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there can be no doubt, however, India articles in Europe exceed
that articles of British manufac- that amount. The value of mer-
ture are directly exported to chandise from China and India
China from this country by Ame- consumed annually in the Uni-
ricans; and it appears, from an ted States is probably equal to
account procured at the custom- 5,000,000 dollars; and if this be
house, that the declared value of so, the consumption of East India
those articles exported to coun articles by the United States is
tries within the limits of the East paid for by the mere profit of the
India Company's charter, in fo- trade,'
reign vessels, and presumed to be " On the whole, the committee
chiefly to Canton, was in the last are inclined to the opinion, that
year to the amount of 178,358l. ; regulations might be established
and it affords some indication of an at Canton, either by placing the
increasing taste for British manu free trade of Canton under the
factures in China, that an opinion superintendence of a consul, or in-
prevails that they are now intro- vesting the principal servants of
duced into the northern parts of the company with some authority
that empire, subject to all the delay over the seamen engaged in the
and inconvenience of transport by free trade, by which any appre-
land through Russia and the cara- hension of inconvenience might
van trade, of which Kaiacta and be removed; and without interfer-
its neighbourhood is the great ing with the monopoly of the Bri-
depot, and which appears recently tish market enjoyed by the East
to have experienced a considerable India Company, the British mer-

chant might be safely admitted to “ What portion of the teas, and a participation in a trade which other articles exported from China has proved safe, lucrative, and in vessels of the United States is capable of great improvement in destined for America, and what for the hands of the foreign trader. European consumption, it is diffi “ In the event of these obstacult precisely to determine. Al- cles, however, being considered though doubts have been express- insurmountable, the maintenance ed whether the demand arising of the establishment at Sincapore, from the latter constitutes a per- to which vessels frequently come manent or a considerable portion down from China in five days, or of their trade, it may fairly be as- of any other free port as advansumed that a contrary opinion tageously situated, might, consi, prevails in America, as it is stated, dering the readiness of the Chinese in the report upon American cur to engage actively by every means rency, laid before the house of direct and indirect, in trade, prove representatives in 1819, that the highly advantageous to the interannual exports in American ves est of British commerce, if persels from the United States and mitted to engage in the tea trade all other ports to China and the within the limits of the East India East Indies, can hardly be esti- Company's charter, exclusive of mated at more than twelve mil- the ports of the Chinese empire. lions of dollars, and it cannot be The committee cannot condoubted that the sales of East ceal from themselves, that in the

(Y 2) present

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present state of the law, no mate; members of the committee, that a
rial benefit or facility to free trade bill was prepared to be submitted
in this quarter of the globe can to parliament in the course of the
be obtained, without infringing in last session, for extending the
a greater or less degree upon the private trade between India and
privileges vested in the East India foreign Europe ; and that the in-
Company, until the year 1834,when troduction of such a bill has only
their present charter expires, and been postponed in consequence of
that their consent may be required the inquiries depending in parlia.
to any measures which may be ment, connected with Asiatic com-
submitted for that purpose to the merce.
consideration of parliament. At The correspondence which has
the same time, considering that taken place upon this subject be-
no propositions here suggested tween the board of trade and board

intended directly or in- of control is contained in the
directly to affect the monopoly appendix.
enjoyed by the company of the
home market, to which the greatest
importance is justly attached, but The select committee appointed
that their object is confined to to consider the several returns
procuring for the British free trader made to the orders of this house
an access to markets entirely new, in 1819, 1820, and 1821, rela-
or the means of fair competition tive to the sums assessed, levied,
with the foreign merchant in those and expended, on account of
which already exist, the committee the poor in England and Wales,
feel themselves justified in relying and to report an abstract of the
upon the liberality of the court of same, together with their obser-
directors, upon the concern they vations thereon, to the House :
have frequently evinced in the na have, pursuant to the orders of
tional prosperity, and the prefer the house, considered the mat-
ence they may be expected to give ters to them referred, and agreed
to British over foreign commerce, to the following report:-
for a disposition to meet, as far as The returns referred to your
may be consistent with their own committee contain a statement of
essential interests, the wishes of the total sum raised by assessment
their fellow-subjects, if sanctioned in each parish and township in
by the wisdom and authority of England and Wales, in the five

