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in the kingdom, the number of The bonds upon editors are
hours employed in reading, and manifold.-Selfinterest, the basest
the quantum of effect produced of them all, ought to dictate im-
in conversation, by this prodigious partiality and justice; but the
circulation of newspapers. At stronger ties of literary character,
a first view it would seem, that of utility, of honour, and of public
the entire adult population of duty, are twined about their hands
Great Britian, did nothing else and heads; and, without exalting
but print and peruse journals. them above the due estimate of
It is however, sufficiently obvious, their influence, we would again
that these channels of intelligence repeat that, as the responsibility
and of opinion are so widely ra- is onerous, so, when well acquitted,
mified, that they must have an must the reward be mighty, and
incalculable influence the the sense of gratification un-
weal or ill of the people. This bounded.
ought to be a solemn warning to We meant, in this view of the
those who conduct them, beyond newspaper press, to have described
all laws of restraint, above the at some length, the labours con-
dread of all associations to prose- nected with the varieties of news-
cute, and dearer than any motives papers; the weekly and daily
of selfish interest. We would ex- publications ; but our space com-
hort the very humblest of our pels us to brevity.
brethren, never to loose sight of We shall pass the weekly, and
the heavy responsibility under just sketch a morning newspaper;
which they act. -The lowest pa. the contents of which would make
per has its circle, upon whose a three guinea volume, as books
minds it operates; and its duty, are now fashionably got up.
even with the highest, is—to In the first place the advertise-
speak the truth, discourage vicious, ments are continually printing.
and instil beneficial principles. To During the sitting of parliament,
those whose popularity gives them each journal has from six to ten,
an extensive sphere, we need hardly or more gentlemen of literary
insist on the important nature of acquirements, engaged in report-
their functions.-Every one super- ing the debates. These succeed
intending a periodical work in each other in rotation, in the gal-
great demand, must be made sen- lery of the house of commons, or
sible of his power at every step space for strangers in the upper
he moves.--It meets him in society, house; and remain, as may be
in public and in private: it deeply requisite, half an hour, an hour,
affects individual and general in- or two hours respectively, to take
terests : tastes are formed, judg- notes of what passes ; as one re-
ments are upheld, acts of moment tires, another occupies his place;
are done on no other grounds, and the succession lasts till the
and too often with no other inquiry. business is done. In the same
It ought therefore, to be con- way, the matter is delivered to
stantly felt, that

the printers: the first reporter " It is excellent

goes to his office and writes out To have a giant's strength; but it is

his part of the debate, while the tyrannous To use it like a giant.”.

second is carrying on the system

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of note-taking; and so the whole tail: we shall only mention that, , proceeds through three, four, five, for expedition's sake, it is often six, seven ten individuals. necessary to print the latest made This division of labours, renders up pages four or five times over? that practicable which we daily so that, though only one sheet is see, and which would otherwise produced, it is frequently set up, be thought impossible. The in fac similes, twice or thrice. To same principle is seen in the prin- conclude the whole, the publishting-office, or chapel, as it is called. ing of a large impression is, in The principal printer receives the itself, remarkable.

The speed debates written on slips of paper, with which reams of moist paper and distributes them to his ten or are counted, and disposed of in fourteen compositors, to be put in quires, dozens, single papers to type. When finished, the matter the various newsmen—the clamour is put regularly together, and im- of their boys, and the impatience pressions are taken as the work of the devils, constitute a spectacle goes on, which are submitted to of no common kind. another officer, called the reader, The evening papers, which take for correction. A lad reads the their reports from those of the MSS. to this person, while he cons morning, are, of course, spared a the proof, and jots on the margin, very considerable expence. Some the needful alterations. Again of the leading morning journals handed to the compositors, these disburse, for literary assistance alterations are made in the type; and printing, above 2001. weekly; and the proof is read twice more none of the evening, we presume, before it is finally made up into expend one half of that amount, columns for the editor, and for however liberal they are in proputting into the shape in which it viding for the public entertainment is published. The news, and and information. politics, and all other branches of In the weekly prints, the system the paper, undergo a similar pro- is nearly the same; only they process; and it is altogether curious ceed more leisurely, inconsequence to see the busy and active scene of their work being spread over in which, perhaps, ten able writers, six days. Few of them employ a great number of clever printers, reporters, or look much after orisuperintending readers, correctors, ginal matter; except, perhaps, printers, and editors, are all co that some of the leading Sunday operating to the same end-the newspapers obtain an account from publication on the morning of the the law courts on Saturday, and morrow, of that well filled sheet, of any late news on that day. of which the very commencement Their expences are thus compara. was witnessed some twelve hours tively inconsiderable, and their before. The circumstances of emoluments great. It is not easy getting the sheets stamped at the to speak with certainty, nor would Stamp Office, wetting for print- it be right in us to do so, of the ing and submitting them to the profits of any particular journals, press, in pages or forms (i. e. two we shall therefore conclude by pages together), it would prolong stating the common rumour, that, this article too much to de at least, one morning paper is

