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CHAPTER IV.

DISCOVERIES, INVENTIONS AND FACTS IN ART,

SCIENCE, AND NATURAL HISTORY.

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AINTINGS in Fresco. is said, will operate under water,

M. Stefano Barezzi, of Mi- without preventing the boats from lan, has discovered a process for continuing to float. This new transposing paintings in Fresco invention may be usefully apfrom one wall to another without plied to the collection of customs injuring them.

He covers the on navigable canals. picture with a prepared canvas, Gas lamp.-A patent has been which detaches the whole of the granted for the invention of a portpainting from the wall. The can- able gas lamp. This invention vas is then applied to another consists in condensing the inflamwall, to which the picture at- mable vapour, by forcing it into a taches without the least trait strong vessel by means of a pump, being lost. M. Barezzi is now which vessel forms the body or reengaged in removing a large pic- servoir of the lamp; and when it is ture of Marco d'Oggione, in the desired to light the lamp, the gas Church della Pace, at Rome, and is permitted to issue out by a it is hoped that by his process he gentle stream, which is effected will be able to rescue from the by the peculiar constitution of ravages of time the beautiful re- the valve. mains of the Cæna of Leonardo da Musical kaleidoscope.-A very Vinci.

curious invention has been made Horizontal direction.— A journal in the art of musical composition. of Rome announces that an inha- Cards are prepared, on each of bitant of Bologna, called Min- which a bar of an air is arranged gorelli, has discovered the hori- according to a certain rhythm zontal direction of aerostatics, and key. Four packs of these which for so many years has been cards, marked A B C and D, are the subject of physical and me- mingled together; and as the chanical research, and for the dis- cards are drawn and arranged becovery of which the Royal Aca- fore a performer in the order of demy of London has proposed a that series, it will be found an prize of 20,0001. sterling. original air is obtained. The

Hydraulic weighing machine. - cards hitherto made are as waltM. Henry, an engineer of the zes, and succeed perfectly. The French royal corps of roads and invention may be called "musical bridges, has presented to the permutation. It has received, Academy of Sciences a plan for a however, improperly, the name of new hydraulic machine, the ob- the musical kaleidoscope. ject of which is to weigh loaded Curious facts in natural history.boats in the same manner as car It has been generally considered, riages are weighed, by means of on the authority of Mr. Pennant, loaded scales. The machine, it that toads live on insects and

worms,

worms, but it appears from un. empties itself into the Atlantic doubted authority, that they also ocean, a few degrees to the northdestroy mice. A gentleman, re- ward of the equator. This imsiding at Keswick, has published portant fact is confirmed by the a letter in the Sporting Magazine, arrival of Mr. Dupuis from Africa. in which he says, that one even This gentleman was appointed ing in the latter end of July last, consul from this country at Ashanhe observed a rustling in the tee (where Mr. Bowdích resided strawberry bed in his garden, for some time.) He is acquainted and found that a toad had just with the Arabic and Moorish lanseized a field-mouse, which had guages, and got his intelligence got on the toad's back, scratch. by conversing with different traing and biting to get released, but ders, with whom he fell in, at in vain. The toad kept his bold, Ashantee. He thought it so imand, as the strength of the mouse portant as to warrant his voyage failed, he gradually drew the un home to communicate to governfortunate little animal into his ment what he had learnt. We mouth, and gorged him.-Another say that Mr. D. has confirmed this correspondent in the same maga- fact; for it so happens, that he zine, relates a wonderful instance has been anticipated in the disof the voracity of stoats: Some covery by the geographical acuworkmen on removing a pile of men of a gentleman of Glasgow, faggots, near a coppice, where it who arrived at the same concluhad lain about five months, found sion by a most persevering and sixty-three rabbit skins, and twen- diligent investigation of the works ty-five hare-skins, all perfectly of travellers and geographers, whole, besides fragments of skins; ancient and modern, and examinon removing a few more bundles, ing African captives; and had acthey found six stoats, four of tually constructed and submitted which they killed, the other two to the inspection of government a escaped. It is generally thought few months ago, a map of Africa, that stoats merely seek the blood in which he lays down the Niger of these animals, but this fact as emptying itself into the Atlanproves that the opinion is erro tic in about four degrees north

latitude, after tracing out its enNatural phenomenon. It is sta tire course from the interior. ted, in accounts from Giessen, in

Astronomy.

