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have been dug up in sinking the foundations. We have in Northumberland a limestone abounding in Terebratula and Anomia, the local name of which is the Cockle-shell limestone.
In a moss much resembling this, at Kirby Ravenswath, in the same neighbourhood, now draining, I found the same shells below the peat, which is about four feet thick, resting on a sandy clay. Formerly it has evidently been covered with water, forming the principal defence of Kirby Ravenswath Castle, which it partly surrounds.
Notice of Fresh Water found in the Sea at a great distance from the land. By D. BUCHANAN, Esq. (In a Letter to
Professor Jameson.) I HAVE received your letter of the 15th, in which you request me to give you an account of my voyage to Chitagong, during which the singular circumstance of our finding fresh water so far from land occurred. Not having thought much of this at the time, I fear I may have forgotten some of the circumstances attending it, but all that I do recollect shall be communicated to you.
In the beginning of September 1824, I embarked with the other officers of our regiment, in a country ship (having most of the officers of his Majesty's 54th Regiment on board), for Chittagong. We sailed out of the Madras Roads with a fair wind, which continued for four days; but, on the fifth, we were becalmed, and continued so for fourteen days, having had only once or twice a very slight breeze, which never lasted longer than a few hours. It was towards the end of this calm that I observed a very strange appearance on the surface of the glassy ocean. It seemed to be furrowed in several directions, and much agitated in these furrows, so that, when the ship was drifted into these parts, she was driven about in all directions. On the night of the 14th, a breeze sprang up. Owing unexpectedly tedious passage, we ran short of provisi cularly of water. You may suppose
what was our tonishment the next morning, in taking up the water to wash decks, to find that it was fresh, and much m ble than that which remained in our casks, which
diately replenished with it. By this day's observation we were 125 miles from Chittagong, and about 100 from the nearest part of the Junderbunds. The water was of a more yellow tinge than in most parts of the bay; and those who drank a great deal of it, suffered from it afterwards.
Description of Anatina villosiuscula, a new Species, and of
Venerupis Nucleus, a Species new to the British Fauna. By Mr William MACGILLIVRAY, M. W. S., &c. With Figures. Communicated by the Author.
I. ANATINA VILLOSIUSCULA.
Pl. I. fig. 10, 11.
Spec. Char.-A. TESTA ovata ventricosa, inæquivalvi, antice subtruncata, rugosa, minutissime granulata.
Description.-Shell ovate, ventricose, inequivalve, with the umbones nearer the anterior extremity, the posterior extremity rounded, the anterior subtruncate, thin, fragile, diaphanous, transversely wrinkled, white, slightly tinged with yellow. Right valve larger, and much more convex, with a more prominent umbo; umbones directly opposite; ligament double, the external short. One transverse scarcely prominent tooth in each valve, resembling an incrassation of the margin, immediately behind which, and directly under the umbo, is a deep sulcus. Posterior extremity shut close, anterior hiant. External surface covered with very minute prominent points, which, to the naked eye, are not individually distinguishable, but aggregately produce a dull or lustreless appearance; internal surface smoothish, shining at the ends, glimmering about the middle.
It will be perceived that this shell is closely allied to A. myalis of Lamarck, which is Mya pubescens of Turton, as well as to several others, such as Anatina truncata of Lamarck. It would be tedious to enter into all the explanations necessary for the accurate distinction of species so intimately connected. Our British conchologists have sadly puzzled themselves with this genus, which they have most injudiciously stuck to the
genus Mya, after Linnæus's example ; so that, to clear up all difficulties, would require a monograph.
The individual figured is from the Island of Harris, and is the largest in my possession. 2. VENERUPIS NUCLEUS. Lamarck Syst. v. p. 507. Pl. J.
fig. 12, 13. Spec. Char.-V. testa ovata, extremitatibus obtusa, ad umbones lævigata, transverse rugosa, longitudinaliter striis minutissimis decussata, latere antico lamelloso.
Description.-Shell broadly ovate, subrhomboideal, rounded at both ends, with the umbones close upon the posterior extremity, thick, transversely wrinkled, longitudinally very minutely striate, the umbones smooth and shining, the anterior extremity lamellar. Colour yellowish-white. Left valve with three, right with two teeth, much resembling those of Venus pullastra, but shorter. Anterior extremity a little hiant. Internal surface smooth, shining, white, with a purple spot at the anterior extremity.
