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in the kingdom, the number of hours employed in reading, and the quantum of effect produced in conversation, by this prodigious circulation of newspapers. At a first view it would seem, that the entire adult population of Great Britian, did nothing else but print and peruse journals. It is however, sufficiently obvious, that these channels of intelligence and of opinion are so widely ramified, that they must have an incalculable influence on the weal or ill of the people. This ought to be a solemn warning to those who conduct them, beyond all laws of restraint, above the dread of all associations to prosecute, and dearer than any motives of selfish interest. We would exhort the very humblest of our brethren, never to loose sight of the heavy responsibility under which they act.—The lowest, paper has its circle, upon whose minds it operates; and its duty, even with the highest, is—to speak the truth, discourage vicious, and instil beneficial principles. To those whose popularity gives them an extensive sphere, weneed hardly insist on the important nature of their functions.—Every one superintending a periodical work in great demand, must be made sensible of his power at every step he moves.--It meetshimin society, in public and in private: it deeply affects individual and general interests: tastes are formed, judgments are upheld, acts of moment are done on no other grounds, and too often with no other inquiry. It ought therefore, to be constantly felt, that
** 16 is excellent
To have a giant's strength; but it is tyrannous
To use it like a giant."
The bonds upon editors are manifold.—Self interest, the basest of them all, ought to dictate impartiality and justice; but the stronger ties of literary character, of utility, of honour, and of public duty, are twined about their hands and heads; and, without exalting them above the due estimate of their influence, we would again repeat that, as the responsibility is onerous, so, when well acquitted, must the reward be mighty, and the sense of gratification unbounded. We meant, in this view of the newspaper press, to have described at some length, the labours connected with the varieties of newspapers; the weekly and daily publications; but our space compels us to brevity. We shall pass the weekly, and just sketch a morning newspaper; the contents of which would make a three guinea volume, as books are now fashionably got up. In the first place the ories. ments are continually printing. During the sitting of parliament, each journal has from six to ten, or more gentlemen of literary acquirements, engaged in reporting the debates. These succeed each other in rotation, in the gallery of the house of commons, or space for strangers in the upper house; and remain, as may be requisite, half. an hour, an hour, or two hours respectively, to take notes of what passes; as one retires, another occupies his place; and the succession lasts till the business is done. In the same way, the matter is delivered to the printers: the first reporter goes to his office and writes out his part of the debate, while the second is carrying on the system K 2 of of note-taking; and so the whole proceeds through three, four, five, six, seven or ten individuals. This division of labours, renders that practicable which we daily see, and which would otherwise be thought impossible. The same principle is seen in the printing-office, or chapel, as it is called. The principal printer receives the debates written on slips of paper, and distributes them to his ten or fourteen compositors, to be put in type. When finished, the matter is put regularly together, and impressions are taken as the work goes on, which are submitted to another officer, called the reader, for correction. A lad reads the MSS. to this person, while he cons the proof, and jots on the margin, the needful alterations. Again handed to the compositors, these alterations are made in the type; and the proof is read twice more before it is finally made up into columns for the editor, and for putting into the shape in which it is published. The news, and politics, and all other branches of the paper, undergo a similar process; and it is altogether curious to see the busy and active scene in which, perhaps, ten able writers, a great number of clever printers, superintending readers, correctors, printers, and editors, are all cooperating to the same end—the publication on the morning of the morrow, of that well filled sheet, of which the very commencement was witnessed some twelve hours before. The circumstances of getting the sheets stamped at the Stamp Office, wetting for printing and submitting them to the press, in pages or forms (i. e. two pages together), it would prolong this article too much to de
tail: we shall only mention that, for expedition's sake, it is often necessary to print the latest made up pages four or five times over? so that, though only one sheet is produced, it is frequently set up, in facsimiles, twice or thrice. To conclude the whole, the publishing of a large impression is, in itself, remarkable. The speed with which reams of moist paper are counted, and disposed of in quires, dozens, single papers to the various newsmen—the clamour of their boys, and the impatience of the devils, constitute a spectacle of no common kind. The evening papers, which take their reports from those of the morning, are, of course, spared a very considerable expence. Some of the leading morning journals disburse, for literary assistance and printing, above 200l. weekly; none of the evening, we presume, expend one half of that amount, however liberal they are in providing for the public entertainment and information. In the weekly prints, the system is nearly the same; only they proceed more leisurely, inconsequence of-their work being spread over six days. Few of them employ reporters, or look much after original matter; except, perhaps, that some of the leading Sunday newspapers obtain an account from the law courts on Saturday, and of any late news on that day. Their expences are thus compara. tively inconsiderable, and their emoluments great. It is not easy to speak with certainty, nor would it be right in us to do so, of the profits of any particular journals, we shall therefore conclude by stating the common rumour, that, at least, one morning paper is worth
worth from fifteen to eighteen; two from eight to ten; one evening, more than ten; and one, or perhaps two weekly, from three to five thousand pounds per anhum.
