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in the department of the Meuse, there is at present, an establishment of geographic engineers, appointed to draw up a grand map of France. At night, fires are kindled which correspond with other points, and serve for the trigonometrical arrangement. Instrument for making perspective drawings. – M. Jeturacher de Aurach, major-general in the Austrian service, has invented a very ingenious instrument, which he calls a querographer, by means of which a person is able to draw in perspective with the greatest accuracy, and employ the various tints according to the rules of chiaro-scuro. In the first part of a work which he has published on the subject, he gives a description of the instrument, which is of very simple construction. In the second he shews its use, and how it is to be applied to every kind of perspective. Method to resfore the white in paintings.--M. Thenared has applied his oxygenated water, with
great effect, for this purpose. The whites are often rendered brown, or even black, where paintings are acted on by sulphurous vapours, especially by sulphurized hydrogen, which is very abundant in some situations. Recollecting that the oxygenated water converted black sulphurate of lead into a white sulphurate, he furnished an artist who wished to restore a design of Raphael's with some of it. By applying it with a pencil, the spots were instantly removed. Effect of hot water in reviving flowers.-If flowers, which have been twenty-four hours out of water, and are decayed, are plunged into hot water, as the water gradually cools they become quite fresh again. This fact, which many denied until they tried it, has long been familiar to those who live in the vicinity of hot springs; and who have remarked, that decayed flowers plunged into the waters of the springs, become again fresh and beautiful. New printing press.—Mr Hellfarth, a printer at Erfurt, has invented a press to print eight sheets at a time. This machine, which may be made of any size, supplies 7,000 copies of each sheet in twelve hours, making 56,000 sheets printed on both sides. The machine is put in motion by one horse; and three men are sufficient to supply it with sheets, and take them away. Each sheet perfects itself.
CHAPTER V. PERIODICAL LITERATURE.
NDER this head we shall present our readers with two interesting papers from the Literary Gazette; the one containing a view of the newspaper press in this country; the other a sketch of the Russian journals. An account of all the weekly newspapers published in London on Saturdays and Sundays, and also of those Sunday prints of which there is a Monday edition, laid before parliament some weeks ago, has suggested to us the idea, that a general view of the newspaper press, as it exists at the present time, might not be an unacceptable paper to lay before our readers. In many eases it is impossible to do more than approximate facts; but, from our inquiries into the subject, we will venture to say, that the result of our investigation will be found to coincide, very nearly, with the true state of the case. When this is looked at, the prodigious extent of this species of periodical circulation, and its consequently prodigious effects upon the minds of the people, will strike every thinking person with wonder; and the influence upon manners, as well as the political and moral influence of these slight
but ever acting engines, will merit, perhaps obtain, a graver consideration than has ever yet been given to them in a comprehensive form. We shall begin with the Parliamentary Return. Even in its limited scale, this document contains the names of forty-two jourmals; of these, however, several had perished between 1817 and 1820, the years embraced in the record: the remaining number consequently stands at thirty-two : but, several have originated in the year 1821, not comprised in this list, which would carry the number to within four or five of the first total. Of these, twenty-two have taken from the stamp office within the year, above three millions and a quarter of stamps, the lowest number being 825, the highest 992,500. The other journals enumerated, probably purchase their stamps from their stationers, and therefore the stamp office could furnish no clue to their demand. The number of advertisements on which duties were paid by these journals in 1820 is, in round numbers, about £23,250; and the total amount of the tax they pay to the treasury, about It is not within our limits to name all the journals to which the foregoing epitome applies; suffice it to mention those of the largest sale:—Bell's Weekly Dispatch, the Englishman (the highest Sunday), the Examiner, the Guardian, and the Literary and London Literary Gazette (the highest Saturday), are at between yearly 130,000 and 200,000; the County Herald above 200,000; Bell's Weekly Messenger, and the News, above 500,000; and the Observer, above 900,000. The three latter, as well as the Examiner, publish on two days, the Sunday and Monday (which makes the distinction in the Englishman and Literary Gazette above parenthetically noticed), as do many others of what are called Sunday newspapers.
* These calculations are made on the face of the sheet laid before the house of Commons, but it must be observed, that it is extremely incorrect, and such as ought not to have come from persons entrusted with public accounts. One newspaper, “The News," has, by advertisement, pointed out the inaccuracy attached to its sale, which was returned at only about one o of its actual number; and others of its contemporaries
have also reclaimed, though to a less extent.
The Literary Gazette should also complain
No. of Stamps.
