« ПредишнаНапред »
than if those principles and rules were spread over a larger surface and intermixed among others of less importance.
It is with this design, that, in the following work, those rules and principles of English grammar, which, from their importance, deserve to be impressed on the memory in the clearest and most forcible manner, are embodied into a distinct General View, comprising only a few of the first pages. With the same design, the octavo form has been adopted, as being the best calculated to present at a single view, a suitable number of those rules and principles, without rendering the size of the book inconvenient. The definitions and inflections of the parts of speech are arranged in the body of the page ; the correspondent rules of Syntax on the margin ; and the lessons for parsing, numbered and selected to correspond with the rules, are placed immediately under them, and opposite to the definitions.
By means of this arrangement the student becomes practically acquainted with Etymology and Syntax both at the same time. Etymological parsing alone is deficient; it may serve to familiarize the learner with the variations of the verb, for instance, as, Love, Lovest, LOVES ; but it requires Syntax to show him the reason of those variations, viz - to denote the agreement of the verb with nominatives of different persons. Thus Etymology and Syntax mutually explain and illustrate each other; and should, therefore, always be studied together.
Lesson 1st respects Articles and Nouns only; and the examples in this lesson are designed to exemplify the definition of nouns and the division of them into common and proper; the definition of the articles, their effect in limiting the signification of the noun, the force of the noun without any article, and the application of the first rule of Syntax.
In Lesson 2d, the Adjective is introduced ; and the examples in this lesson, besides answering the purpose of additional exercises on the articles and nouns, are especially adapted to illustrate the second rule and to familiarize the learner with the definition, use and comparison of adjectives.
Lessons 3d and 4th exemplify the distinction of Nouns with regard to Gender, Number, Person, and Case, with the Declension of Nouns, and the 3d and 4th rules, relating to the Agreement and Government of Nouns; and so on through all the parts of speech, every successive lesson exemplifying some new principle, and adding some new matter to the stock of information already acquired from the preceding ones.
The system of Mr. Murray has been further improved in the following respects.
The division of verbs into active, passive, and neuter,—the neuter including only such as express simply being or a state of being, and the active including all such as express action, with the consequent subdivision of active verbs into transitive and intransitive, has been adopted. This arrangement of the verbs is simple and easily comprehended ; and it avoids the inconsistency, so embarrassing to
the learner, of ranking verbs expressing the highest degree of action
- such as to walk, to run, to fly, &c. in the same class with verbs expressing no action at all.
To the second and third persons singular of the present tense subjunctive of verbs generally, and to the present and imperfect tenses of the verb to be, and of passive verbs, two forms have been assigned ;- the 1st or indicative form, which denotes simply contingency; as, “ If he desires it, I will perform the operation," that is, "If he now desires it;"_and the 2d or varied form, which denotes both contingency and futurity; as, “If he desire it, I will perform the operation, that is, “If he should hereafter desire it.”—“ This theory of the subjunctive mood claims the merit of rendering the whole system of the moods consistent and regular; of being more conformable than any other to the definition of the subjunctive ; and of not referring to the indicative mood, forms of expression, that ill accord with its nature and simplicity.”
An abridged and improved system of punctuation has been inserted in this edition. The absence of the old system will not be regretted by those, who have attentively observed how very irregular and inconsistent it is, even in the hands of Mr. Murray himself; nor can that annexed to this volume, scarcely fail of being approved by all who will take the little pains necessary to examine and reduce it to practice.
PART I. - ORTHOGRAPIIY.
General Observations on the Sounds of the letters,
Promiscuous Exercises in False Orthography, .
PART II. - ETYMOLOGY,
Of the definition and use of Etymology,
Condensed views of all the parts of speech,
Direction for Parsing, -