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tially distinguished by the presence of a corona, and in the persistent nature of the inner series of the floral envelope ; by their incumbent anthers; by the insertion of the styles ; by the placentæ being confined to the lower half of the capsule; by their straight embryo, and by the form of the cotyledons; and, lastly, by the absence of the fleshy scale (probably the rudiment of an arillus) at the base of the seed. The Malesherbiaceæ appear to be related also in a certain degree to Loaseæ, whose characters and affinities are yet but imperfectly understood. M. Auguste de St. Hilaire, in his valuable memoir on the affinities of the Cucurbitaceae, has already pointed out the affinity of Turneracee and Loaseæ to Passifloree.
The genus Malesherbia was established by Ruiz and Pavon in their Genera Plantarum Flore Peruviana et Chilensis, published in the year 1794, and dedicated to the memory of the unfortunate M. Lamoignon de Malesherbes, a distinguished philosopher, and a great lover of botany, who fell a victim to his zeal for the cause of justice and humanity, and for the honour and glory of his country, in the early part of the French Revolution. The genus was subsequently published by Cavanilles, in the fourth volume of his Icones Plantarum, under the name of Gynopleura ; but what was his object in changing the name does not appear, neither is it a matter of any importance. I shall now proceed to give a botanical description of the group, which may equally be considered as that of the genus
PASSIFLOREARUM genus, Juss. erianthium monophyllum, tubulosum, membranaceum, inflatum, coloratum, nervis decem in limbo diffusè ramosissimis, è basi sursum peragratum: faux coronâ continuatâ brevissimâ membranaceâ v. acutè dentatâ v. 10-lobâ, laciniis 2-4-dentatis, ornata; limbus duplici ordine 10-fidus, uterque persistens, patulus, æsti
vatione imbricatâ ; interiore petaloideo, æstivatione convolutâ. Stamina 5, hypogyna, exserta, apici columnæ inserta, laciniis interioribus perianthii opposita:
filamenta filiformia, glabra, compressiuscula: antheræ lineares, retusa, biloculares, filamentis mediatè annexæ, incumbenti-erectæ : loculis parallelis, margine longitudinaliter dehiscentibus, ab insertione filamenti ad apicem
ferè usque confluentibus. Pistillum : ovarium apici columnæ adnatum, subglobosum, obscure
triangulare, uniloculare: ovulis erectis, biseriatim indefinitis, fu
niculo umbilicali stipitatis : styli 3, longissimi, capillares, glabri, persistentes, valvis capsulæ alternantes, et inter ipsarum bases
inserti: stigmala simplicia, clavata, disco concavo pruinoso. Capsula elongata, trigona, l-locularis, apice trivalvis, dehiscens,
polysperma, basi membranacea : valvis crustaceis. Placentæ : costæ 3, prominentes, funiculis persistentibus seminiferis
stipatæ, parieti capsulæ infra dehiscentiæ locum insertæ, axique
valvarum perpendiculares. Semina, erecta, obovata, ventricosa, duplici serie ordinata, fusces
centia, funiculo umbilicali stipitata, apice strophiolâ fungosâ laceratâ, basi umbilico tuberculiformi aucta, extùs sulcis plurimis parallelis æquidistantibus longitudinalibus transverse rugulosis notata: testa duplex ; exteriore crustaceâ, crassiusculâ; interiore cartilagineâ membranaceâ: albumen copiosum, carnosum, aqueo
pallidum. Embryo erectus, teres, axilis, lutescens, albuminis ferè longitudine:
cotyledones orbiculatæ, crassæ, hinc convexæ, inde planæ, pen hemisphæricæ: radicula teres, crassa, obtusissima, recta, cotyle
donibus longior, centrifuga. Plantæ (Peruviæ v. Chili apricis propriæ) erectæ, ramosissimæ, pu
bescentes, caule infernè suffruticoso. Folia alterna, simplicia, exstipulata. Flores numerosissimi, axillares v. terminales, solitarii, sessiles, lutei.
MALESHERBIA, Ruiz et Pavon, Gen. Plant. Fl. Peruv. et Chil.
1. M. thyrsiflora, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis sinuato-den-
Chil. p. 79.
cheri, et Caxatambo (Ruiz et Pavon, Dombey); prope oppidum
gillo et San Buenaventura.-Ludovicus Née. h. Floret Aprili et Maio. Planta suffruticosa, 2-3-pedalis, fætida, hirsutissima. Folia con
ferta, sessilia, lineari-lanceolata, acuta, obtuse sinuato-dentata, suprà leviter canaliculata, basi aliquantulum attenuata, 2-3-uncialia. Flores Aavi. Perianthium tubulatum, sesquipollicare. Coronæ laciniis alternis exterioribus segmentis perianthii oppositis angustioribus, plerumque bidentatis.
2. M. paniculata, foliis oblongis obtusis pinnatifidis ciliatis, perianthii fauce dilatatâ, coronâ simplict acutè dentatâ,
Gynopleura linearifolia, Car. Icon. iv. p. 52. t. 376.? Hab. In Chili boreali.- Alexander Caldcleugh. h. (v. s. in Herb.