--Baron Lindeneau Hesse-Darmstadt, that on the 3d has recently published some obof May, there fell in different parts servations respecting the diminuof that city, a rain of the colour tion of the solar mass. It will be of blood. Professor Zimmerman, found, he says, that the sun may analized it, and says, that its com- have been imperceptibly subject ponent parts were oxyd of iron, to successive diminution since the an earthy acid (d'acide de terre,) science of astronomy has been culand carbon. Many of the inhabi- tivated. Baron Lindeneau suptants were much alarmed by the poses the sun's diameter to be shower..

800,000 miles -- 4,204,000,000 Geography. It is at length feet, or nearly 2,000 seconds. ascertained that the river Niger We have not, he observes, hitherto

possessed

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possessed any instrument for Galranic magnetism.-- An immeasuring the diameter of heaven- portant result of electro magnetic ly bodies to a second. The sun experiments has recently been ob. may therefore diminish 12,000 of tained by professor Oersted. He its diameter, or 2,102,000 feet, states, that a plate of zinc (about without the possibility of being three inches high, and four inches perceived. Supposing the sun to broad,) placed in, and by an arch diminish daily 2 feet, it would re- of small wire, connected with a quire three thousand years to ren- trough nearly fitting it, made of der the diminution of a second of thin copper, and containing a its diameter visible.

mixture of one part of sulphuric Natural curiosity. - Professor acid, one part of nitric acid, and Chavannes has presented to the sixty parts of water, forms an ap: Society of Natural History, Lau. paratus, which, being suspended sanne, the remarkable petrifac. by a very small wire, only suffition which was discovered in Mon- ciently strong to bear its weight, repos, near Lausanne, in cutting will, if a powerful magnet be prethrough an eminence composed sented to it, exhibit magnetic of sand-stone, when a loose frag. polarity--turning its correspondment of rock split open, which ing pole to the pole of the magcontained a fan-shaped leaf in a net. The suspending wire is atfossil state in good preservation, tached to the apparatus by a of the low palm (chæmerops hu- thread, rising from one side of milis) without thorns, which is the trough to the wire, and deknown to grow in the south of scending to the other side of the Italy and Spain. This curiosity trough; and the plate of zinc is has been deposited in the society's kept from coming in contact with

the copper case, by a piece of Fattening oxen.—The practice of cork interposed on each side of fattening oxen with raw potatoes, the plate. has, of late, been attended with Double refraction.-M. Soret great success in the counties of has, in the Tournal Physique (see Kent and Norfolk. They gradually p. 363,) given two simple methods become fond of them, and thrive to ascertain the double refraction rapidly. The cattle should be in of mineral substances. The apa thriving condition when put on paratus for the first method is potatoes, as, if lean, they will simply two plates of tourmaline, yield a poor profit. No water cut parallel to the axis of the should be given, when the ani- crystal, and placed crossways, so mals are fed entirely on potatoes. as to absorb all the light. The The potatoes need not be cut, substance to be examined is and it is unnecessary to wash to be placed between these plates : them. One acre of fair potatoes if it be double refractory, the will fatten two beasts. It is not light re-appears through the tourrecommended to give potatoes to malines; if not, it all remains milch cows; mangel-wurzel will dark. The second method consuit them better, by increasing sists in placing the mineral to be the quantity of milk, the quality examined over a hole in a card, of which will not be injured. and examiuing the light trans

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mitted through it by an achro- a day; the operation of the rematic prism of Iceland spar. If medy is very quick : in less than the two images produced are forty-eight hours, even the vescoloured differently, it indicates tiges of the disease are hardly doul refraction.

discernible. Its efficacy has been Remedy for mildew in wheat.- completely verified by more reDr. Cartwright, to whom the cent experiments. agriculturists of this kingdom lie Mode of destroying insects or under great obligations for nume. fruit trees. It has long been berous improvements, has discover- lieved, that leaves of the elder ed that a solution of common tree, put into the subterraneous salt, sprinkled on corn infected paths of moles, drive them away; with mildew, commonly removes but it is not generally known, the disease. In the year 1818, that if fruit trees, flowering shrubs, he was engaged in a series of corn, or vegetables, be wiped with experiments, to ascertain the mi- the green leaves of elder branches, nimum of salt that would be re insects will not attach to them. quired to destroy vegetation in An infusion of elder leaves in certain weeds, as coltsfoot, bind- water is good for sprinkling over weed, the common thistle, &c. rosebuds, and flowers subject to The salt, it was found, had very blights, and the devastations of little effect on weeds, or other caterpillars. vegetation, when they had arri Prevention of gumming in fruit ved at that stage in which they trees.-- Horse dung, clay, sand, ceased to be succulent, and are and pitch tar, form a composibecoming fibrous. But as soon tion, which, when applied to the as the rain washed the salt down trunk and stems of fruit trees, to their roots, if in sufficient after they are properly cleansed, quantity, they languished and prevents that spontaneous exudied. Happening to have some dation called gumming, which is wheat at the time that was mil- very injurious to the growth of dewed, the doctor tried the ex trees. periment upon it; and the result Liquor from mountain ash-berries. was such

