serà, when, is as

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the end of continuous extension ; for, ternally to form, this is understanding, when is the end of the time which or the taking hold of the ideal ; from has gone before. The category of whence comes also the expansion of Diana, or rebound, does not imply natural being, and the love of the in, terminated continuity, but is only finitude, which is beyond. Therefore, change of course; and the extension to the category of Neptune belongs of surface has not necessarily any li- intellect, not as an internal likeness of mit

, till stopped by a boundary, which essence to the qualities of the ideal, incloses it altogether, and makes it but, rather, as a love of the certainty finite. Therefore, titi, when, is the of and permanence of form, as felt, in category of Vulcan, or of continuous contrast to the unstable nature of creextension stopped in its course. Vul- ated being. The original fluctuation can was reputed to preside over the and indefiniteness of natural being was termination of figure, which is limi- well understood by many of the antation between what is within, and cient philosophers. This was what what is beyond.

Thales meant, when he asserted that

the origin of all things was from water. CHAPTER VI.

And the following are also found

among the apophthegms of Thales, The Category of tror, how much,.. which are recorded by Diogenes LaNeptune.

ertius. Κάλλιςον κόσμος, ποίημα γας θεού. THE category of ποσόν, how much, μέγιστο τόπος, άπαντα γάρ κωσί, σοφώτατον relates only to that which is within xpéves éveuciones yag súita. In modern limits; for there can be no propor

times, when Spinosa wrote on subtions of quantities, till there is limita stantive existence, he endeavoured to

confound the differences of internal ation; and proportion, also, implies feeling, by saying, that they were all the separateness of the quantities attributes or affections of one subject, which are compared. To this cate- and that it is impossible that there can gory belongs music, as the proportion be any essential difference of being, of one tone to another; as, for ex

for that all substance, as capable of ample, the proportion of the fifth to being conceived by itself, must be inthe key note, which is three quanti- finite. But it cannot be conceived seties against two. Musical tone was formerly spoken of in the category of parate from the place in which it exa Apollo, as the continuous motion, or

ists. Nevertheless, natural being, as vibration of particular existence. But existing within limits, has a sort of the proportions of tone belong to the counterpart of infinitude in its


nal indefiniteness, which is like the category of Neptune ; since, in refer- darkness in the unfathomed abysses of ence to proportion, the tones must be

the When this is felt, individuconsidered as divided into finite parts, ality of being is forgotten, and apsusceptible of quantity. Ilarmony is

pears to be solved into the common two or more tones heard in the same

nature of original substance. But intime, and measuring each other. Quantity, therefore, is the relation tellect is the application of this

fluctus of that which is within limits to some

ating nature to form, whence comes other existence, which is also within also the sentiment of hope, which is

founded on the permanence of the limits, and capable of being called so

much, as opposite. The beginning of
the categories is from specice, or the

To the category of Neptune, therelikeness of particular existence to idea.

fore, belongs, not only the proportion The category of Neptune, which comes gainst each other, but also the origin

of separate quantities considered afrom being within termination, is op- of natural being, as contained within posite ; and, in it, is first found the nature of created being, or the ori limits, but unlike form. Aristotle, in ginal, dark, unstable, and uncertain treating of this category, considers it waters of chaos ; which (although ex

only in relation to quantity and pro-
isting within límits) were internally portion.
unlike idea. The characteristic of na-

tural being is its indefiniteness. But
this unstable nature, although so dissi-

The Category of buria, substance,

milar to idea, is with it in place; and,
when natural being applies itself in-

SUBSTANCE, or suzis, is the category


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of natural being, formed into solid the interior of individual being. The
parts, and made stedfast, so as to re name of Mars signified also the male.
main individual. This category, which
might be called a touov, or individuality,

Chapter IX.
has the same relation to that of Nep-
tune, as the earth has to the flowing The Category of ràoxsır, to suffer,-
and changeable sea. Therefore, sub-

Venus. stance may be called the category of Vesta, who also presided over the To suffer is to be changed, as to conihearth, as the most fixed and central dition, by the power of something expart of a house. As substance is cae 'ternal ; and this category is contrary pable of remaining fixed and unalter- to that of solsiv, to do. Instead of being ed, it is susceptible of fidelity, and of as the internal power of repelling other memory, as letters marked upon a substances from a place, it is like being rock. From thence was the name of drawn towards the place where they St Peter, who represented the faithe are. This is the origin of passive emofulness of the heart. For the same tion, and love, and may be called the reason, the nine Muses, daughters of category of Vemus. Farther, that of Memory, were said by Hesiod to have Mars is as the coming forth of active been begotten by Jupiter, when with power from within the limits of indiMnemosyne, in a rock, called that of vidual being; but this is as the yieldSaturn. The strongest feeling of du- ing of limitation, and as quantity ration is in the heart, which remains broken into. The putting together of fixed, while the Muses, or measures, equal and unbroken quantities prodance round Apollo, and join with him duces proportion ; but proportion is in celebrating the progress and beauty incapable of passing through the inof Time. But the fixed memory of past termediate grades of increase and diimpressions is contrasted with intele minution. Therefore the origin of lect, which is a spreading like the beauty is from the breaking of quan, waves of the sea, and an ever renewed tity, which is required to be freed and present application to the extend- from proportion, before there can be ed forms of the ideal.