worth

worth from fifteen to eighteen; pire, so that Mr. Pesarovius, after two from eight to ten; one even- having distributed very consiing, more than ten; and one, or derable sums among the invalids, perhaps two weekly, from three was enabled, in December, 1815, to five thousand pounds per an to present to the emperor a canum,

pital of 395,000 rubles in bank

bills. The emperor did not leave The newspapers and periodical him unrewarded; he also apjournals published in the Russian pointed him member of the comempire, including the official ga- mittee of invalids, consisting of zettes of St. Petersburgh, (but not his adjutants-general. Since this those published in Riga, Mitau, time, the “ Russian Invalid" has Dorpat, &c. in the German lan- become the organ of the military guage,) are the following :-“ The ordinances. Besides these, it conPetersburgh Gazette,” called also tains the foreign news, without the Court Gazette, edited by the any particular selection, from the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Hamburgh and Berlin papers. begun in 1718, and published “ The Gazette of the Senate” has every Tuesday and Friday in the appeared since 1811, every SaRussian language. It contains turday, in Russian and German, domestic and foreign news, very in 4to. and contains the Ukases, often extracted from the “ Ham- &c. of the emperor, published by burgh Correspondent.” It has every department. The “ Conthree supplements, two of which servateur" Impartial,” published contain official and private adver- every Tuesday and Friday, in 4to. tisements, and the third scientific in the French language, and articles drawn up by the academy. edited by the Abbé Manguin, is This paper is also published in not of much importance. It con. German in the same form, but tains court news, advertisements, with this difference, that the arti- and foreign intelligence from the cle on foreign news is very ably “Hamburgh Correspondent," and written by Mr. Schubert, a mem “ Journal des Debats.” “ The ber of the academy. “ The Rus- Journal of the Imperial Phisian (pvalid, or Military Gazette," lanthropic Society," appears in has been published ever since monthly numbers of six or seven February, 1813, in three different sheets, in the Russian language, editions, Russian, Polish, and Ger- and contains news respecting seman. The proprietor and editor, veral Russian as well as foreign Mr. Pesarovius, from the begin- charitable institutions; together ning assigned the profits of the with the reports of the society. paper for the benefit of the sol The following are the daily and diers wounded during the last other journals published in the war, and for the widows and or Russian language; of which "The phans of the deceased. This pa- Son of the Country; or, the Patriotic undertaking was crowned triot,” claims the pre-eminence. It with adequate success; the num has been edited, since October, ber of subscribers was very consi- 1812, by Mr. Gretsch, formerly derable, and patriotic donations director of the military school for dowed in from all parts of the em- mutual instruction of the imperial

guarda,

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guards. It is published every the society of friends of Russian Saturday, in numbers of three 8vo. literature, has appeared since sheets, and is dedicated to Rus- 1818, in monthly numbers, of sian history, politics, and Russian from seven to nine sheets, and and foreign literature. It contains contains partly original essays many original articles, and ex and partly translations relative to tracts from travels, written in the history and literature. The proRussian language. This journalfits of this journal are allotted to is distinguished for the severe, the support of learned men. The very often satirical, tone of its director of this society, Mr. Glinka, criticisms, which are not always colonel of the guards and military impartial, and which involve its governor of St. Petersburgh, is a editor in a continual war with the man highly distinguished for his other journals. The fine arts are talents and principles. also treated of by “ The Patriot;" “ The Courier of Siberia," pubit lately contained a very interest- lished by Mr. Spaszki, who has ing article on the last exhibition resided many years in that proof the academy of the Fine Arts, vince, as intendant of the mines, and a very severe, but, as it ap- appears in monthly numbers of pears, a well-founded criticism on five sheets, and contains much the plan of the new church of St. important historical and geograIsaac's, built by Mr. Monterrund. phical information relative to that --Mr. Gretsch was lately fortu- imperfectly known country. nate enough to obtain the distin. * The Spectator on the Neva" guished assistance of Mr. Woje- is published by a society of young koff, formerly professor at Dorpat, men, and appears in monthly of Mr. Tukowski, a poet of the numbers of six or seven sheets; it first rank, and of Mr. Batuschkoff, began only this year, and contains now at Naples.

