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how do they furnish them with food ; that is to say, do they carry away a portion to their haunts, or do they first swallow the whole, and then regurgitate or bring up a portion of it on their return, for the purposes
stated ? 5. Are bones found in holes, or in other spots, which form the resort of Wolves; and if so, do those ever occur in great quantities? 6. In what sijuation do the Cape Wolves generally live; that is to say,
do they always remain exposed in the open air ?, 7. Does more than one ever resort to the same habitation; or are they ever found in considerable numbers in large dens? 8. At what
age and size do the young generally begin to accompany their dam in search of food ?
31. South African Museum.-—(2d Series.) Out of the various important communications which have been received as an swers to the preceding inquiries relative to the wolf, the following additional queries have been suggested. 1. Does the wolf ever attack the human species ; and if so, under what circumstances are such attacks generally made,—that is to say, does hunger, rage, or some other particular state or situation urge them? 2. In those parts of the country where the Wolf generally sleeps in the open air, does he form any sort of artificial bed for himself; or does he simply lie down on the natural surface of the ground ? (In a very interesting communication lately received from Mr Wentworth of Wynberg, it is stated, upon most respectable authority, that they usually form slight hollows in the ground for their sleeping places, somewhat similar to those that are occasionally made by dogs for like purposes.) 3. If he pursues the former plan, are such formations ever observed in considerable numbers about particular spots ? 4. How many young has this animal generally at a birth? 5. During what particular time or times of the year have they their young? 6. Are they, when at their full growth, ever met with in considerable numbers together ; and if so, on what occasion ? 7. Do they ever swallow clay; and if so, under what circumstance? 8. In what sort of weather is the wolf most frequently, most daring, and most destructive ? 9. Are animals more likely to suf, fer from his attacks during moon-light than in dark nights; or is the reverse the case ? Andrew Smith, M. D. Superintendent. - The perusal of the above interesting queries, (communicated
by Sir James Macgrigor), circulated throughout Southern Africa, by Dr Smith, whose zeal and activity in every thing appertaining to the Natural History of Africa, cannot be too much prized, will interest our readers.
32. Narcotic Spider.-In the caves in Pennsylvania, there is found a black species of spider, spotted with blue over its ab: domen, and which has been given internally with success in certain fevers. It has the narcotic property, although in a less degree than opium. Mr Hentz, who relates this fact, mentions another species of spider which possesses a similar property in America, in which it is also indigenous. Spiders are known that have the property of raising blisters, and others which, on being swallowed, have caused an excitement of the genital organs like that produced by cantharides.-Journal de Pharmacie.
33. Power of the Stomach of Birds.-M. Constantin, in the Archives of the Society of Pharmacy of Northern Germany, mentions as a remarkable example of the power of the stomach, in resisting a mass of undigested matter, a fowl in the stomach of which there were found three large pieces of flint, three metal buttons, fourteen iron nails, several of which were still
very sharp, and a great number of small stones. tion of some slight scratches on the inner membrane, the stomach was in its natural state.
34. Vulture shot in Somersetshire.-Our intelligent friend W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.informs us, that a vulture was shot in June last, at Kilve, near Bridgwater, in Somersetshire. It was first observed walking on a road, and, on being pursued, flew towards the coast of the Bristol Channel, distant abont a mile, when it was found sitting on the beach, and shot. It had recently gorged itself with a putrid lamb, which may probably have been the cause of its allowing itself being approached within shot : on opening it for the purpose of stuffing, the smell was excessively offensive. Another bird, apparently of the same species, was seen near the place where this was killed, but it evaded pursuit. The specimen killed measured from the tip of the beak to the end of the tail, 2 feet 3 inches ; from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other, 5 feet 6] inches. A notice of the interesting fact,
With the excep
here recorded, was drawn up by Mr Trevelyan's grandfather, and appeared in the Newcastle Courant, of the 21st October last:
35. Gigantic Orang Outang.--A female of the Gigantic Orang Outang, has lately been met with in Sumatra, and brought from thence to Calcutta, where it has been examined and described by Dr Abel.
36. Irish Furze, Broom, and Yew. It is not generally. known that Ireland possesses varieties of the furze, the broom, and the yew, very different from any yet found in Great Britain. The Ulex europeus of Ireland is more upright in its growth than the common plant, more compact, but much softer, and scarcely prickly to the touch. The Irish broom is very remarkable, and seems to be really a different species from Cytisus scoparius, (Spartium scoparium, auct.). This is characterized by the pod being glabrous ori the sides, but furnished with a margin of short woolly hair. The Irish one has the pod so totally covered with long woolly hairs, as to appear at a distance like balls of white cotton. It in all probability will be found to be Cytisus grandiflorus, a species hitherto found only in Portugal. Lastly, 'The Irish yew is merely a shrub; the leaves are not distichous, as in the common Taxus baccati, but are quaternate. Of all the three, the British varieties are also found in Ireland, the above mentioned being rare.
