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Cæsaries illis atque aurea vestis,–Virgatis lucent sagulis; sagula virgata, vestes varii coloris ferunt.” And Pliny mentions “ Vestes scutulis (orbiculis in macularum plagularumque modum pingere) dividere gallia instituit."* The lower orders of the people made a cloth of wool and flax, of rough and shaggy exterior, so as to present a formidable appearance, and so strong as often to resist a weapon; but the stuffs worn by those of rank, and by women, were of very fine texture: the Celts were celebrated for dexterity in weaving.
They also wore costly ornaments, chains for the neck, bracelets, rings, and girdles of beautiful workmanship(os xwplos corpos Keltols) “ Lactea colla auro innectuntur.” Virg.: “ Etenim et manuum articulos et brachia armillis aureis exornant; circa collum insuper grandes torques gestant ex solido auro, et in digitis annulos—nonulli tunicas aureis et argenteis zonis cingunt.” There were certain armlets for which the Celts were distinguished, as of a fashion peculiar to them, “ Viriolæ Celticæ dicuntur, viriæ celtibericæ.” They wore the hair long, its growth was artificially encouraged, it was thrown on the back from the forehead and sides, and confined by combs, and often platted so as to present an extraordinary appearance; according to Diodorus. “Calamistro capillos inflectunt a fronte illos ad cervicem rejicientes ut satyris aspectu puerisque appareant persimiles capillos arte efficiunt crassiores ut nihil differant ab equorum jubis.” Some Celtic tribes shaved the beard, others wore it moderately long. The nobles shaved the cheeks, and suffered the beard to grow on the upper lip and the chin. (Barbam quidem radunt nonnulli nutriunt parcè. Nobiles genas quidam radunt vero adeo sinunt crescere ut operiant corpora quo accidit ut cum edunt repleantur cibo cum vero bibunt velut per canale potus videatur inferri ;) the Celtic women, whose forms are universally extolled by ancient writers, wore a profusion of ornaments. It may be conjectured from some extant coins, especially one of King Balanus, that the men wore hats something similar to such as Mercury is represented with, on gems and vases. The Celts preserved their ancient costume in all their various settlements, and after the Roman con- , quests. (Cæcina versicolore sagulo brachas tegmen barbarorum indutus.) Polybius has left some notices of the
• In Glamorganshire, peculiar plaids are still wom in different districts. manners of the Celts, especially of those who penetrated to the North of Italy; he says, “they dwelt in villages not surrounded by walls, their houses contain little furniture, they sleep on hay strewed on the foor, they eat much flesh, they are herdsmen and warriors, they pay little attention to any other arts but these; their mode of life is the most simple possible; they make great efforts to become possessed of gold and cattle, in which their wealth consists." It appears, however, from other testimony, that they must necessarily have been acquainted with other branches of agriculture, besides the rearing of cattle, even at a very early period ; for in the time of the earliest migrations recorded of them, it is said, they were unacquainted with the culture of the vine or the olive, but that they prepared a beverage from grain, barley, and oats. "Eo tempore cen vinum de vite noverant neque oleum quale apud nos oleæ ferunt sed vino utebantur ex hordeo aquâ macerato et avena graveolenti proque oleo suilla arvina, antiquata odore et gustu satis acerbo.” Other authors speak of the high state of perfection to which they had brought agriculture, especially in the northern provinces, (agrorum cultu virorum morumque dignatione amplitudine opum nulli provinciarum postferenda;) not only were the fertile plains and vales, but the sides of the hills, and even rugged eminences cultivated; “γεωργασι τα πεδια και τις αυλωνας τες εν ταις Αλπεσιν.--This is said of the Allobroges: “Ventum est ad frequentem cultoribus alium inter montana populum;"-it is known also that they were careful in manuring their grounds; they raised rye and a light sort of wheat, (ex generibus tritici levissimum est gallicum); they had also a mode of preparing grain which was not used elsewhere, (galliæ quoque suum genus farris dedêre quod illic braceni * vocant:) of some of the agricultural implements and machinery they appear to have been the inventors: “Messis ipsius raten varia-Galliarum latifundiis valli prægrandes dentibus in margine infestis duæbus rotis in segetem impelluntur jumento in contrarium juncto.” Thus appears that a considerable portion of the Celtic people were devoted to husbandry, the nobles and others of rank abandoned such occupations, and engaged in wars; and preferred perilous expeditions and adventures, as more congenial to their tastes; their wives undertook the management of their wide possessions, which were cultivated either by slaves, prisoners
of war, or those of their own people, who, through insolvency or crime, forfeited their liberties, or by hired labourers. Silius says,
“ Cætera femineus peragit labor, addere Sulco
Semina et impresso tellurem vertere aratro
Galaici conjux obit irrequieta mariti.' The Celts had much skill, as being originally a nomade race, in the management of cattle, the principal source of their wealth. Varro in his treatise on Agriculture, says, “non omnis apta natio ad pecuariam quod neque Basculus neque Turdulus idonei, Galli appositissimi, maxime ad jumenta.” Among their stock was particularly conspicuous the numerous herds of swine, of great size and ferocity; they derived considerable revenues from the exportation of the flesh, in a salted or pickled state; they were acquainted with the art of fattening them rapidly, and sent them in great numbers to all parts of Italy; but none dare approach them in the pastures where they fed, excepting the herdsman: “tam copiosi autem sunt celticis pecudum et suum greges ut sagorum, ut salsamentorum copiam non Romæ tantum suppeditent sed et plerisque Italiæ partibus-Sues etiam in agris pernoctant altitudine robore et celeritate præstantes a quibus siquis non adsuevit accidenti non minus quam a lupo est periculi.” Of the tribe of Liguria (Lloigar) particularly it is said, “Vitam re pecuariâ fere sustentantes et lacte ac hordaceo potu.” The Celts were much addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors, but, as in early ages, they had no vineyards, they used beer and mead: “Quare coacti homines potum sibi ex hordeo comparant quem appellant Zythum."*
Julian sarcastically says,
Wine was therefore imported by them in large quantities through all their settlements; they were so immoderately
Sudd is the Welsh for juice : probably cider comes from sidd-a-dwr, juice and water.