The newspapers and periodical journals published in the Russian empire, including the official gazettes of St. Petersburgh, (but not those published in Riga, Mitau, Dorpat, &c. in the German language,) are the following:—“The Petersburgh Gazette,” called also the Court Gazette, edited by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, begun in 1718, and published every Tuesday and Friday in the Russian language. It contains domestic and foreign news, very often extracted from the “ Hamburgh Correspondent.” It has three supplements, two of which contain official and private advertisements, and the third scientific articles drawn up by the academy. This paper is also published in German in the same form, but with this difference, that the article on foreign news is very ably written by Mr. Schubert, a member of the academy. “The Russian savalid, or Military Gazette,” has been published ever since February, 1813, in three different editions, Russian, Polish, and German. The proprietor and editor, Mr. Pesarovius, from the beginning assigned the profits of the paper for the benefit of the soldiers wounded during the last war, and for the widows and orphans of the deceased. This patriotic undertaking was crowned with adequate success; the number of subscribers was very considerable, and patriotic donations dowed in from all parts of the em
pire, so that Mr. Pesarovius, after having distributed very considerable sums among the invalids, was enabled, in December, 1815, to present to the emperor a capital of 395,000 rubles in bankbills. The emperor did not leave him unrewarded ; he also appointed him member of the committee of invalids, consisting of his adjutants-general. Since this time, the “Russian Invalid" has become the organ of the military ordinances. Besides these, it contains the foreign news, without any particular selection, from the Hamburgh and Berlin papers. “The Gazette of the Senate” has appeared since 1811, every Saturday, in Russian and German, in 4to. and contains the Ukases, &c. of the emperor, published by every department. The “Conservateur Impartial,” published every Tuesday and Friday, in 4to. in the French language, and edited by the Abbé Manguin, is not of much importance. It contains court news, advertisements, and foreign intelligence from the “Hamburgh Correspondent," and “Journal des Debats.” “The Journal of the Imperial Philanthropic Society,” appears in monthly numbers of six or seven sheets, in the Russian language, and contains news respecting several Russian as well as foreign charitable institutions; together with the reports of the society. The following are the daily and other journals published in the Russian language; of which “The Son of the Country; or, the Patriot,” claims the pre-eminence. It has been edited, since October, 1812, by Mr. Gretsch, formerly director of the military school for mutual instruction of the imperial - guards.