was anticipated, --In North Wales, a liquor, called without any injury to the corn; diod griafel, is brewed from the salt having no injurious effect on berries of the mountain-ash, by fibrous matter, whether vegetable merely crushing, and adding or animal. The expence in this water to them. After standing case ceases to be any object, for for a fortnight it is fit for use; six or eight bushels will serve an its flavour somewhat resembling acre, which, at the price of salt perry. applied to agriculture, will be À substitute for potatoes. — under twenty shillings; and this Europe owes infinite gratitude to will be more than repaid by the memory of sir Francis Drake, the improvement of the manure,

who first introduced from America, arising from the salted straw. the potatoe. We are assured, Two men, one to spread, and the that there grows in Santa Fé de other to supply him with the salt Bagota, a root, called arakat scka, waler, will get over sour acres in more nourishing, and as

prolific

as

even

ment.

prolific as the potatoe ; resembling ing the crew, proceeded round the
the Spanish chesnut in taste and Bass Rock, and returned about a
firmness. It is a native of the quarter past nine, having per-
Cordilleros, a climate as temper- formed their voyage in the space
ate as that of Europe, and might of an hour and a quarter, gross
be cultivated here with the same time, being upwards of six miles,
facility as the potatoe. It would the whole performed without either
be a most desirable thing to pro- sails, oars, or any steam appara - 1
cure the plant, as well as some of, tus. The invention is entirely
the seed; and we earnestly re that of a respectable millwright
commend it to the Admiralty, to there, who expects a patent before
instruct the officers of ships on he publishes the means of im-
the South American station, to pulsion.
make inquiries concerning it; Mode of sweeping streets, & c. by
and to bring a few of the roots machinery.-Mr. Tucker, a gentle-
home, for the purpose of experi- man who lately left Limerick for

New York, has obtained a patent
Immense block of amethyst.-A there, for sweeping streets by
most singular curiosity has been machinery. He is to perform the
brought to the presidency of Cal- work of forty men, by two horses,
cutta, by a Portuguese vessel to draw the machine up one side
lately arrived from Brazil. In- of the streets, and down at the
credible as it may appear to those other, which is not only to sweep
who have not studied the wonder- but to collect the dirt in heaps,
ful combinations of nature, it ready to carry away.
seems to be a mass of amethysts, Remedy for a disease brought on
of the enormous dimensions of by drinking cold water.— A man in
four feet in circumference, by Oliver-street, New York, after im-
something less than one foot in prudently drinking cold water
height, and weighing ninety-eight during the great heats, was seized
pounds. It is in its rough state, with very alarming symptoms,
and is described rather as an from which he was relieved by
assemblage of more than fifty irre- Dr. John De Alton White, who
gular columns, high, smooth, dissolved half an ounce of cam-
transparent, purple, and white, phor in a gill of brandy; of this
shooting up like a crystallization one-third was given at intervals
from one common bed or source, of three minutes, which soon gave
than as a regularly formed and the patient relief.
perfect stone. It was sent from

Hydrophobia.-Dr. Lyman Spalthe Brazils as a real amethyst, ding, one of the most eminent and such also has it been de- physicians of New York, announclared by judges of the subject, ces, in a small pamphlet, that for who have examined it since its above these fifty years, the Scutelarrival in Calcutta.

laria lateriflora, L. has proved to Newly invented boat.- A boat, be an infallible means for the premanned by four men, lately pro. vention and cure of the hydroceeded from the harbour of North phobia, after the bite of mad Berwick to Canty Bay, a distance animals. It is better applied of two miles, and, after refresh- as a dry powder than fresh. .

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