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According to the testimonies of great effect, for this purpose. The several American physicians, this whites are often rendered brown, plant, not yet received as a remedy or even black, where paintings in any European Meteria Medica, are acted on by sulphurous vaafforded a perfect relief in above pours, especially by sulphurized 1000 cases, as well in the human hydrogen, which is very abundant species, as the brute creation, in some situations. Recollecting (dogs, swine, and oxen.) The that the oxygenated water condiscoverer of the remedy is not verted black sulphurate of lead known: Doctors Derveer (father into a white sulphurate, he furand son) first brought it into ge- nished an artist who wished to neral use.

restore a design of Raphael's with Grand map.-On the summit of some of it. By applying it with the mountain of Ménilla-Horgue, a pencil, the spots were instantly in the department of the Meuse, removed. there is at present, an establish Effect of hot water in reviving ment of geographic engineers, flowers.--if flowers, which have appointed to draw up a grand been twenty-four hours out of map of France. At night, fires water, and are decayed, are are kindled which correspond plunged into hot water, as the with other points, and serve for water gradually cools they become the trigonometrical arrangement. quite fresh again. This fact,

Instrument for making perspective which many denied until they drawings. - M. Jeturacher de Au- tried it, has long been familiar to rach, major-general in the Aus- those who live in the vicinity of trian service, has invented a very hot springs; and who have reingenious instrument, which he marked, that decayed flowers calls a querographer, by means plunged into the waters of the of which a person is able to draw springs, become again fresh and in perspective with the greatest beautiful. accuracy, and employ the various New printing press.—Mr Hello tints according to the rules of farth, a printer at Erfurt, has in.chiaro-scuro. In the first part of vented a press to print eight a work which he has published sheets at a time. This machine, on the subject, he gives a descrip- which may be made of any size, tion of the instrument, which is of supplies 7,000 copies of each very simple construction. In the sheet in twelve hours, making second he shews its use, and how 56,000 sheets printed on both it is to be applied to every kind of sides. The machine is put in perspective.

motion by one horse; and three Method to restore the white in men are sufficient to supply it paintings.-M. Thenared has ap- with sheets, and take them away. plied his oxygenated water, with Each sheet perfects itself.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER V.

PERIODICAL LITERATURE.

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-NDER this head we shall but ever acting engines, will merit,

present our readers with two perhaps obtain, a graver considerinteresting papers from the Lite- ation than has ever yet been given rary Gazette; the one containing to them in a comprehensive form. a view of the newspaper press in We shall begin with the Pare this country; the other a sketch liamentary Return. Even in its of the Russian journals.

limited scale, this document con. An account of all the weekly tains the names of forty-two jour. newspapers published in London nals; of these, however, several on Saturdays and Sundays, and had perished between 1817 and also of those Sunday prints of 1820, the years embraced in the which there is a Monday edition, record : the remaining number laid before parliament some weeks consequently stands at thirty-two ; ago, has suggested to as the idea, but, several have originated in the that a general view of the newspaper year 1821, not comprised in this press, as it exists at the present list, which would carry the number time, might not be an unaccept- to within four or five of the first able paper to lay before our rea- total. Of these, twenty-two have ders. In many eases it is impos- taken from the stamp office within sible to do more than approximate the year, above three millions and facts; but, from our inquiries into a quarter of stamps, the lowest the subject, we will venture to say, number being 825, the highest that the result of our investigation 992,500. The other journals enuwill be found to coincide, very merated, probably purchase their nearly, with the true state of the stamps from their stationers, and case. When this is looked at, therefore the stamp office could the prodigious extent of this spe- furnish no clue to their demand. cies of periodical circulation, and The number of advertisements its consequently prodigious effects on which duties were paid by upon the minds of the people, will these journals in 1820 is, in round strike every thinking person with numbers, about $23,250; and wonder; and the influence upon the total amount of the tax they manners, as well as the political pay to the treasury, about and moral influence of these slight £16,000.*

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These calculations are made on the face of the sheet laid before the house of Commons, but it must be observed, that it is extremely incorrect, and such as ought not to have come from persons entrusted with public accounts. One uewspaper,

“ The News," Bas, by advertisement, pointed out the inaccuracy attached to its sale, which was returned at only about one quarter of its actual number; and others of its contemporaries have also reclaimed, though to a less extent. The Literary Gazette should also complain of the want of accuracy. It is thus stated :