fond of it, that they drank it to excess, unmixed with water; and as Diodorus says, in their intoxication, either fell asleep or became furious. The Italian merchants deriving great profits, "pincernam puerum mercentur pro vini amphora.” At an early period, however, and long before the Romans invaded their country, they had learnt to cultivate vines. Pliny makes mention of
grapes in Gaul, and their mode of culture, and even of the arts practised in adulterating the wine by the admixture of liquors extracted from other plants and herbs, especially the Nardum Celticum. As the Celts possessed numerous herds, their food consisted chiefly of flesh, both fresh and salted, which they generally roasted, or broiled on coals; cakes and pastry were in use amongst them from the earliest ages, as Athenæus has recorded in his description of the Celtic banquets: and Strabo says “Cibus plerumque cum lacte est et omnis generis carnibus maximè suillis," pork was dressed in small earthen pots or on spits, "juxta eos ignes fiunt in queis ollæ sunt et verua plena carnibus.” They were, according to Pliny, the inventors of hair sieves ; to these is to be ascribed the fineness of the flour with which their bread and paste, so celebrated by Athenæus, were made; he speaks of the extraordinary lightness of both, as arising from another invention confined to them of mixing barm* with the flour—"frumento in potum resoluto quibus diximus generibus spuma ita concreta pro fermento utuntur; quâ de causa, levior illis, quam cæteris, panis est.” Generally the Celts sat on the floor at meals on wolf skins; before them was placed a small low table, “super luporum stratis pellibus;" the better classes, however, in Strabo's age,
, used higher tables, and reclined on couches as the Romans: “ Sedentes in loris cibum capiunt;" the description of the Celtic feasts taken from Philarchus, and Posidonius, referred to a remote period, when their manners were rough. The nobles gave public banquets on various occasions, to which the most distinguished for rank and wisdom were invited; and strangers, according to their birth or the object of their visit to them; young lads waited on the guests. Posidonius says they sat at low wooden tables; they ate but little bread, but much meat, which they conveyed to their mouths with their hands, from the dish, having first cut it with knives carried in their girdles ; fish in considerable quantities was dressed by them with salt, vinegar, and
Barm is perhaps from berwi, to boil or ferment. Barm is burym, is Welsh, from the root bur, which signifies violence.--Ed.
caraway-seed; oil they seldom used: they sat about circular tables, taking their places according to precedence of valour, birth, or opulence; behind the most conspicuous guests stood their shieldbearers, the humbler companions sat at another table; their spoons were of metal or of wood; the attendants served the wine in earthen or silver cups. Wine was drunk pure and copiously; their heads became heated, altercation, defiances, and desperate duels ensued; the foremost in station, after their meals were finished, drank first, from wide and shallow vessels of gold or silver; sometimes out of goblets or long horns, which were passed from one to another : “Consueverunt sumpto cibo ad verborum, prout casus intulit concertationem surgentes ex provocatione certare invicem nulla habita curæ vitæ.” The kings and princes occasionally gave public entertainments, at great expense, which lasted several days. Posidonius records such having been given by Luerius (Llyr). Gaul and Philarchus mention that of Ariamnes in Gallatia. From the observations already made with respect to the distinctions in rank, and the separated clanships and possessions, it appears, that among the nobles and freemen each was on his own particular domain the undisputed ruler, and exercised uncontrolled power over his property, his children, and household, whether attached originally to the soil, or had become his by right of conquest of their natural dispositions, as to character, it is said they were open and cheerful, free from any propensity to guile or malice: “Natio Celtica ingenio semplici et nulla malignitate devincto;" and Hirtius says of them, “homines aperti minimeque insidiosi.” And such was Cæsar's reliance on their fidelity, that he placed unlimited confidence in them in that most important battle against Pompey, for the empire of the world: they were naturally disposed to good, and desirous of improvement, imitating all they perceived to be such ; so inquisitively eager for knowledge that they questioned each traveller and foreign merchant, concerning the adventures of his journey, and the remarkable things to be found in other countries, and so much were they excited by these narratives, that they were sometimes stimulated to great efforts in their own land, and to expeditions into others, “ facile persuaderi sibi sinunt ut meliora amplectantur-letteris se dedere;” and that they were "genus ad omnia imitanda.” Diodorus describes them as quick of apprehension, and ambitious of knowledge: “Ingenio acuti-a doctrina minime alieni.” Strabo alfirms they had a great partiality towards