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alond his Emile. A variety of circum- dignified and unbigoted answer to stances, not generally taken into con- Rousseau came from the pen of a par- servitse sideration, contributed to the con- tizan of the Jesuits, and the head of univers or so deinnation and outery against this the Catholic church of France from primer phy work, and consequently swelled it to the same Christophe Beaumont, who perwal the vast importance it acquired. The refused the last sacraments of the greaten! Parliament, which had just suppressed church to the dying Jansenists. It is sai ole the Jesuits, could not shew themselves thus that the archbishop combats the samedisty deaf to the interests of religion-La errors, at the same time that he reBane had been burned alive for inde- spects the talents of Rousseau: corous behaviour, merely on the pre “From the bosom of error has arisen að pare sumption that he had overturned a a man full of the language of philoso« testis las wooden cross-the great were bound phy, without being truly a philoso- l eme bave to support Voltaire, yet it was incum- pher--a spirit gifted with an extensive bent on the authorities to display some knowledge, that has not enlightened several pred zeal. " Emile” had been written and him, but spread darkness even over his a her als even printed under the very auspices fellows-with opinions and actions at thed bear of Choiseul and Malesherbes; but it "variance, uniting simplicity of manner thing here became expedient to sacrifice the au- with internal haughtiness of thought; di Taze can thor, and they withdrew from him the the zeal for old maxims with the deletters in which his work was approved. sire to establish new, and the obscuri. berezize of The Parliament issued an cdict against ty of retirement with an insatiate eam Rousseau, which compelled him to gerness for distinction. He defaines fly,—the Archbishop of Paris attacked the sciences which he cultivates, exhis work with equal eloquence and tols the excellence of the gospel while superior truth,-the Sorbonne was in he destroys its principles, and paints such a hurry to attack him, that lay- the beauty of virtue while he strives cardulys ing aside its old custom of expressing to extinguish it in the souls of his itself in Latin, it thundered forth its readers. In a work on the inequality anathemas in bad French-the general of conditions, he has degraded man assembly of the clergy of France, the to the rank of brutes—in a later proPope, and even Geneva, hastened to duction he has insinuated the poison condemn and publicly burn the work, of voluptuousness, under the pretence some of them even before they had of warning against it; and in this he time to read it. All this was great fun lays hold of the earliest moments of to Jean Jacques, who eclipsed for a human life, that he may establish the while even the renown of Voltaire, and empire of irreligion." gathered all the eyes of Europe upon In contemplating the fortunes and himself. He took care to answer kings character of Rousseau, we are at one and archbishops, and let the small try time inclined to think, that if he had vex themselves in oblivion ; for a time possessed common sense, he might have he found a protector and a friend in been the greatest man in Europe ; and the worthy veteran, to whom alone he at another, that without bis extravaever remained attached and grateful. gance he would have been nothing. The suspicious self-tormentor, who The latter opinion is the most likely could discover but a spy in the phi- to be just, therefore let us examine the lanthropic Hume, could not find a flaw principal source of his fame in the in the character of George Keith. quarrels with his cotemporaries. The

The part of “ Emile” that drew partizans of Jean Jacques come to these down all this persecution on its author, discussions armed with the idea of his was the professior of faith of a Savoy- superior sensibility, which they conard vicar, where, half deist, half Chris- sider as an excuse for every crime, and tian, he eloquently vacillates between a salvo against every extravagance. the doctrines he learned from his phi- Now, for our part, we do not at all losophic friends, and the true dictates esteem Rousseau to have possessed of his own enthusiastic spirit. As usu- finer feelings or a warmer heart than al, neither party gave him any credit; the general run of what are called soft the philosophers disliked this mode of souls—in the history of his actions balancing the question, and were not there are many signsof callousness, even more favourable to his paradoxes than of barbarity; any tenderness he disthe devotees. It is surprising that, in plays is to ihe last degree selfish. Bu that age of boasted liberality, the only even allowing the utmost that hi


ated am friends can assert, we attribute his D’Epinay, in which, even by her own de pen din acuteness and morbidity of feeling not account of the affair, he acted on just and the by to a spirit of refined or superior or motives, was owing to Grimm. They Franco ganization, but to mere physical weak heart of Rousseau was hardened against Beaumont,

nesses ; nay more, to a distempered the world, and taught the harsh lesson ments d state of nerves, broughton by debauch- of mistrust, to which it was before top msenists.