- Lamb.) Planta erecta, pyramidato-ramosissima, leviter canescens, S-4-pe
dalis. Rami teretes, pube subtili vestiti. Folia alterna, sessilia, nunc basi auriculatà amplexicaulia, oblonga v. lanceolata, obtusa, pinnatifida, pube sericeà pilis plurimis setaceis intermixtâ potissimùm ad margines ornata, uninervia, nervo pinnatè ramoso, patentia, semipollicem v. pollicem longa, et S lineas v. semiunciam lata; ultima lineari-oblonga, sæpe integra: laciniis oblon
gis obtusissimis; infimis duabus majoribus, stipulas simulantibus. Flores paniculæ modo dispositi, numerosissimi, pallidè lutei, sica
citate violacei! pedicello brevissimo crasso suffulti. Perianthium copiosè villosum, unciale: tubus angustus, cylindraceus, imâ basi callosâ : faux dilatata, campanulata, tubo duplò triplo ve longior: corona simplici, tenuissimè membranacea, multidentatâ, dentibus brevibus acutis inæqualibus, è nervorum calycinorum ramis lateralibus arcuatis ortum ducente: limbus duplici ordine 10-partitus, uterque persistens, coloratus; laciniis exterioribus calycinis, lanceolatis, obtusis, æstivatione imbricatis; interioribus petaloideis, alternantibus, ovato-lanceolatis, mucronulatis, lateribus parum inæqualibus, magis coloratis, æstivatione convoluto-imbricatis, basi aliquanto attenuatis. Nervi perianthit adhuc simplices, ad summitatem tubi in ramos tres divisi; alternis ramulo intermedio in laciniis petaloideis ramosissimè diffuso; calycinarum laciniarum ramulis lateralibus brevissimè distinctis, arcuatis, cæterùm confluentibus. Cætera ut in ordine.
For numerous specimens, both in flower and fruit, of this cutrious species, we are indebted to our highly valued friend Alexander Caldcleugh, Esq. F.R.S. & F. L. S. whose zeal in the cause of science is known and appreciated. He discovered it in the neighbourhood of Coquimbo in Chili, together with many other new and equally interesting plants, a complete collection of which he has transmitted to Mr Lambert. It may possibly prove to be the same with the plant of Cavanilles above quoted, notwithstanding the discrepancies in the description and figure ; but, as I have never seen specimens of it to compare, I dare not venture to affirm them to be identical.
Account of a Gelatinous Quartz or Siliceous Sinter, which forms the basis of varieties of old Red Sandstone By M. T. GUILLEMIN.
4. As this interesting mineral occurs in some of the sandstone of this country, we have drawn up the following account from a memoir of Guillemin, published in the Annales des Mines for 1826.
External Characters.—This mineral is of a pretty pure white colour, which, in some varieties, passes into greyish or yellowish white; it has a resinous or semiresinous lustre, and passes into dull; it presents itself in irregular masses ; its fracture is sometimes conchoidal, sometimes subconchoidal or even; it is scarcely translucid on the edges; when dull, it is opaque ; it scratches glass with difficulty, and is scratched by steel; it is easily frangible ; it adheres to the tongue, and is capable of absorbing a large quantity of water ; its specific gravity varies according to the quantity of liquid which it contains,
When immersed in distilled water, gaseous bubbles are speed. ily disengaged, which rise after one another; and, at very short intervals, a, whizzing noise is emitted, and from time to time cracks are heard ; a fissure then forms, and gives rise to a new column of bubbles. At the end of twelves hours, there are still bubbles escaping; after eighteen hours the absorption appears complete. If boiling water be used, the disengagement is much more rapid, and by means of it bubbles are still made to rise from a fragment that has been immersed in cold water for several hours, and which appears saturated. A fragment of about five grammes weight, already containing 11.11 per cent. of water, according to a trial made at the moment, still absorbed 14.36, in all 25.47 per cent. at the temperature of six degrees of the centigrade thermometer. A hundred parts of this sub stance, therefore, saturated with water, contain 20.30. Another fragment of about 10 grammes, dried before immersion, absorbed 24.51 per cent. of water at zero, or about a fourth of its weight, as in the preceding experiment.
These specimens, left to themselves for two or three hours,
returned to their original state, that is to say, came to contain only 11 or 12 per cent. of water.
The density of a fragment saturated with water was 1.80 at 64 degrees, 1.812 at 6 degrees, 1.797 at 13 degrees; that of a fragment containing 0.111 of water, 1.67 at 2 degrees; and that of a dried fragment 1.53 at 5 degrees. In the two last ex: periments, the absorption of water, and the disengagement of gases were prevented, by covering the surface of the fragments with a thin coat of olive oil. Lastly, the density of this substance, when weighed dry out of the water, and under the water, after an absorption of eighteen hours, was found to be 2.215 at 13 degrees of the centigrade thermometer.
Chemical Characters.-Exposed to the heat of a lamp in a small matrass, this mineral affords water; gently heated in a platina crucible, it gives out all its water without losing its resinous lustre; it becomes a little more translucent, with a tint of yellow opaline colour; when quickly heated, it decrepitates, splits, whitens, and becomes opaque by the intrusion of the air into the fissures which are formed.
It is infusible before the blowpipe. The thinnest splinters, when strongly heated, become transparent, and assume the vitreous lustre and hardness of hyaline quartz. It is affected, like pure silica, with all the chemical agents. Caustic potash in concentrated solution very readily attacks it at a boiling heat; it is dissolved almost instantaneously. Muriatic acid precipitates it in large white gelatinous flakes, when the liquor is concentrated ; and, on the contrary, when a sufficient quantity of water is used, a precipitate is not immediately obtained, and by evaporation a transparent jelly is procured.
Analysis.—The water is not combined in this siliceous sub
I thought, at first, that it was; having been deceived by the difficulty of chasing the last portions of this fluid, which is experienced when the heat of boiling water only is employed; but, I found, that, by a prolonged desiccation, the water always diminished, and at length was entirely expelled. The results of its analysis are the following: