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CHAPTER CLIII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD BATHURST TILL HE RESIGNED THE GREAT

SEAL, AND WAS MADE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL.

His Qualifications and Conduct as a Puisne Judge, 443. Difficulty of disposing of the

Great Seal on the Death of Charles Yorke, 444. The Great Seal in Commission,

445. Incompetency of the Commissioners, 445. Their Decision that it is un-

lawful to print a new Play acted on the Stage, 445. Their improper Reversal

of a Decree which had been pronounced in favour of Lord Chatham, 446. Their

Reversal reversed, 447. The Great Seal committed to the most incompetent of

them, 447. Bathurst Lord Chancellor and a Peer, 447. His Insignificance of

Service to him, 447. He is installed, 447. One incompetent Judge better than

three, 448. Lord Bathurst not so bad an Equity Judge, when acting single, as

was expected, 448. His candour, 448. Sir Fletcher Norton's Sarcasm on Lord

Bathurst, 449. Lines by Sir C. H. Williams, 449. Stories circulated to ridicule

the Chancellor, 449. Dr. Johnson's Opinion on the Fitness of Chancellors for

their Office, 449. Character of Lord Bathurst from a contemporary Work, 450.

Length of his Chancellorship, 451. His Judgments, 451. He grants Injunction

against the Publication of Lord Chesterfield's Letters, 451. In Scotch Appeals

he is assisted by Lord Mansfield, 452. Writ of Error respecting Copyright, 453.

Lord Bathurst presides as High Steward on the Trial of the Duchess of Kingston,

453. His preliminary Address to her, 453. Q. as to effect of Sentence of Ec-

clesiastical Court? 454. Evidence, 454. Verdict, 455. Sentence, 455. Not a

Law Reformer, 455. Lord Bathurst's political Conduct while Chancellor, 455.

He draws and defends the Royal Marriage Act, 456. Lord Bathurst gives

King's Consent to the Election of Sir Fletcher Norton as Speaker of the House

of Commons, 457. He supports the American Non-intercourse Act, 457. He

introduces Bill to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act with respect to American Pri-

soners, 457. Question as to the Legality of raising Regiments, 458. Lord Bathurst

opposes the Acknowledgment of American Independence, 459. His indignant

Reply to Lord Effingham, 459. Lord Bathurst opposes the Bill making a Pro-

vision for the Family of Lord Chatham, 461. His last Speech as Chancellor in

the House of Lords, 462. A Failure, 462. He resigns the Great Seal, 463.

Reasons for it, 463. His Merit in patronising Sir William Jones, 463. Dedica-

tion to him of the Translation of the Orations of Isa-us, 464. Attempt to bribe

the Chancellor, 464.

LIFE OF LORD CHANCELLOR THURLOW FROM HIS BIRTH TILL HE WAS ATPOINTXD

SOLICITOR GENERAL.

The Author's Arrival at a Class of Chancellors whom he has himself beheld, 473.

Thurlow in the House of Lords in the Year 1801, 473. His Dress and Appearance,

473. His Speech upon a Divorce Bill, 474. The Impression which he made,

475. Extravagantly high Opinion of himself created by Thurlow among his

Contemporaries, 476. His Birth, 476. His Family, 476. His Father's Prog-

nostication of his Success in Life, 477. Early Prophecy that he would be Lord

Chancellor, 477. At Seaming School, 477. His Verses on " Cock-throwing," 478.

At Canterbury School, 479. At Caius College, Cambridge, 480. Charge against

him of insulting the Dean, 481. The Dean moves for his Expulsion, 482. He

is allowed to take his Name off the College Books, 482. Lent Term, 1751, 482.

His generous Behaviour to the Tutor of Caius, 482. And to the Dean, 483. Thur-

low a Law Student at the Temple, 484. He is placed as a Pupil in a Solicitor's

Office, 484. Account from Cowper, his Fellow Pupil, of their Idleness, 485.

Tharlow's Habits while keeping his Terms, 485. He haunts Nando's Coffee-

house, 486. Testimony to his Industry, 486. He is called to the Bar, 487. His

slow Progress, 487. His pecuniary Difficulties, 487. His Stratagem to find a

Horse to ride the Circuit, 487. He gains Distinction by putting down Sir

Fletcher Norton, 487. He is retained in the Douglas Cause, 488. He is pa-

tronised by the Duchess of Queensberry, 490. She obtains a silk Gown for him,

491. Thurlow's Qualifications, 492. Advantages of Self-confidence, 492. Thur-

low in his silk Gown, 493. He attaches himself to the Tories, 493. He is re-

turned for Tamworth, 493. Hearing of the Douglas Cause in the House of

Lords, 494. Thurlow's Duel with Andrew Stewart, 494. His maiden Speech,

495. He is appointed Solicitor General, 496. Comparison between Thurlow

and Sir William Blackstone, 496.

CONTINUATION Or THE LIFE OF LORD THURLOW TILL HE WAS MADE LORD CHAN-

CELLOR.