ery. Genuine feeling of all kinds, be well inclined, by this mean and eavesp comie it sensibility or modesty, produced dropping coxcomb. It is impossible to me that is with a view to others or ourselves, is, peruse the literary history of that age

even in its finest state, essentially without being filled with indignation rror han healthy, rude, and pure. We have at the craft and baseness of this merage of phi heard of Dean Swift's saying, that the cenáry“ correspondent.”. What a usely a pill cleanliest people have the dirtiest ful school of experience is preserved in 1 an esa minds itis the same in feeling. Your the accounts of these societies, for the

enlighe dealers in scents and pocket-handker- youth who destine themselves to the even ore chiefs, have hearts of callous stuff, pursuits of literature! ad actis they seem refined because they are Rousseau and Diderot seem to have ty of ma weak, and feeling because they are balanced pretty - fairly between each of the distempered. There can be no trust other the account of injury. The with this in such men, who have principles no Confessions and the Vie de Seneque, the obser deeper than the surface of their nerves; with the famous note to the latter; insatiety there can be no safe communication are even. Rousseau commenced disa He debe expected with them, por from them. trust, Diderot commenced stility. tivates, & Hourly-varying humours destroy their Diderot was an obstinate reasoner, ospel ni very identity-in one hour, in one mo- and had set his heart on establishing ani pu ment, they can be noble, mean, genea the doctrines of materialism ; Grimm he sa rous, malignant,doubly dangerous, bem relates, that he could not sleep till he nuls di

cause they are sincere during the exe had satisfied himself that Virgil had

istence of the reigning passions, and approved the doctrines of Lucretius. -aded s

display to the new acquaintance their The passage on which he wished to

character in its most attractive light. found this assertion is, he post Nothing but fatal experience can teach

their friends, as it did Hume, that." Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere cauin this they but cherished a viper in their bo

Rousseau had a strange peculiarity, And his friends were compelled to rehe never could hate a man thoroughly, strain their opposition, that they might unless they had once been intimate not deprive hîm of rest. There is an together. If he had reason to hate anecdote, extremely characteristic of any one, it was Voltaire ; but having Diderot, as well as of the liberality and never seen the foe that pursued him. logic of the philosophers of those times. with the most cutting satire, he could Fréron, in his Année literaire, attacked · not thoroughly bring his mind to en. the philosophes in an essay called l'Hismity. He always spoke of Voltaire toire des Cacouacs, in which, alluding with respect and moderation, while he to his articles in the Encyclopedia, he vented his spleen against Grimm, Di, accuses Diderot of impiety. Now all derot, D'Alembert, and all who had the world knew that Diderot was a prothe ill luck to have professed a friendfessed atheist.;—this atheist and phic ship for him. He would not believe losophic stickler for the liberty of the there was such a person as Horace press, applied seriously to Malesherbes, Walpole, he must fix the blame of who was then at the head of the cena - having ridiculed him on Hume. His sorship, that the heavy hand of authofirst intimate was. Grimm, who çer- rity might punish Fréron for accusing tainly gave him just cause of offence him of impiety. Mark his argument whom he should have despised, and he does not say that the assertion is whom he would, if his nerves had per- false, but that it is a personality. The mitted him. His quarrel with Madame dignified answer of Malesherbes to


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* If we can call the sentence that Jean Jacques so bitterly complains of, hostility ;
que il n'y a que le méchant qui soit seul.