guards. It is published every Saturday, in numbers of three 8vo. sheets, and is dedicated to Russian history, politics, and Russian and foreign literature. It contains many original articles, and extracts from travels, written in the Russian language. This journal is distinguished for the severe, very often satirical, tone of its criticisms, which are not always impartial, and which involve its editor in a continual war with the other journals. The fine arts are also treated of by “The Patriot;" it lately contained a very interesting article on the last exhibition of the academy of the Fine Arts, and a very severe, but, as it appears, a well-founded criticism on the plan of the new church of St. Isaac's, built by Mr. Monterrund. —Mr. Gretsch was lately fortumate enough to obtain the distinguished assistance of Mr. Wojekoff, formerly professor at Dorpat, of Mr. Tukowski, a poet of the first rank, and of Mr. Batuschkoff, now at Naples. “The spirit of the Journals,” edited, since 1815, by Mr. Tatchenkoff, counsellor of state, is published in numbers of several sheets, every fourteen days; and contains several valuable articles on political economy. The language of this journal is very free and daring. “The Well Disposed,” published by Mr. Izmailoff, counsellor of finance, in numbers of four sheets every fortnight, is solely dedicated to literature, and occasionally contains very interesting essays in prose and poetry; but the editor is accused of partiality to trivial subjects, and is called the Russian Teniers. “The Promoter of Civilization and Beneficence.” published by
the society of friends of Russian literature, has appeared since 1818, in monthly numbers, of from seven to nine sheets, and contains partly original essays and partly translations relative to history and literature. The profits of this journal are allotted to the support of learned men. The director of this society, Mr. Glinka, colonel of the guards and military governor of St. Petersburgh, is a man highly distinguished for his talents and principles. “The Courier of Siberia," published by Mr. Spaszki, who has resided many years in that province, as intendant of the mines, appears in monthly numbers of five sheets, and contains much important historical and geographical information relative to that imperfectly known country. “The Spectator on the Neva” is published by a society of young men, and appears in monthly numbers of six or seven sheets; it began only this year, and contains literary and scientific articles, chiefly translations. The following daily and other Journals are published at Moscow. First, “The Moscow Gazette,” published by the University. It contains extracts from the daily papers of St. Petersburgh, and advertisements; it appears twice a week in 4to., has a very great sale in the interior of the empire, and prints no fewer than 7,000 copies. Secondly, “The European Courier,” a literary and political journal, begun in the year 1802, by Mr. Karamsin, published every fourteen days, in numbers of five sheets, 8vo., and containing very valuable information respecting the history of Old Russia, as well as critical examinations of the
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the antiquities of the country. The present editor is Mr. Katchenowski, professor of Archæology to the University of Moscow, and perhaps the most learned of all the Russian journalists. Thirdly, “The Russian Courier,” published by Mr. Serga Glinka, every fourteen days, since 1808, in numbers of from three to five 12mo, sheets. It is dedicated to Russian history and education. The editor is distinguished for his ardent patrio
tism, and his hatred to every thing that is not Russian. Fourthly. “The Historical, Statistical, and Political Journal,” which has been carried on without interruption for twenty-five years; but is nothing more than a translation of the Political Journal of Hamburgh. A Journal is published at Kasan, in the Russian language, edited by the professors of that University.”
HEN the Fine Arts of a country excite very general interest they make a part of its history. Each year, we have observed, that, the numbers increase who visit our exhibitions of paintings, though these exhibitions, also, increase annually. We shall not remark very minutely upon individual strictures, unless their extraordinary merits, in the public approbation bestowed upon them, should render it desirable; but we shall allot more space than we have usually done to this department of the fine arts, though our strictures will be of a very geBefore the works of the old masters were annually exhibited at the British Gallery,
the sight of a fine collection of paintings was rarely enjoyed by our artists, or if by special favor they gained access to the mansion of a noble collector, they had seldom the privilege of contemplating, at leisure, what they saw : their enthusiasm was aroused, but they gained very little besides. Every one acquainted with the difficulty of success in this art, will allow, that with scanty advantages much was done by the painters of the middle of the last century. To add to these disadvantages the knowledge and taste of those, who, by fortune, were qualified to have been their patrons, was very limited; the farthest extent of connoisseurship went not
ussian National Library was in pos
* Russia has now 350 living authors. Most of them are of the nobility. One-eighth
of the whole number are clergymen. !. in the Russian language. In the year 18
to the year 1807, 4,000 works had appeared 0, the
session of almost 3,000 volumes by native authors, among which there were 105 romances. There are already 8,000 works in the Russian language. Moscow has nine
public libraries and ten printing offices; St. Petersburgh, seven public libraries and fifteen printing offices; Wilna, one public library and five printing offices ; Revel, Dorpat, Cracow, have each one library and two printing offices. In all Russia there are only eight or nine letter-founderies. .