No. of Stamps. 1817

53,600 1818

31,700 1819

49,100 16:20

41,170

Whereas,

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It is not within our limits to from the list; Duckett's Dispatch name all the journals to which the drops fro:n a duty of 3001. to foregoing epitome applies; suffice 21. 5s.6d.; the Englishman deit to mention those of the largest creases from 199,525 to 173,800; sale :-Bell's Weekly Dispatch, the Examiner differs from 205,000 the Englishman (the highest Sun- to 194,500; the Independent day), the Examiner, the Guardian, Whig, from 50,405 4,694; and and the Literary and London Wooler's Gazette from 101,415 in Literary Gazette (the highest Sa- 1819, to 77,850 in the following turday). are at between yearly year. On the other hand, more 130,000 and 200,000; the County neutral journals seem to have Herald above 200,000; Bell's risen:-Bell's Dispatch, in four Weekly Messenger, and the News, years, from 75,350 to 132,000; above 500,000; and the Ob- Bell's Messenger, from 573,150 server, above 900,000. The three to 607,650; the Observer, what latter, as well as the Examiner, we have already noticed; and the publish on two days, the Sunday minor papers in like ratios. and Monday (which makes the It is observable, at the same distinction in the Englishman and time, that other, besides political Literary Gazette above paren- causes, may have conduced to this thetically noticed), as do many state of things. One journal may others of what are called Sunday have struck upon popular articles; newspapers.

another may have failed in similar It is observable, from the return, features; and those which mix that in several instances, there has literary matters and matters of been considerable fluctuation in taste, with politics and news, may the sale of certain journals. The have been affected by various conbest established do not vary much; siderations. others exhibit a certain and rapid All the periodicals above mendecline: one, the Observer, nearly tioned, are produced on the Saturdoubled in 1820. The most vio- day, Sunday, and Monday; but lent of the opposition press, stand there is another class of considerhigher in 1819 than in 1820; and able importance published in the in general, it appears, that the metropolis, which does not come papers less decidedly of a party under the designation of the daily character, have increased; while press. There are at least five those, of a contrary cast, have di- papers (British Mercury, Christian minished. We do not, however, Reporter, Philanthropic Gazette, pretend to be acquainted with all Military Gazette, and Moderator) these; but the Champion, which, peculiar to Wednesday; one, the in 1817, consumed of stamps, Farmer's Journal, claims Monday; 64,100, in 1820, takes only 36,934. another, the Law Chronicle, be. Cobbett's Register disappears longs to Thursday; the Hue and

Whereas, the number of stamps which The Literary Gazette received from the Stamp Office in 1820, was 50,037 ; and the unstamped edition, the London Literary Gazette (the commencement of which, in 1818, accounts for the diminution of stamps, while there was an immense increase of circulation-i.e. more than treble) is not mentioned at all, though it circulated above 100,000 impressions, and paid duty upon above 1,300 adrertisements!

Cry,

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Cry, or Police Gazette, is seen Star, Sun, Statesman, Traveller, every third week; and the Literary and True Briton.

The eight Advertiser on the 10th of every morning papers have a daily sale month. On the evenings of Mon- (we speak very near the mark) of day, Wednesday, and Friday, the from 18,000 to 20,000: the seven Evening Mail, London Packet, and evening papers amount probably London Chronicle; and on Tues- to from 12,000 to 14,000. We day, Thursday, and Saturday, the will take the two united at a little Commercial Chronicle, English more than 32,000, per diem, Chronicle, General Evening Post, which makes an addition to the and St. James's Chronicle, which preceding weekly sale of newsare called “ thrice-a-week papers," papers of 200,000, and to the are promulgated, and though not yearly total of about ten millions much read in London, have most and a half. of them, we believe, a respectable The consumption of newspapers country circulation. In town, the published in London alone, there. population wants its food of news fore; will on these data amount daily (almost hourly ;) in the pro. annually tovinces many are contented to be of Saturday, and Suninstructed alternate days.

day (with Monday Then there is the Courier de Lon

editions) papers

3,250,000 dres every Tuesday and Friday; Of other weekly, twice and, though last not least of this and thrice a-week class, the London Gazette, by au. papers

1,750,000 thority, every Tuesday and Satur- And of daily papers.. 10,500,000 day.