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Diderot might be perused with advan- dressed Hume always by the title of vieting at tage by some of our contemporaries. Mon cher Patron; it was subsequent uneiden

Nočwithstanding a few sarcastic re- remorse for this servility that render- und in marks scattered throughout his two ed him so anxious to break with his date's E novels against the philosophes, Rous- benefactor. When Voltaire published tale seau did not openly break with them, his poem on the Disaster of Lisbon, a 1 lkn bert till the publication of his letter Sur les he sent it to Rousseau, who was indig- as eputati Spectacles, in answer to D'Alembert's nant, as every man of sense ought to me to : article in the Encyclopedie, under the have been, at the poor sophistry and said, at title Genève. Before this, however, ludicrous impudence with which it algum he was a sworn enemy to Grimm, on arraigns Providence. Rousseauanswer- en date account of the affair with Madame D'. ed it in a private letter to the author, Tilawan, Epinay, and also to Holbach, who had full of eloquence and acute reasoning, sam stat adh denied the originality of the music in one of the best answers he ever wrote

, tani Per the Devin du Village, and who was a In the poem, there is a modest objec zi resity, kind of president among the philoso- tion against the earthquake for having byzated to phers, uniting them once or twice aa taken place in a populous city, instead in der noe week at his table, whence Rousseau of choosing the wilderness for the classes them all under the title of the scene of its depredations. “Shall the 2 in Ger Holbachich coterie. The letter, Sur order of the universe," says Rousseau, iteren Fran les Spectacles, was the signal of war; "be changed according toour caprices? Sarande Rousseau was determined to keep no shall nature be submitted to our Mabel K measures with Diderot, since he made laws ? and if it be our will to forbid the supposed discovery of the latter's an earthquake in a certain place, have having betrayed his intrigue with Ma- we but to build a town there?” The dame d'Houdetot to St Lambert. In reply of Voltaire was civil ;-that he the letter, he openly declared his en- was ill, and would take time to answer. Det kan tige mity, and almost as openly, the cause. The answer was “ Candide." Before, datore 'Tis difficult to conceive what busi- however, any sarcasm of Voltaire was ness D'Alembert had to persuade, by published against the optimist, Jean an article in the Encyclopedia, the Jacques made an


declaration of Genevese to open a theatre ; the ad- war." I hate you," says he, very povice might have been conveyed some litely, in one his letters. He was more other way, but it was most likely so in- jealous of Voltaire's being established troduced for the purpose of pleasing at Geneva, than of his reputation. Voltaire. Rousseau's letter had also Rousseau looked upon his native city as the effect of heightening the enmity of his property, and hated the owner of this philosopher, who at the very time Ferney as a usurper. The inferior was busied in erecting a theatre at rank of the literary men of that day, Ferney.

have all appeared, in their works, since The first communication that took his death, the enemies of Rousseau ; place between these two rivals, was a but this must be owing to the maligletter from Rousseau, on the subject of nity of the Confessions in a great measome music he wished to alter, ad- sure, and may be considered as a Todressed to Voltaire, and couched in taliation. Marmontel he offended, by the most humble and flattering terms. addressing one of his pamphlets to In the early correspondence of this M. Marmontel, not to the editor of the bear, as Madame d'Epinay calls him, Mercure ;" but the friend of Voltaire both with Voltaire and with Hume, hé and D'Alembert did not need this promakes use of a tone of servility not at vocation. He wrote a poor answer to all necessary, and which he took care the letter on the Spectacles ; and has to counterbalance afterwards, by a pro- preserved, in his Kiemoirs, & full acportionate degree of impudence. He count of Rousseau's intrigue with Mathat insulted the Prince of Conti, ad- dame d'Houdetot," and treason to St

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. The author of the History of Rousseau's Life and Works, is justly indignant with Mrs Morgan, for having traduced, and turned into ridicule, this amiable and aged lady, into whose presence she had the luck to be admitted. Whatever might have been Madame d'Houdetot's early indiscretions, it required a monstrous deal of impudence and indelicacy in a stranger, not only to suppose, but to publish her opinion, that at the age of eighty, this lady was still in search of a new intrigue.

