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Do 19. Magnificent Crystalsiofi Sulphate of Iron, or Green ViChriol. Although this mineral ois cmpt of rare occurrence, it sel- dom rappears regularly crystallized. Lately crystals, exceeding

in colour, transparency, size, and form, the finest specimens produced by art, were found at Bodenmais in Bavaria, by, M. Moldenhauer, and noticed by Leonhardt. .-20. Iserine and Iron-sand in Cheshire - I send you a bag of mixed iserine and iron-sand, which I have, a few days ago, traced quite across the Hundred of Wirral in Cheshire, from the shores of the Mersey to those of the Dee. I found it many years ago at Seacoarse in that district, opposite to Liverpool, doose on the beach, and disseminated through a bed of crumb

ling sandstone, which lies below the thick bed of loam which forms the Cheshire soil at that spot. I afterwards traeed it a

long the shores of the Mersey for several miles, and lately, in na short marine excursion to the islet of Kilberry, at the mouth of the river Dee, I was pleased to recognise my old aequaintance, washed out of the sandstone rock which forms that (island, and the greatest part of the ridge of the Hundred of Wirral. I conceive this stone to be the Millstone Grit of the English geologists. Its upper bed is almost a farcilite, from containing many nodules of quartz, and occasionally some of a reddish felspar. It forms the ridge of Bidstone-hill and of Wallesey. At Hilberry Isle it lies just under the scanty soil, and rests on a much softer red sandstone, which


to be identical with that on which Liverpool stands, and which cuts off the coal-measures in the coal-fields at St Helens and Presept, ten miles east of Liverpool, as well as that of Neston in Wirral, on the shores of the Dee, opposite to Flint, and the portions of that same basin on the Welsh shores of the Dee, Indeed, in Liverpool the hard upper bed has been quarried as millstones, while the under red or yellow sandstone, is much charged with iron, and forms but an indifferent building material, which readily corrodes, when exposed to the weather.”—Letter from Dr Traill, Liverpool, to the Editors,

21. Bismuth Cobalt Ore.External Characters.Colour intermediate between lead-grey and steel-grey ; lustre metallic, and glistening or glimmering;, texture radiated, partly stellylar, partly parallel. It scratches fluor-spar, but this degree of

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Hardness is occasioned by intermisted quartz. Streak dull, co- lour not changed, but the powder soils. Specific gravity 45 44%. Chemical Characters. Before the blowpipe on charcoal, gives out white vapours of arsenious acid; deposits on it

yellow crust, during which the ore becomes of a brown colour. When well roasted before the blowpipe, and then mixed with glass of berax and melted, it communicates to it a smalt blue colour. If some small pieces of the ore are exposed to a low red heat in a glass-tube it affords a considerable quantity of arsenious acid.Constituent Parts ---Arsenic 77.9602; cobalt 9.8866; iron 4.7695; bismuth 3.8866 ; copper 1,3030 ; nickel 1.1063 ; sulphur 1.0160 = 99.9282. The characteristic ingredients of this ore are arsenic-cobalt and arsenic-bismuth, a combination of these metals hitherto not met with in the mineral kingdom Geographic Situation.-Has hitherto been found only at Shneeberg in Saxony-We owe our knowledge of this minei al to Mr Kersten of Göttingen. 1622. Selenium in Red Copper Ore.-Kersten of Göttingen,

on exposing the capillary red copper ore of Rheinbreitenbach' to the blowpipe, perceived a seleniferous smell, which, on farther examination, he found to be owing to the presence of selenium sin that ore.

The capillary red copper ore of the Bannet he did inot find to contain any selenium. lines


***23. Discovery of a New Substance in Sea Water.-M. Ballard of Montpellier, has discovered a peculiar substance in sea-water, which he names Brome, and considers it intermediate between iodine and chlorine. It has a disagreeable smell; hence its name, from Bearpcos (fotor) * It occurs, in very small quantity, in sea-water: even the mother water of salt water contains but



• Brome is fluid at the average temperature of the atmosphere, and even at 18° below O centig. In quantity its colour is reddish-brown ; in small quantity it is hyacinth-red; colour of its vapour exactly similar to that of nitrous acid. It is very volatile, and is converted into vapour at 47° centig. Smell very strong, resembling that of chlorine ; its density about 3. It de

as chlorine does, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ethe stroys crits atom 9,328, that of oxygen being 1.' It forms interesting to

eight pounds with different substances, and is an active poison.

Marine plants and animals also contain Brome. The ashes of the Janthina violacea afforded minute portions of it;, also the mother-water of barilla, employed for the preparation of iodine; and it was detected in a mineral water from the Eastern Pyre


24. Iodine and Lithion in the Mineral Springs of Theo doreshall at Kreutznach.-M. Mettentreimer of Frankfort, has detected in the waters of these springs, of which the principal constituent parts are muriate of soda, muriate of lime, and muriate of magnesia, also iodine and lithion.

