Графични страници
PDF файл

stomach, makes a long curve downwards behind the left branchial heart, like another cæcum, before it mounts upwards on the fore part of the liver, to terminate at the base of the funnel. The liver is short, spherical, of the usual orange-yellow colour, composed of the ramifications of vessels filled with a coloured fluid. In the O. vulgaris it is cylindrical, from the greater length of the body; and, for the same reason, it is very long and cylindrical in the L. sagittata. Its canals are not surrounded by the pancreatic glands, which I have shewn, in the L. sagittata, to embrace and communicate with these ducts during their whole passage from the liver to the spiral stomach, and which were mistaken for the ovarium at a period when the structure of these animals was very little known, (See Edin. Phil. Journ., vol. xiii. p. 197), The want of these glands in the O. ventricosus is compensated for by the very large inferior pair of salivary glands. The ink-bag is deeply imbedded and nearly concealed in the substance of the liver, but it sends out its excretory duct from the lower and fore part of that organ, to terminate as usual in the anus. The colour of the ink is quite different from that of the L. sagittata ; and as the colour of this substance is constant in each of the cephalopodous animals, a more intimate acquaintance with this character might be useful in tracing relations among the different species. The colour of the ink in the L. sagittata is a deep brown, approaching to yellowish-brown, when much diluted, and corresponds remarkably with the coloured spots on the skin of that species. In the 0. ventricosus, the colour of the ink is pure black, and is blackish-grey when diluted on paper. The ink, brought in a solid state from China, has the same pure black colour as in the ventricosus, and differs entirely in its shade, when diluted, from that of the L. sagittata, as may be seen from specimens of these three colours on drawing-paper. Swammerdam suspected the China ink to be macle from that of the Sepia, Cuvier found it more like that of the Octopus and Loligo ; but different kinds of that substance are brought from China, probably made from different genera of these animals, where they abound of gigantic size. Ink is at present made from these animals in Italy (Cuv. Mem. p. 4), and from the immense shoals of the L. sagittata cast ashore every spring in the Firth of Forth, it might likewise be manufactured here. The ink is not contained in a simple cavity attached to the liver, but is diffused through a soft cellular substance which fills the ink-bag, and must render more tedious the preparation of this substance for the arts.

The oesophageal ganglia, compared to the brain and cerebellum of vertebral animals, were small, white, soft, without internal cavities, lodged in open recesses of the cartilaginous ring surrounding the æsophagus, and were separated from the esophagus only by a thin transparent membrane, to which they firmly adhered. The large reniform optic ganglia, the band of nerves proceeding from these to the retina, the white pulpy glandular masses within the back part of the sclerotic, the division of the lens, and the general structure of the eye, are the same as in the vulgaris. At the bottom of the large shut spherical cavities of the ears, which were capable of containing a garden pea, lay a very delicate membranous sac, containing a little fluid,

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

and a small red-coloured stone shaped like a limpet, the only earthy matter in this animal. These small bones of the ear are conical, solid, of a rose-red colour on the sides, flat and white on the base ; their apex is rounded and curved backward, their length, breadth, and height, are about half a line. When cut, they appear white and translucent within, like the inner layers of an oyster shell ; they are very slightly excavated in the centre of their flat base, and they dissolve with effervescence when touched with nitric acid, like other substances composed of carbonate of lime. The great nervous trunk accompanying the small artery in the central tube of the arms, the great ganglion, with about twenty nerves radiating from it, placed within the upper and back part of the mantle, and the other nerves and ganglia, were very conspicuous, and corres sponded in distribution to those of the vulgaris.

The specimen I dissected was a female, and the ovarium, consisting of beautiful detached ramified trunks, enclosed in a wide membranous sac, occupied the lowest part of the general cavity of the body, as in the other cephalopodous animals. The ova, instead of being attached by their peduncles to a single point, as in the vulgaris (See Cuv. Mem. p. 31.), were attached to the extreme ramifica. tions of about twenty branched trunks, which hung by separate stalks from the upper end of the membranous sac. The two reniform glands through which the oviducts pass, and which very, probably secret the coverings of the ova, as in the skate and other fishes, and connect them together, were about the size of a pea, of the same dark colour as the lateral hearts, and were placed about half an inch from the lower end of the oviducts. The oviducts opened on each side about half way between the lateral hearts and the anus.

Meteorological Observations made in Jamaica by the late John

Lindsay, Esq. Surgeon, Jamaicà. Communicated by W.
C. TREVELYAN, Esq. M. W. S. &c.