Mr Sommeriva, who had purchased the Chevrette, and was intimate with Madame

Lambert, not forgetting a set speech “ Madame de Boufflers disapprouva of his own, that was evidently compo- beaucoup cette résolution, et fit de sed and manufactured in his closet. nouveaux efforts pour m'engager à pasSuard translated Hume's Exposé. Mo. ser en Angleterre. Elle ne m'ébran- : rellet has preserved anecdotes against la pas. Je n'ai jamais aimé l'Angle-, Jean Jacques ; D'Alembert, who, not- terre ni les Anglois ; et toute l'elowithstanding his reputation during quence de M. de Boufflers, loin de life, has shrunk since to an inferior vaincre ma répugnance, sembloit l'augrank of consideration, attacked his menter, sans que je susse pourquoi. memory in the eulogium on Marshal This is in direct contradiction with Keith. In short, there is not a single his letter to Hume, and is worthy of cotemporary of Rousseau, possessed of remark in this, that the only plea of the least celebrity, that adhered to him, the partizans of Rousseau consists in except Bernardin St Pierre. The rest the unimpeachable sincerity of the were visitors of curiosity, mere Bos- Confessions and their author. The WELLS, who mounted to his genet, to Confessions go no farther than the collect a page for their memorandum- year 1759, the period of his journey book.

to England; he purposed writing a Banished from Geneva, and from third part, but thought it better to Berne, as he was from France, Rousseau leave matters as they were. The took refuge in Neufchatel, under the abrupt termination of his auto-bioprotection of Marshal Keith. From graphy, allows us to be more circumthis retreat also he was soon compelled stantial in the details of the rest of to fly by the manœuvres of the woman Rousseau's life, a supplement relating he lived with, who was never satisfied to this period being all that is wantbut when in Paris. Therèse persuaded ing. Jean Jacques, that the Neufchatelese He arrived in Parisfrom Strasbourg, had determined to stone him; he thence December 1765. The Prince of Conti took refuge with one of his literary placed hiin out of danger of arrest, by antagonists, Stanislaus, King of Lore lodging him within the enceinte of the raine, who received and entertained Temple; and the police allowed him him at Strasbourg, with all possible to remain without any disturbance, on kindness and respect. It is worthy of the condition that he was to depart as remark, that while at Neufchatel, he soon as possible ; and, while he rereceived the sacrament in the Protes- mained, to drop the Armenian garb, tant church, and always attended di- and cease to attract crowds in the vine service in his Armenian habit. streets of the metropolis. In January At Strasbourg, he accepted the offer of 1766, he set out for London in comHume, who, then Chargé d'Affaires at pany with Hume, and M. de Luze, the Courtof France, wrote to Rousseau, à Genevese friend, who, it was agreed, offering him his protection, and an should accompany him. His letters asylum in England. Rousseau, in his from London after his arrival, bear answer, among other things, declares, testimony to the kindness and enthuthat after Geneva, England is the siasm with which he was received-a country where he should most like to testimony which he soon afterwards reside; notwithstanding this, in his takes the liberty of retracting, another Confessions, he accuses Madame de example of the reliance to be placed on Boufflers of having forced him to un the vaunted bonne foi of the author of dertake this journey,—that he never the Confessions. After proposing valiked England nor the English. rious plans and places of residence,

l'Hondetot, became anxious, as was very natural, to possess the portrait of a person so celebrated in the writings of his country. Madame d’Houdetot presented him rith the picture, on which were inscribed some pretty verses, “ that the original would soon be no more, but that here were the features of one who loved him as a mother.” This simple circumstance Mrs Morgan has distorted into a dishonourable connexion. " To comprehend such pure attachments,” says the author of the Life, “it is necessary, first

, to be capable of them ; secondly, not to run vainly after the character of a bez Esprit, but like Madame d'Houdetot, who never spoke ill of human person, learn to please without the aid of malignity.”