25. Thickness of Salt Water Ice.--Lieutenant Ross tried the thickness of the salt water ice during different periods of the winter, by digging holes in that formed upon the canal by which the ships had entered, and found it to have increased in the following ratio :

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26. Sword Fish caught in the Frith of Forth.—Mr Slight, one of the assistant engineers under Robert Stevenson, Esq. has sent to the College Museum a remarkably fine specimen of the sword fish, which was found, in the month of September last, lying on the banks of the Forth between Stirling and Alloa. It is seven feet in length; perfect in all its parts; and will form a most interesting addition to our Museum.

27. Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood in Insects.Carus of Dresden, the celebrated comparative anatomist, has, it is said, discovered the circulation of the blood in insects.

28. Turf-Leech.-Weber has published an interesting account of a species of leech, which brings a great price, and is found in the turf-bogs in Germany; it is named Hirudo stagnalis.

29. Notice of two new species of British Sponges-When on the west coast of the island of Islay, in the summer of 1825, I observed, at low water, many small pools, in the gneiss and mica-slate cliffs near Portnahaven, completely lined with millepores, from whose elevated lobes large specimens of the Corallina officinalis, and tufts of the delicate Corallina rubens, shot up their jointed branches. On the lower part of the rocks, I found some dwarfish specimens of the Sertularia pumila, and Alcyonium gelatinosum, clinging to the leaves of the Fuous serratus and vesiculosus, and, along with some flustræ, adhering to the cuplike portions of the Fucus loreus ; the deeper parts between the precipices waved with lofty forests of the Fucus palmatus. At the bottom of the cliffs, which are excavated into fearful caves, and long narrow.coves, by the action of an ever tempestuous sea, I perceived, amidst a rich display of marine vegetation, numerous specimens of the Spongia papillaris, and of the Spongia tomentosa, which appears to be only a variety of the same species. My attention was attracted at this place by a substance of a deep blood red colour, about two inches in diameter, and spread as a thin layer on the under surface of one of the rocks. From its dangerous situation, I could only obtain some particles of it, sufficient, however, to show that it was a species of sponge hitherto unknown to me. This summer (1826) I met again with the same blood red species on the shores of Iona, and abundantly on Staffa; and on landing at ebb-tide at the entrance of the spar cave (Macalister's Cave) in Skye, I found it in large patches on the under surface of the slaty projections, on the left side of the cove, which leads up to these magnificent subterranean vaults. I have represented the form of its spiculum magnified fifty times, (Pl. II. fig. 9.); and as the concurrent opinion of my friend Dr Fleming leaves no doubt in my mind of its being a new species, I have termed it Spongia sanguinea, from its very striking blood-red colour in the living state. It spreads on the under surface of rocks to the extent sometimes of six inches in diameter, with a thickness of more than half an inch, and it has always the same deep red colour. The general surface is flat; but, on minute examination, it is found to be covered with numerous small round elevations and depressions, and the fecal orifices, which are numerous and small, are always observed in the depressed parts. The pores are very "minute, and appear like perforations made by needles of different sizes. This species feels very slimy when torn, and abounds nearly as much with parenchymatous matter as, the Spongia panicea, to which it has a close affinity in its s general form and habits. Its spicula are silicious, rather long, (taking always that of the Spongilla friabilis (Pl. II. fig. 1.) as a standard of comparison), curved, equally thick throughout, obtuse at one end, and pointed at the other, (see Pl. II fig. 9.). The spiculum which I have represented in Pl. II. fig. 3., belongs to a sponge,

which I likewise believe to be an undescribed British species, and which I have named Spongia cinerea, from its remarkable blackish grey colour. I met only with a single specimen of this sessile species, about two years ago, in the Firth of Forth, and I have not since observed it on any other coast. It grew on the inclined side of a rock, had an irregular outline and was about three inches in length, one in breadth, and half an inch in thickness. My attention was attracted to this specimen, from its perfect resemblance to a dark putrid sponge, but on immersing it in water, I found it still in a high state of vitality. Its surface was smooth, convex, fleshy and transparent. Its pores required a lens to be distinctly seen, and its fecal orifices were few, very large, regularly circular, and lay rather deeper than the general surface. Its spicula were remarkably uniform in size, rather small, curved, equally thick throughout, pointed suddenly at both ends, and silicious, (see Pl. II. fig, 3.) Dr Grant.

30. South African Museum.-- (1st Series.). The attention.. of the public is particularly requested, by Dr Smith, Superinten, dent of the South African Museum, to the following Queries, and information on the points to which they allude is most ear! nestly solicited from such individuals as may have had opportu,

..... nities of acquiring it. 1. Does the Tiger Wolf, or what is, generally' denominated the Cape Wolf, carry away its prey , @r, 1 does it always devour it on the spot where it first finds it? 2. If he ever carries it away, what seems to be his reason or rea- 191 sons for so doing? 3. When he happens to fall in with more a than he can at once consume, does be simply abandon the sun plus, or does he carry it away? 4. When they have young,

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