years ending on the 25th of March, At all events there are some 1816, 1817,1818, 1819, and 1820. views of this subject to which the The mode of obtaining, by orders attention of parliament may be of the house of commons, addressed immediately directed; and the to the parish officers, information whole cannot fail to deserve its as to the amount of the assessconsideration previous to the re ments and expenditure on account newal of the East India Company's of the poor, was suggested by the charter.

committee appointed to consider The committee have been in. of the poor laws, in the year 1818; formed, by the members of his and your committee have the satis majesty's government, who are faction of informing the house,


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that the returns so procured are sum “ expended" for all purposes, very nearly complete. The defi- do not always, in each particular ciencies are very few in number, year, correspond in amount. The and, with the exception of one expenditure of any year may be parish in Middlesex, arise in incon- defrayed in part, out of the balance siderable parishes.

of the assessment of the preceding This is the parish of St. Mat- year; or there may be a debt rethew, Bethnal-green; and the de- maining at the end of tbe year, ficiency appears to have arisen which in some returns may be infrom litigation with respect to the cluded in the account of the sum custody of the books, and not from expended, and in others excluded. any wilful neglect on the part of Some of the parish officers apthe churchwardens or overseers. pear to have supplied this defect Your committee have directed the in the order, by stating separately expenditure of this parish to be the sum expended on account of estimated in the abstract according the poor; and it is owing to this to its amount in the preceding year. circumstance, that in the abstract:

The returns for the first four of of the four years ordered to be the years mentioned were called printed on July 17, 1820, the for by an order of the house, dated second and third columns, which' 30th April, 1819, and those of the were intended jointly to state the last of these years by an order of total expenditure, do not exactly the 5th of July, 1820.

agree in amount with the first, which It is necessary to make this dis- contains the amount assessed and tinction, because there is a slight levied. The difference, however, variation in the wording of the two is very inconsiderable; and your orders. That of 30th April, 1819, committee are satisfied that the which was carefully framed so as corrected account now given of to require as little as possible of “money expended solely on the detail from the officers, required poor,"contains a sufficiently accuan account, showing the total rate statement of the expenditure amount of the money assessed and for any purpose of comparison. levied, upon each parish, township, The order calling for the returns or other place maintaining its own of the year ending March 25, 1820, poor; distinguishing in the said required, as before, an account of account the amount of money paid the sum assessed and levied, and out of such assessments for any also, “ the total amount of money other

purpose than the relief of the expended in that year;" when from poor.” The remainder after de. this latter sum the amount of the ducting the latter of these amounts expenditure “for other purposes." from the former, was taken as the is dedụcted, the remainder comes amount expended on account of out accurately as the amount of

the expenditure on account of the Before the order of 1820 was' poor. issued, it appeared that this mode There may possibly still be some of ascertaining the expenditure on difference between different paaccount of the poor was not quite rishes in the mode of making up accurate, inasmuch as the sum the return; some officers may, “assessed and levied,” and the perhaps, include in one column,


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the poor.

and some in the other, monies have, therefore, included in their expended in litigation and other abstract so much of the account matters immediately connected of those former years as can be with the poor, but not applicable compared with the more recent to their relief. The amount, how. accounts; so that the house has ever, of this mixed expenditure, now before it a statement of the though considerable in one point amount of the poor rates, at several of view, does not bear so great a periods, commencing in the middle proportion to the whole expendi- of the last century, and reaching ture, as to constitute a material to the year preceding the last. objection to the accuracy of the The first statement which your returns.