37. Easy mode of Cutting Glass --Mr Buchner of Mayence describes in the Archives of the Society of Pharmacy of Northern Germany, a method of cutting glass, which is as follows: A thin card, one, two or three inches broad, is glued to the glass in such a manner, as to cover the line in which the fracture is intended to follow, in its whole extent. When the card is dry, a line is traced upon it by means of an iron or steel point, taking care' to cut it down to the glass. In this groove a thread is then placed of a line and a half or two lines diameter, and brought round the vessel. The latter is steadied, and two people laying hold of the extremities of the thread, move it rapidly backward and forward upon the glass. In less than a minute, and when the thread begins to smoke, the glass cracks. The author attributes this effect to the development of electricity, since, in this case, he says, we cannot admit an alternation of cold and heat, as takes place in other methods. The thickest pieces of glass may be cut in this manner.
1. Mathematics practically applied to the Useful and Fine Arts ;
by Baron CHARLES Dopin, Member of the Institute, of the Academy of Sciences, &c. &c. Adapted to the State of the Arts in England ; by GEORGE BIRKBECK, Esq. M. D., President of the London Mechanics’ Institution, &c. &c.
SINCE the publication of our last, some of the first numbers of this truly interesting work have made their appearance. A work of the kind has been long a desideratum in this country ;* and considering the high characters both of the author and translator, we have reason to expect that it will be such as the.' title bears, and productive of the happiest effects throughout the British empire. Though written in a masterly style, it at same time possesses all that simplicity and perspicuity which are so essential to such a work, and characteristic of true science. It is remarkable, that our operative classes should have so long kept before our continental neighbours, for practical skill in the arts and manufactures, whilst we have in general been as far behind them in a scientific point of view. The present work is well calculated to rescue both parties froin these equally unprofitable extremes of abstract speculation, and of human creatures labouring like inanimate machines, without understanding the rationale of their operations. At same time we are sure, that those who have made considerable proficiency in science, will not lose their labour by perusing this work. The specimen which we have seen both of the printing and engraving is excellent. But to most readers, the value of such a work would be almost doubled by using cuts inserted in the letter-press instead of plates. In this way, not only the task of seeking out the figure, but the far more irksome one of separately carrying every word. or letter between the figure and plate, would be in a great
measure saved. In books of geometry, plates, especially folding ones, are often fluttering in rage, whilst the work is otherwise entire. Baron Dupin is entitled to great praise for the pains he has taken to give a clear exposition of first principles; and, indeed, the student who considers the first rudiments of any science below his notice, is not likely to become a proficient. We think, however, that some improvement might still be made among the definitions. Thus, page 4, “ A right line is the shortest distance between any two points.” This, to be sure, is a characteristic feature of a straight line ; but unfortunately, it is of no use at the outset of the elements of geometry. To supply the place of Euclid's tenth axiom, a second clause is added defining a right line to be “ that which we trace by always proceeding in the same direction.” Now, the term direction has more need of definition than the other; and we know of no mode of defining direction, but by help of a previous knowledge of a straight line. The tenth axiom of Euclid, or its converse, forms the only definition of a straight line which has as yet been found of any use in demonstrating the first propositions in geometry. - It has therefore been adopted in this form by some authors of great note. In works exclusively devoted to elementary geometry, the demonstration of Euclid's twelfth axiom is lişually passed over as impossible ; and this makes it somewhat curious, that, in page 18 of Dupin, a demonstration of that notable theorem, on which so many have foundered, should have been attempted, as if it were a matter of no difficulty whatever. The demonstration, however, is not new, but it is not exactly given in its true colours ; for nothing is said of the infinite magnitudes of the lines and areas on which the whole force of the reasoning depends. A fairer representation of it may be seen in Professor Duncan's " Supplement to Playfair's Geometry and Wood's Algebra." This singular demonstration is somewhat allied to the method of exhaustion, though not by infinitely small quantities; but areas infinitely great intercepted between lines of infinite lengths, and it is therefore doubtful if ic be quite admissible towards the beginning of the elements of geometry, or if indeed it could be allowed in the higher branches of that science, In short, it is such as neither Euclid nor Archimedes would have tolerated; and we are not sure if the modern supporters of the OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1826.