Whereas, Whereas, the number of stamps which The Liter
It is observable, from the return, that in several instances, there has been considerable fluctuation in the sale of certain journals. The best established do not vary much; others exhibit a certain and rapid decline: one, the Observer, nearly doubled in 1820. The most violent of the opposition press, stand higher in 1819 than in 1820; and in general, it appears, that the papers less decidedly of a party character, have increased ; while those, of a contrary cast, have diminished. We do not, however, pretend to be acquainted with all these; but the Champion, which, in 1817, consumed of stamps, 64,100, in 1820, takes only 36,934. Cobbett's Register disappears
from the list; Duckett's Dispatch drops from a duty of 300l. to 2l. 5s. 6d.; the Englishman decreases from 199,525 to 173,800; the Examiner differs from 205,000 to 194,500; the Independent Whig, from 50,405 4,694; and Wooler's Gazette from 101,415 in 1819, to 77,850 in the following year. On the other hand, more neutral journals seem to have risen:—Bell's Dispatch, in four years, from 75,350 to 132,000; Bell's Messenger, from 573,150 to 607,650; the Observer, what we have already noticed; and the minor papers in like ratios. It is observable, at the same time, that other, besides political causes, may have conduced to this state of things. One journal may have struck upon popular articles; another may have failed in similar features; and those which mix literary matters and matters of taste, with politics and news, may have been affected by various considerations. All the periodicals above mentioned, are produced on the Saturday, Sunday, and Monday; but there is another class of considerable importance published in the metropolis, which does not come under the designation of the daily press. There are at least five
papers (British Mercury, Christian
Reporter, Philanthropic Gazette, Military Gazette, and Moderator) peculiar to Wednesday; one, the Farmer's Journal, claims Monday; another, the Law Chronicle, belongs to Thursday; the Hue and
Gazette received from the Stamp
Office in 1820, was 50,037; and the unstamped edition, the London Literary Gazette (the commencement of which, in 1818, accounts for the diminution of stamps, while there was an immense increase of circulation—i.e. more than treble) is not mentioned at all, though it circulated above 100,000 impressions, and paid duty upon above 1,300
Cry, or Police Gazette, is seen every third week; and the Literary Advertiser on the 10th of every month. On the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, the Evening Mail, London Packet, and London Chronicle; and on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, the Commercial Chronicle, English Chronicle, General Evening Post, and St. James's Chronicle, which are called “thrice-a-week papers,” are promulgated, and though not much read in London, have most of them, we believe, a respectable country circulation. In town, the population wants its food of news daily (almost hourly;) in the provinces many are contented to be instructed on alternate days. Then there is the Courier de Londres every Tuesday and Friday; and, though last not least of this class, the London Gazette, by authority, every Tuesday and Saturday.” Taking the average of the sale of these 18 papers at 1,000, their thirty-four impressions will amount to 34,000 weekly, to be added to the first order, or about 13 millions in the course of the eat. The third and best known class of London newspapers consists of the daily morning and evening publications: the former comprehending eight—the British Press, Morning Advertiser, Morning Chronicle, Morning Herald, Morning Post, New Times, Public Ledger, and Times. The latter, seven—namely, the Courier, Globe,
Star, Sun, Statesman, Traveller, and True Briton. The eight morning papers have a daily sale (we speak very near the mark) of from 18,000 to 20,000: the seven evening papers amount probabl to from 12,000 to 14,000. We will take the two united at a little more than 32,000, per diem, which makes an addition to the preceding weekly sale of newspapers of 200,000, and to the yearly total of about ten millions and a half. The consumption of newspapers published in London alone, therefore, will on these data amount annually to— Of Saturday, and Sunday (with Monday editions) papers .. 3,250,000
Ofother weekly, twice
and thrice a-week papers • * - e. e. e. e. e. e - 1,750,000 And of daily papers. - 10,500,000
Grand yearly total.. 15,500,000 or about 300,000 every week, or about 50,000 every day !!! When we look at the great price of this article, which, from its demand, may well be reckoned among the necessaries of life, at the revenue it produces without the trouble even of collection, at the multitude of persons to whom it affords employment, at the quantity it uses of manufactures and mechanism, paper, type, presses, &c. &c. at its various ramifications as a source of industry and property in rents, insurances, buildings, newsvenders, postages,
* Occasionally we have some whimsical mistakes between this Gazette and ours, in
consequence of the similarity of name.
Its official editor has not unfrequently orders for
his “amusing miscellany,” consisting chiefly of proclamations, degrees of chancery, &c. dissolutions of partnership, and list of bankrupts; while we have met with threats of prosecution, for not attending to notices to creditors, or changes of partners in an iron or woollen-drapery firm. Our worthy contempory has now and then to refuse bad im– promptus and worse sonnets; and we in requital resist orders to insert as many loyal ad
dresses as would fill our pages for a month.
K conveyances, conveyances, and above all, at its commercial, scientific, social, political, and moral influence, it will stand forward to the contempla. tion as one of the most extraordinary objects even of this extraordinary age. But what we have yet considered is only a part of the whole; there are still an infinitely greater number of provincial newspapers to be added to the list. There is hardly a town of any size in the kingdom which has not its journal. Glancing at the newsman's list (published by Newton of Warwick-square) we observe, that Birmingham has four, Bristol five, Bath four, Brighton three, Cambridge two, Canterbury three, Carlisle two, Chelmsford two, Chester three, Coventry two, Durham two, Exeter four, Gloucester two, Hull three, Ipswich two, Leeds three, Liverpool six, Leicester two, Manchester seven, Maidstone two, Newcastle three, Norwich two, Nottingham two, Oxford two, Preston two, Plymouth three, Sheffield three, Sherborne two, Stamford two, Whitehaven two, Worcester two, and York three. And this list (we have not minuted places where apers are published once a week) [. no means includes all the country jo', published. In England and Wales however, it extends its enumeration to one hundred and thirty-three, all of which are weekly, except the two belonging to Canterbury, which apear twice a week. The Isle of Man, Jersey, and Guernsey produce each two weekly journals. Scotland has thirty-one in the list, to which Aberdeen contributes two, Air two, Dumfries two,
And to the honour of these, be it stated, that not one of them is published on the Sabbath-day, which practice is confined to London alone. Many of the country newspapers have a very great sale, so that we should not probably far exceed the truth if we average them at 2,000. The result would be above 620,000 weekly, or 36 millions and a half annually, to be added to the mass of the metropolis, and augmenting the grand total to above 50 millions of sheets within theyear, or a weekly million distributed over the country, and
dispatched abroad!!! Though simply speculative, it would be curious to calculate on these data the number of readers