Taking the average of the sale Grand yearly total.. 15,500,000 of these 18 papers at 1,000, their or about 300,000 every week, or thirty-four impressions will a- about 50,000 every day!!! mount to 34,000 weekly, to be When we look at the great added to the first order, or about price of this article, which, from

millions in the course of the its demand, may well be reckoned year,

among the necessaries of life, at The third and best known class the revenue it produces without of London newspapers consists of the trouble even of collection, at the daily morning and evening the multitude of persons to whom publications: the former compre- it affords employment, at the hending eight-the British Press, quantity it uses of manufactures Morning Advertiser, Morning and mechanism, paper, type, Chronicle, Morning Herald, Morn- presses, &c. &c. at its various raing Post, New Times, Public Led- mifications as a source of industry ger, and Times. The latter, se- and property in rents, insurances, ven-namely, the Courier, Globe, buildings, newsvenders, postages,

* Occasionally we have some whimsical mistakes between this Gazette and ours, in consequence of the similarity of name. Its official editor has not unfrequently orders for his “amusing miscellany," consisting chiefly of proclamations, degrees of chancery, &c. dissolutions of partnership, and list of bankrupts; while we have met with threats of prosecution, for not attending to notices to creditors, or changes of partners in an iron or woollen-drapery firm. Our worthy contempory has now and then to refuse bad impromptus and worse sonnets; and we in requitul resist orders to insert as many loyal addresses as would fill our pages for a month. 1821.

K

conveyances,

conveyances, and above all, at its Dundee two, Edinburgh nine, commercial, scientific, social, poli- Glasgow four, Inverness two, tical, and moral influence, it will Kelso two, and Montrose two. stand forward to the contempla- Of these, three Edinburgh's are tion as one of the most extraordi- published thrice a week, and nary objects even of this extraor- three twice; two Glasgow's thrice dinary age.

a week, and one twice; Greenock But what we have yet consi. twice a week, and one of the Kel. dered is only a part of the whole; so's twice a week; raising the there are still an infinitely greater whole to forty-seven within that number of provincial newspapers period. to be added to the list. There Ireland is enumerated up to is hardly a town of any size in fifty-six, whereof Belfast has four, the kingdom which has not its Cork four, Clonmell two, Dublin journal. Glancing at the news- sixteen, Ennis two, Galway three, man's list (published by Newton Kilkenny two, Limerick four, of Warwick-square) we observe, Tralee two, and Waterford two. that Birmingham has four, Bristol Among these, four of the Dublin five, Bath four, Brighton three, are daily, and there are others Cambridge two, Canterbury three, thrice and twice a week, to make Carlisle two, Chelmsford two, the total weekly, one hundred and Chester three, Coventry two, twenty-six publications. Durham two, Exeter four, Glou

The summa is-weekly. cester two, Hull three, Ipswich English Provincials 135 two, Leeds three, Liverpool six, The British Isles

6 Leicester two, Manchester seven, Scotland

47 Maidstone two, Newcastle three, Ireland.

126 Norwich two, Nottingham two, Oxford two, Preston two, Ply

Total . . 314 mouth three, Sheffield three, And to the honour of these, be Sherborne two, Stamford two, it stated, that not one of them is Whitehaven two, Worcester two, published on the Sabbath-day, and York three. And this list (we which practice is confined to Lonhave not minuted places where don alone. Many of the country papers are published once a week) newspapers have a very great sale, by no means includes all the coun so that we should not probably try journals published. In Eng- far exceed the truth if we average land and Wales however, it ex. them at 2,000. The result would tends its enumeration to one hun- be above 620,000 weekly, or 36 dred and thirty-three, all of which millions and a half annually, to be are weekly, except the two be- added to the mass of the metropolonging to Canterbury, which ap- lis, and augmenting the grand topear twice a week.

tal to above 50 millions of sheets The Isle of Man, Jersey, and within the year, or a weekly million Guernsey produce each two week- distributed over the country, and ly journals.

dispatched abroad!!! Scotland has thirty-one in the Though simply speculative, it list, to which Aberdeen contri- would be curious to calculate on butes two, Air two, Dumfries two, these data the number of readers

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