unequal increase and diminution. The

birth of Venus is said to have been CHAPTER VIII.

from among the foam of the sa, and

her first appearance on the sea shore, The Category of wosłny, to do,--Mars. newly escaped from the dominion of

Neptune, or proportion; and beauty Action is the repelling of other suh- is the kind of freedom which may exstances from the same place. The ist in the lineaments of finite form, category of wotev, to do, is that of Mars, delivered from straightness and equaland is next in order, after that of Vesta, ity. or solidity. Forceand compulsion come The relation of curves to the catefrom the gross nature of substances, gory of Venus must here be spoken of. which are incapable of being in the same À circle is not in the category of beauplace. The ancients calied the reac- ty; for the circumference bends altion of bodiesăváyxn, or necessity, which ways at the same rate, and returns into merely signified their incapability of itself. A circle therefore is the curve going into the same place. This is the of unity, or Jupiter. But when a curve kind of action, among fixed and un- bends at an increasing rate, it becomes living substances, which only receive a volute rolling inwards, which is the motion from without. But the internal curve of Venus or passive affection, generation of motion seems to result The curve, which rolls in wards, ex. also from the parts of continuous being presses compression, or the approach of refusing to go into the same place; number or separateness to unity, and and, therefore, impelling each other, therefore may be called the curve of like the vertebræ in the spine of an Venus, or attraction. But the curve animal, as in the back of a crocodile which, setting out from a certain point, or alligator. For the spine is the part bends at a diminishing rate, escapes which expresses the internal origin of from the circle, and rolls outwards, power; but the upper part of the arm, taking always more space. This is the in the human form, expresses the curve of Ceres, or growing. Its crossthrowing out of active power, from ing the curve of Venus gives the first

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idea of mixture, or difference of qua- the second place, he mentions, as quality.

lities, active powers and abilities, as

strength for boxing and running, or CHAPTER X.

that health which is ability for enduThe Category of rods, of what quality,ring fatigue. In the third place, he

mentions qualities passively felt, as Ceres.

affecting that which feels them, as TAIS comes after the category of sweetness, or bitterness, or sourness, Táoxeuv, to suffer ; since, until affected or hotness, or coldness, or whiteness, by external causes, no individual ex, or blackness. The definition of quaistence differs internally from itself, as lities passively felt, comes nearest to to substance. From considering this that which is properly the category of in relation to the other categories, it Ceres ; although the other kinds of would appear that, from internal dif- quality, also participate in it. But, in ference of substance in individual be, the fourth place, he mentions, as anoing, begins the spreading out of differ- ther kind of quality, exñuá xat pogon,

ence of parts; but this is the most scheme and form, as also straightness difficult of all things to be understood, or curvature. These belong properly The seed of a plant is like fixed sub- to the category of Apollo, or modality, stance, affected from without, and ham and go to make the differences of exving its limits broken, so as to become ternal character and kind, which becapable of drawing nourishment from long not to the category of olòs, or inthe elements beyond. But, whatever ternal substantive quality. may be thought of this, it is certain that Tosòv, of what quality, must be the

CHAPTER XI. category of Ceres ; for, all growing, in The Category of xãio

Jas, to be situated, individual being, is from the reception

Minerva. of nourishment from without, and from feeling the quality of substance, so as The category of xãto Jai, to be situato receive or exclude it, according to ted, is the arrangement of parts in reits quality. Each plant selects, and, lation to each other; as the arrangefrom thence, forms an internal flavour ment of windows or pillars in a house, peculiar to itself. For instance, some or the relative position of threads in a herbs are found to grow, as receptacles web. But, in this category, the parts, for poisons; while the rose takes what which constitute a whole, must be is fit for its perfume, and the healing considered as originally moveable in plants of the earth seem to catch only relation to each other. The most perfrom the elements, the sacred myrrh fect exemplification of it is change of and incense that breathes through the attitude, in the human figure, and universe, and preserves from corrup- this may, therefore, be called the cation. Whatever is nourishing, is so tegory of Minerva, the shield-bearer, from the quality of its substance, and capable of altering her position. She therefore, this may justly be called the is said, by the ancient poets, to have category of Ceres, who presided over sprung from the head of Jupiter, comthe fruits of the earth. This is also pletely armed, which may signify hathe category of mingling, in so far as ving all the parts of the human figure

relates to the quality of mingling as in their order for action, motion, and W the differences of colour, which are feeling. As this category of relative

exemplified not only in flowers, but position is the principal one in regard to also in fruits.