The author of the following Tables is well known to the public. He published an account of the Epidemic Catarrh of the latter end of the year 1789, as it appeared in Jamaica, in Med. Com. vol. xvii. p. 499, 1792. Also, an account of the Germination and Raising of Ferns from Seed, Trans. Lin. Soc. vol. xi. p. 93, 1792; of the Quassia Polygama, or Bitter Wood of Jamaica; and, of the Cinchona brachycarpa, a new species of Jesuit's Bark, found in the same island, Trans. Soc. Edin. vol. iii. p. 205, 1794.

A TABLE, shewing the Highest, Lowest and Medium Heat

at Sunrise ; between One and Two o'Clock, P. M. , and between Eight and Nine o'clock at Night, by Fahrenheit's Thermometer, for Five Years, viz. 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789 and 1790.

A. D. 1786.1 A. D. 1787.1 A. D. 1788.1 A. D. 1789.1 A. D. 1790,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

| Dec. 1 Nov. 1 Oct. 1 Sept. 1 Aug. 1 July. June. | May. | April. | Mar. | Feb.1 Jan. 1

Monthly and Annual number of Days on which Rain or Thunder is mentioned

in Mr Lindsay's Meteorological Journal, to have fallen from August 1785 to June 1792.









[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun. Rain. Thun.

15 1

19 5 12 2 14 4 19

13 1 16 1 February

22 16 2 16

9 19 20

11 March

12 16 10

9 25 19

14 9 April

10 29 8 14 1 16

27 10

19 4 May 17 10 23 10 19 3 23 13 22

25 20 23 4 June

25 15 21 16 22 19 21 19 23 23 24 13 14 12 July

28 14 26 21 28 21 23 15 29 17 21 12 August 26 20 23 17

17 22 17 22 15 27 27 27 19 September 25 19 25 12 25 16 29 16 22 17 24 20 30 18 October 30 20 20 6

18 10 24


11 25 7 November 18 7 12 1 16 6 23 10

20 9 24 12 December 17 6 13 3 9 1 | 19 318


16 4

The greatest quantity of rain appears to have fallen between the months of May and November. Hail is mentioned in Mr Lindsay's Notes to have fallen on the 27th and 28th of August 1791. A smart shock of an earthquake, which lasted about half a minute, happened on 21st October. Another is mentioned on 1st July 1791.





72 222

79 244

112 238

95 207

97 283

137 254

108 97



A Description of the genus Malesherbia of the Flora Peruvia

ana; with Remarks on its Affinities. By Mr David Don,
Libr. L. S.; Member of the Imperial Academy Naturæ Cu-

riosorum, of the Wernerian Nat. Hist. Society, &c.
THE characters and habit of Malesherbia appear to me suffi-
ciently important to establish it as the type of a distinct natural
group, to which the name of Malesherbiaceæ may be given.
The necessity of attending minutely to the structure, both of
the flower and fruit, is now universally admitted ; and I wish it
were as generally allowed, that the object of the botanist should
be rather to point out the real structure and affinities of indivi.
duals, than to attempt extensive and unnatural combinations, in
the present infantine state of botanic science : for it must be ad-
mitted, that nothing is more injurious to a system, than the un-
natural association, either of genera or species; and perhaps no-
thing has tended more to retard the advancement of systematic
botany, than the fear of an unnecessary multiplication of names,
thereby inducing the contracted' notion of retaining entire many
heterogeneous orders and genera. If we but turn our eyes over
the pages of works professing to be general Systems of Plants,
we will find abundant evidence of the justness of what has been
advanced; and if we but consider how few individuals in any of
the extensive genera or orders have been investigated with that
care and precision by which the true nature of their parts, and
their relative affinities, can alone be ascertained, we should not
perhaps be so averse to their separation into smaller groups.
The Malesherbiaceæ agree on the ore hand with Passifloreæ, and
on the other with Turneracea. They differ from the former in
their erect ovula ; in the insertion of the styles ; in their ascending
incumbent anthers; in the placentæ not extending above the
separation of the valves ; in their naked seeds ; in their
thick, fleshy, almost hemispherical cotyledons; and finally, by
their great difference in habit, and by the absence of stipules at
the base of the leaves. From the latter (Turneracee), with
which they agree well in habit, and in the structure of their
fruit, in their erect ovula, in the structure of the anthers, and
in the furrowed nature of their seed-covering; they are essen-

« ПредишнаНапред »