It is allied to, but very distinct from, Montagu's Venus perforans.
The specimen figured is from the Island of Scalpay, in Harris; but I have seen one from the same place more than double the size.
Of the species here described, the first is supposed to be new; the second to be for the first time ascertained as British.
Account of the Capture of a colossal Orang-Outang in the
Island of Sumatra, and Description of its Appearance. By
Dr CLARK ABEL. In the Hunterian Museum there was, and probably still is, the arm of an orang-outang, which many years ago excited the curiosity of naturalists, and induced them to infer that it belonged to an animal exceeding in height the human species. That arm, we doubt not, belonged to the species here noticed by Dr ABEL, of which the following accounts, extracted from the fifteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, cannot but be read with much interest.
The individual described by Dr Abel was captured in the woods of Sumatra.
Capture of the Animul.- The following short history of the circumstances under which the animal was found, and of the mode of taking him, is drawn up from accounts which were furnished to Dr Abel, either directly or indirectly, by persons concerned in his capture.
A boat party, under the command of Messrs Craygyman and Fish, officers of the brig Mary Anne Sophia, having landed to procure water at a place called Ramboom, near Touraman, on the north-west coast of Sumatra, on a spot where there was much cultivated ground, and but few trees, discovered on one of these a gigantic animal of the monkey tribe. On the арproach of the party he came to the ground, and, when pursued, sought refuge in another tree at some distance, exhibiting as he moved, the appearance of a tall man-like figure, covered with shining brown hair, walking erect, with a waddling gait, but sometimes accelerating his motion with his hands, and occasionally impelling himself forward with the bough of a tree. His motion on the ground was plainly not his natural mode of progression, for even when assisted by his hands or a stick, it was slow and vacillating : it was necessary to see him amongst trees in order to estimate his agility and strength. On being driven to a small clump, he gained by one spring a very lofty branch, and bounded from one branch to another with the ease and alacrity of a common monkey. Had the country been covered with wood, it would have been almost impossible to prevent his escape, as his mode of travelling from one tree to another is described to be as rapid as the
the progress of a swift horse. Even amidst the few trees that were on the spot, his movements were so quick that it was very difficult to obtain a settled aim ; and it was only by cutting down one tree after another, that his pursuers, by confining him within a very limited range, were enabled to destroy him by several successive shots, some of which penetrated his body and wounded his viscera. Having received five balls, his exertions relaxed, and reclining exhausted on one of the branches of a tree, he vomited a considerable quantity of blood. The ammunition of the hunters being by this time expended, they were obliged to fell the tree in order to obtain him, and did this in full confidence that his power was so far gone that they could secure him without trouble, but were astonish
ed, as the tree was falling, to see him effect his retreat to another, with apparently undiminished vigour. In fact, they were obliged to cut down all the trees before they could drive him to combat his enemies on the ground, against whom he still exhibited surprising strength and agility, although he was at length overpowered by numbers, and destroyed by the thrusts of spears, and the blows of stones and other missiles. When nearly in a dying state, he seized a spear, made of a supple wood, which would have withstood the strength of the stoutest man, and shivered it in pieces ; in the words of the narrator, he broke it as if it had been a carrot. It is stated by those who aided in his death, that the human-like expression of his countenance, and piteous manner of placing his hands over his wounds, distressed their feelings, and almost made them question the nature of the act they were committing. When dead, both natives and Europeans contemplated his figure with amazement.
His stature, at the lowest computation, was upwards of six feet; at the highest, it was nearly eight; but it will afterwards be seen that it was probably about seven.
In the following description, which I give in the words of my informant, many of my readers will detect some of those external conformations which distinguish the young eastern orang outangs that have been seen in Europe. The only part of the description in which the imagination seems to have injured the fidelity of the portrait, regards the prominence of the nose and size of the eyes, neither of which are verified by the integuments of the animal's head.
66 The animal was nearly eight feet high, and had a well-proportioned body, with a fine broad expanded chest and narrow waist. His head also was in due proportion to his body; the eyes were large, the nose prominent, and the mouth much more capacious than the mouth of
His chin was fringed from the extremity of one ear to the other, with a beard that curled neatly on each side, and formed altogther an ornamental rather than a frightful appendage to his visage. His arms were very long, even in proportion to his height, and in relation to the arms of men ; but his legs were in some respects much shorter. His
generation were not very conspicuous, and seemed to be small in JANUARY-MARCH 1827.
His organs of