Madame d'Houdetot is not the only foreigner of distinction who has had reason to burde the day on which they took to patronizing this vulgar body.

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Hume settled his protegé with his cease persecuting you, the moments luther of the wron friend Davenport, at Wootton in Staf you cease to put your glory in persen saa lume asleep,

TK " Je tiens, fordshire ; and to satisfy the affected cution. independenceof Rousseau, it was agreed


en which, if true that he should pay some petty sum,

2e mare proud of

This sarcastic epistle shook Rouse and be deceived into the opinion that

H. The chief

seau more than the thousand pamphe e para consideration he was living solely on his own into lets and condemnations which had been an na pery to Walp plan of making Clairaut, the book- tor of the St James's Chronicle, that it seller, give Rousseau an enormous sum had navré son cæur. He accused in exchange for his Dictionary of music, D'Alembert of having written, and

like a dis one consid then ready for the press, for which; of Hume of having circulated it. And course, the bookseller was to be reim

olant, and that he

after some further delay at Wootton, bursed by Hume and his friends: the

Hume having begged of his friend benevolent deceit was frustrated by the death of Clairaut. While Jean Jacques grate, he fled in trepidation back to

Davenport, still to protect the inwas busied in writing his Confessions

France. at Wootton, Hume was employed in

These circumstances are so well London to obtain for him a pension i known, and the sensation and dispute this he succeeded in, when, after varicus demurs on the part of the fugi- almost impertinent to repeat

at the time, was so lively, that it is

thema tive, he at last gave Hume to under- here. The author of Rousseau's Life, stand, that he would have no further connexion with him. The worthy however, has taken advantage of the historian was confounded-remonstra

publication of Hume's correspondence ted, -and received a reply, where, to which renders it necessary that we

in 1820, to renew the controversy, his increased surprise and regret,

should touch finds himself accused; and in the

the disputable

upon third person, of every species of base points. Jean Jacques charged David ness and treachery. The cause of all Hume with opening his letters and this was the following letter, written reading them; and with having brought by Horace Walpole, in the name of the his actions, and this accusation dir King of Prussia, addressed to Rous- Musset-Pathay indirectly hints to be seau ;-it was written in French, we

just. He founds his opinion on this give the translation:

passage in one of Hume's letters, where, “My dear Jean Jacques-You have speaking of Rousseau, it says, “because renounced Geneva, your country. You he receives no letter by the post.” Mr have driven yourself from Switzerland, M. P's. note upon this is, “How was so vaunted in your writings. France Hume so au fait with respect to the has condemned you : fly then to me. letters of his friend ?”—a notable I admire your talents, and am exceede sort of proof this. We would not so ingly amused with your reveries, grossly insult the memory of the histhough, (between you and me,) they torian as to defend him against such are somewhat too long. It is time for accusers; nor would we at all have you to be wise and happy: you have taken the least notice of Mr M. P., sought vulgar fame enough by singu. were not his work highly spoken of in larities that do not much become a French society. The next complaint great man. If you want decidedly to of Jean Jacques against Hume is, that annoy your enemies, shew them that he fixed his eyes on him one evening, you have common sense. În my do- in a queer kind of a manner, on which minions you may find a peaceable re- he (Rousseau) fell to shaking and sustreat: I am your friend, and will prove pecting, and anon, leaped on the neck myself so, if you wish it. But if you of honest David, exclaiming “No, you reject my offers, remember that I will are not a traitor!" For this compliment not publish your refusal. If you per- David pats him on the back with“Quoi, sist io torture your mind to invent new Monsieur? Quoi donc, mon cher Monmisfortunes, choose what kind of mic sieur?” These pats on the back Jean sery best suits you. I am kivg, and Jacques bitterly complains of, as the can furnish you to your heart's con- effects of a total want of sensibility, tent. And,' what you will not find and of course, Mr Musset - Pathay among your enemies, I promise to echoes the accusation. Good, as

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