The Solicitor General's Conduct in Parliament, 497. Debate on the Bill to take
away the Attorney General's Right to file Criminal Informations, 497. Thur-

low's Speech against the Liberty of the Press, 498. He denies the Right of

Juries to consider the Question of Libel or no Libel, 499. His Speech against

Trial by Jury, 501. Thurlow is made Attorney General, 502. Mr. Attorney

General Thurlow is beaten in his Prosecution of the Printer of Junius's

Letters, 502. Case of Brass Crosby and Alderman Oliver for committing the

Messenger of the House of Commons, 504. Thurlow's furious Speech against

them, 504. He is chastised by Dunning, 504. Thurlow's Speech against

Lord Clive, 506. His first Encounter with Home Tooke: he is defeated, 507.

Thurlow opposes the Grenvilte Act, 507. His Attack on Authors and Book-

sellers, 508. His violent Hatred of the Americans, 508. His offensive Assertion

of the Right to tax Americans, 508. He justifies the Appellation of" Rebels,"

applied to the Americans, 509. His Assertion that " he left the lawyer in West-

minster Hall," 510. He maintains the Right to repeal all the Charters granted to

America, 510. His Doctrine that "Treason and Rebellion were the natural

Growth of America," 511. Thurlow is defeated in his Attack on Sir Fletcher

Norton, Speaker of the House of Commons, 511. Thurlow placed in a ludicrous

Position in the House of Commons, and once for a moment abashed, 512. He is

disposed to give some Relief to the Roman Catholics, 513. His Argument on

the Grenada Case, 513. Trial of the Duchess of Kingston, 514. Thurlow on

the Effect of the Sentence of the Ecclesiastical Court, 514. His Speech on the

Merits of the Case, 514. He prosecutes Home Tooke for a Libel, 516. His

Speech in Aggravation of Punishment, urging that Home Tooke should be set

in the Pillory, 517. Difficulty to account for Thurlow's House of Commons'

Reputation, 518. Gibbon's Account of him and Wedderbum, 519. Thurlow

Chancellor, 519.

CHAPTER CLVII.

CONTINUATION OF TBE LIFE OF LORD THURLOW TILL THE RESIGNATION OF LORD

NORTH AND THE FORMATION OF THE SECOND ROCKINGHAM ADMINISTRATION.

Thurlow installed as Lord Chancellor, 520. Cowper's Verses addressed to him

on this Occasion, 520. Thurlow's Qualifications as an Equity Judge, 521.

His Want of Industry, 521. Indifferent about Law Reform, 522. Assisted

by Hargrave, 522. Employs Mr. Justice Buller to sit for him in the Court

of Chancery, 522. Nicknames given to him, 522. His Habit of swearing on

the Bench, 522. Q Are Resignation Bonds simoniacal? 523. Constructive

Pretence of a Testator when Will is subscribed by Witnesses, 523. Money Land

and Land Money, 524. Origin of the Fortune of Lord Eldon, 524. Erroneous

Decision of Thurlow in Newman r. Wallis, 525. Lady Strathmore r. Bowes, 525.

First Opera House Case, 525. A written Judgment delivered by Thurlow, sup-

posed to be the Composition of Hargrave, 526. Complaints of Delays in the Court

of Chancery, 528. Lord Thurlow's Decisions in the House of Lords, 528. His

famous Decision in Bruce v. Brace, laying down the Rule with respect to

Domicile and the Succession to Personal Property, 529. Thurlow takes his

Seat in the House of Lords, 530. His furious Maiden Speech, 531. His De-

meanour on the Woolsack, 533. Thurlow about to lose his Authority in the

House, when he is attacked by the Duke of Richmond, 533. Butler's Account

of this Scene, 533. Thurlow's Speech against the Duke of Richmond, 534.

Thurlow becomes the Tyrant of the House of Peers, 534. Thurlow's ironical

Defence of the Bill to punish Adultery, 535. His Opposition to Lord Shel-

burne's Resolution in favour of Irish Commerce, 536. He attacks Lord Rock-

ingham's Motion for an Address praying for a Change of Ministers as uncon-

stitutional, 536. He opposes all economical Reforms, 537. He ably defends

the Employment of the Military to put down Lord George Gordon's Riots, 537.