inference, Minerva represented that Aristotle, in writing of Toày, or of which is in the head, namely, the power what quality, divides the category into of reason and arrangement. Among four different parts, which are not all the other deities, she was as St John mere differences of quality, in the among the apostles. To this category sense attributed to Ceres. But in the also belongs accusation, and question as discriminations he makes, are just

and to situation, and determining in what true in themselves. He mentions first, predicament any particular being is. as qualities, permanent habits and dis- But accusation may be true or false, positions, as understanding or virtue, Among the ancient inhabitants of and temporary situations or conditions, Athens, the city of Minerva, there as health or sickness, heat or cold. In were found more liars and false-aceu

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arrangement, and closely connected is its own limit,' and belongs to the wards this or that. It therefore be- preside over merchandize, and the de- en

sers, in proportion, than anong the the category of where, or Diana. And other nations. The English word to sensation by touch is felt in a form, as "AB lie, seems to have some reference to colour, bounded by straight lines or situation ; for lying is giving a false crooked, and touch belongs to the representation of the position of pare category of how, or Apollo. ticular being; but true report is that The categories of Mars, Minerva, which represents the real position of and Mercury, relate to reasoning. To circumstances.

reason is a voluntary exertion of the To this category, which comprehends mind's power, and therefore belongs y situation, and attitude or gesture, may to the category of saev, to do. To inbe referred the first notion of the dra- fer is to carry something into other Bri the ma, which should not be considered as circumstances, and belongs to arranged lartes, i a poetical fiction, but rather as a volun- ment, or the category of Minerva. In tary shewing of the situations or atti- reasoning the mind must comprehend tudes, in which human nature may be and keep the notion which is inferred, kes placed. In the ancient drama, the in- and therefore reasoning belongs to vention of new fables was not sought the category of exe to have, or Merafter, but rather avoided, and the cury. beauty of the drama was made to dle

The categories of Neptune, Vesta, pend on arrangement, fine composic and Ceres, relate to internal feeling, or tion, and the shewing of situations. intellect, stedfastness, and the feeling i helse, du The chief question was always, “ In of quality, in relation to the ideal. wbat circumstances is the hero now placed ?” Prometheus was seen bound

CHAPTER XII. to the rock, and suffering for having conferred forbidden gifts on mankind.

The Category of ixuv,to have, And #dipus was seen gradually accused by circumstances, and at last found The category of exeu, to have, is to in the predicament of horrible crimes; contain, or hold the particular within and the ancient drama was accompa- other limits besides its own, as money nied by music, which is also an art of in a purse. The figure of the money to ble with gestures.

category of Vulcan, but the purse

is The feeling of tendency is from the another limitation, including the first

. laying out of parts in a certain order Comprehension may be called the cate blogg or disposition, stretching more to- gory of Mercury, who was reported to longs to the category of arrangement. sire to possess. The same Arcadian Aristotle, in speaking of xilosas, to be region which contained Cyllene, the situated, only gives instances of it, as birth-place of Mercury, was also the fato be sitting or standing.

vourite resort of the goat-footed Pan. The whole of the categories may be The form of the reeds, in Pan's musical arranged into four parts, as follows : instrument, expresses comprehension;

The categories of Jupiter, Juno, and for, the air blown into them cannot esVenus, or position, separateness, and cape through, but, being confined on passive affection, relate to sentiment all sides, fills them, and returns again felt towards the particular.

in sounds. But the most perfect exThe categories of Apollo, Diana, emplification of the category of Merand Vulcan, relate to touch. Sensa- cury, is a thief in prison. For attion by touch comes from resisting or tempting to have what is not his, a stopping, and belongs to the category house, which is not his, has him. of when, or Vulcan. Sensation by touch is felt on surface, and belongs to

[In illustration of the above, we give the following extract from Mr Howison's new publication, of an Essay on the Sentiments, &c., with the Thesis of the Twelve Deities, and Europe's Likeness. We might have quoted other parts from the same volume, but have chosen the following, as having reference to the subject of the preceding Essay:

C. N.]

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