literary and scientific articles, “ The spirit of the Journals," chiefly translations. edited, since 1815, by Mr. The following daily and other Tatchenkoff, counsellor of state, Journals are published at Moscow. is published in numbers of several First,“ The Moscow Gazette," sheets, every fourteen days; and published by the University. It contains several valuable articles contains extracts from the daily on political economy. The lan- papers of St. Petersburgh, and guage of this journal is very free advertisements; it appears twice and daring “ The Well Dis a week in 4to., has a very great posed," published by Mr. Izmailoff, sale in the interior of the empire, counsellor of finance, in numbers and prints no fewer than 7,000 of four sheets every fortnight, is copies. Secondly, “ The Eurosolely dedicated to literature, and pean Courier,” a literary and polioccasionally contains very inter- tical journal, begun in the year esting essays in prose and poetry; 1802, by Mr. Karamsin, published but the editor is accused of par- every fourteen days, in numbers tiality to trivial subjects, and is of five sheets, 8vo., and containing called the Russian Teniers. very valuable information respect

“ The Promoter of Civilization ing the history of Old Russia, as and Beneficence.” published by well as critical examinations of

the

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the antiquities of the country. tism, and his hatred to every thing
The present editor is Mr. Katche. that is not Russian. Fourthly,
nowski, professor of Archæology “ The Historical, Statistical, and
to the University of Moscow, and Political Journal,” which has been
perhaps the most learned of all carried on without interruption for
the Russian journalists. Thirdly, twenty-five years; but is nothing
“ The Russian Courier,"published more than a translation of the
by Mr. Serga Glinka, every four- Political Journal of Hamburgh.
teen days, since 1808, in numbers A Journal is published at Kasan,
of from three to five 12mo. sheets. in the Russian language, edited
It is dedicated to Russian history by the professors of that Univer-
and education. The editor is dis- sity.*
tinguished for his ardent patrio-

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CHAPTER VI.

STATE OF THE FINE ARTS.

"HEN the Fine Arts of a W

the sight of a fine collection of country excite very ge. paintings was rarely enjoyed by neral interest they make a part of our artists, or if by special favor its history. Each year, we have they gained access to the mansion observed, that, the numbers in- of a noble collector, they had selcrease who visit our exhibitions dom the privilege of contemplatof paintings, though these exhi- ing, at leisure, what they saw; bitions, also, increase annually. their enthusiasm was aroused, but

We shall not remark very mi- they gained very little besides. nutely upon individual strictures, Every one acquainted with the unless their extraordinary merits, difficulty of success in this art, in the public approbation bestowed will allow, that with scanty advan. upon them, should render it desir: tages much was done by the painable; but we shall allot more space ters of the middle of the last cen. than we have usually done to this tury. To add to these disadvandepartment of the fine arts, though tages the knowledge and taste of our strictures will be of a very ge- those, who, by fortune, were qua'neral nature. Before the works lified to have been their patrons, of the old masters were annually was very limited; the farthest exexhibited at the British Gallery, tent of connoisseurship went not

mances.

Russia has now 350 living authors. Most of them are of the nobility. One-eighth of the whole number are clergymen. Up to the year 1807, 4,000 works had appeared in the Russian language. In the year 1810, the Russian National Library was in possession of almost 3,000 volumes by native authors, among which there were 105 ro

There are already 8,000 works in the Russian language. Moscow has nine public libraries and ten printing offices ; St. Petersburgh, seven public libraries and fifteen printing offices; Wilna, one public library and five printing offices ; Revel, Dorpat, Cracow, have each one library and two printing offices. In ali Russia there are only eight or nine letter-founderies.

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