Challenge to fight between two Peers, voted a Breach of Privilege, 538. His

Speech on the Rupture with Holland, 538. He defends the Execution of a
British Officer taken fighting with the Americana, &c, 539. The Elevation of

CHAPTER CLIX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD THURLOW TILL THE KINO'S ILLNESS IN 1788

Thurlow and King George III. in opposition, 555. Their Tactics, 555. Thur-
low's Attack on the Bill to acknowledge the judicial Independence of Ireland,

556. Thurlow in opposition becomes a Reformer, 557. Fox's India Bill

brought up from the Commons, 558. It is attacked by Thurlow on the first

Reading, 558. It is defended by Lord Loughborough, 559. Thurlow's Reply,

559. Rejection of Fox's India Bill, 560. Dismissal of the Coalition Ministry,

560. Mr. Pitt Prime Minister, 560. Thurlow again Chancellor, 560. Justi-

fication of George III. and Thurlow for their Conduct in opposing the Coalition

Ministry, 560. Scene when Wedderburn, First Commissioner of the Great

Seal, delivered it up to Thurlow as Chancellor, 561. Majority in the Lords for

Mr. Pitt, 562. Tranquillity there, 562. Debate in the Lords on the Resolutions

of the Commons against the new Ministry, 562. The Great Seal stolen, 563.

The Whigs suspected of the Theft, 563. Real History of this Affair, 564.

Order in Council for making a new Great Seal, 564. Order in Council for the

Use of the new Great Seal, 565. Great Seal again changed, 565. Prorogation

and Dissolution of Parliament, 566. Lines in the Rolliad on Thurlow with

reference to the Stealing of the Great Seal, 566. Triumph of Mr. Pitt on the

Appeal to the People, 566. Calm in the House of Lords, 567. Feeble Oppo-

sition to Mr. Pitt's India Bill, 567. Thurlow opposes a Government Bill re-

specting the forfeited Estates in Scotland, 567- Thurlow supports the Resolu-

tions for Free Trade with Ireland, 569. Recipe for making a Chancellor, 569.

M. de Vergennes' Treaty defended by Thurlow, 570. His Quarrel with Lord

VOL. V. a

CHAPTER CLX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD THURLOW TILL HE WAS FINALLY DISMISSED-

FROM THE OFFICE OF CHANCELLOR.

The King's Illness, 581. Course taken by Mr. Pitt, 582. Perplexity of the

Lord Chancellor, 582. His Intrigues with Carlton House, 583. Bargain that, in

consideration of his continuing Chancellor, he should support the Right of the

Prince of Wales to be Regent without Restrictions, 583. Mr. Fox arrives from

Italy, 584. His Letter to Sheridan, reluctantly acquiescing in this Arrangement,

584. Letter of Remonstrance from Lord Loughborough to Sheridan, 584. Mr.

Pitt discovers Thurlow's Duplicity, 586. Story of Thurlow being betrayed by his

Hat, 587. Mr. Pitt withdraws all Confidence from Thurlow, and employs Lord

Cnmden to carry through the Measures for a Regency, 587. Debate on Lord

Camden's Motion for a Committee to search for Precedents, 587. Lord Thur-

low's temporising Speech, 588. Information to Lord Thurlow of the King's

probable Recovery, 589. Thurlow's Imprecation upon himself if he should

forget his Sovereign, 589. Wilkes's Retort, 590. Thurlow's Attack on Lord

Loughborough for supporting the Rights of the Prince, 590. Expedient of

using the Great Seal without the King's Authority, 591. Letter of Thanks

from Queen Charlotte to Thurlow, 592. Thurlow again in Tears, 593.

Thurlow's great Popularity for his loyal Attachment to his Master, 594. Sar-

casms thrown out against him, 595. Burke's Attack upon him in the House of

Commons, 595. Burke's Caricature of Thurlow, 595. Disappointment of the

Whigs by the King's Recovery, 596. Parliament regularly opened under a

Commission by the King's Authority, 596. Thurlow's Reputation injured with

the Public, 597. His Hatred of Mr. Pitt, 597. Mr. Pitt's Representation to

the King as to Thurlow's Conduct, 597. Thurlow's Conduct for the next three

Years, 598. Thurlow displaced from his Position as Organ of the Government

in the House of Lords, 599. Lord Grenville substituted for him, 599. Debate

on the Russian Armament, 599. Earliest Notice in Parliament of the French

Revolution, 600. Speech by Lord Loughborough in praise of it, 600. Thur-

low's Defence of the Russian Armament, 600. His Abuse of the French Re-

volution, 601. Q Whether Hastings's Impeachment was abated by the Dissolu-

tion of Parliament, 601. Thurlow throws out Mr. Fox's Libel Bill, 602. The

last Session of Parliament in which he sat as Chancellor, 602. Difficulty of

understanding his Views and Objects, 602. He opposes Mr. Pitt's Bill for

establishing the Sinking Fund, 603. Mr. Pitt insists on his Dismissal, 604.

Mr. Pitt's Letter to him, 601. Lord North's Sagacity in foreseeing the Dis-

missal of Thurlow, 605. Thurlow dismissed, 605. Thurlow's Indignation

against the King, 605. Arrangement that he should continue Chancellor till

the End of the Session, 605. He tries to set the King against Mr. Pitt, 605.

His Attempt fails, 606. Justification of the King for taking part against

Thurlow, 606. Thurlow defends the Slave Trade, 607. He unsuccessfully op-

poses Fox's Libel Bill, 607. His Protest against it, 607. Last Day of the

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