committee submit to the house The committee have the further shows, in gross sums, the amount satisfaction of adding, that the re- of monies assessed and levied in turns under the late order have England and Wales, at each former been made more promptly, and in period, and in each year comprised a more regular form, than those in the late returns; and the amount called for in the preceding year. expended upon the poor, and for

It may be convenient here to other purposes, with other distincobserve, that in the order recently tions to be found in some of the made by the house for returns for returns. the year ending 25th March, 1821, Your committee present to the a still further correction is made house, in the second place, an of the form. Instead of calling account of the sums expended in for the amount “ assessed and le- each county, for the relief of the vied,” the requisition is now for the poor only, in each of the eight amount levied only; this alteration years, ending on the 25th of March, was certainly proper, as the whole 1820, being the latest period for sum assessed may not always be which there are the means of giving levied within the year.

complete yearly accounts: of these, Your committee having been eight years, the accounts of the instructed to report to the House first three are taken from the return. an abstract of the late returns, of 1815, the others are from the together with their observations returns referred to your committee; thereupon, conceive that they can- these they have combined in order 10t more usefully execute the duty that the eight years may be viewed assigned to them, than by connect together. ing the returns of the five years Yourcommittee have not thought referred to them, with those of it expedient to give the detailed former periods, which are to be account of each parish. The house found in the journals and papers having lately called for returns of of the house.

the poor rates, for the year ending Returns are already before par- the 25th of March, 1822, it appears liament, in different degrees of to your committee more convenient detail of the amount and expendi. that a parochial account, embracture of the poor rates in the years ing nine years, should be prepared ending at Easter 1748,1749, 1750, early in the next session of parlia1776, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1803, and ment, when the house will have 1813, 1814, 1815; your committee the additional advantage of an


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opportunity of considering these to annex an account of the average returns in connexion with the re- price of corn in England and sult of the late numeration of the Wales, in such of the years ending people.

on the 25th of March, included in They have at the same time the their abstracts, as have occurred satisfaction of informing the house since the establishment of the office that all the parochial returns, and of receiver of corn returns. The correct abstracts in which each accounts of these averages already parish is distinguished, are care- before the house are generally fully arranged, so as to facilitate made up to a period of the year reference by any member of the not corresponding with that of the house to the return of any parti- poor rate accounts; and as comcular district.

parisons are sometimes made beThe committee lay before the tween the amount of the

poor-rates house, thirdly, a statement in which and the price of wheat, they trust the former returns, so far as they that this account of the prices may relate to the expenditure upon the be acceptable to the house. poor only, are also distinguished Your committee do not feel themby counties; and the eight later selves at liberty to make any obyears are averaged in three pe- servations which are not suggested riods: the first of three years, by the mere inspection of the ending in March, 1815, being the several abstracts. period which was under the consi These observations, they trust, deration of the committee of 1817, the house will permit them to and which reached to the first year commence, by the statement of a of peace; the second, embracing few results drawn from the returns a like period of three years, ending of the earlier periods, which have in March 1818; and the third, indeed been formerly stated to the comprising only two years, to house, but which it may be useful March 1820, which may be com

to place here:pleted to a triennial period, when The pecuniary amount of the the returns recently ordered shall levies, by way of poor's rates prohave been received.

gressively, and very largely inTo this abstract with the view creased from 1789 to 1812: of facilitating any comparisons The amount of the sums applied which the members of the house to the relief of the poor, increased may think it desirable to make, of within the same period, progresthe relative expenditure of the sively, and very largely: poor rates in each county, with its The amount expended for other population, your committee have purposes increased progressively, also annexed a table of the number and still more largely than the ex. of people in each county, accord- penditure on account of the poor. ing to the enumeration taken in In reference to comparisons 1811.

with the year 1803, your committee And they have brought from the have to observe, that there is no abstract of 1815 the account of the account of any average of years property assessed in each county between 1783-4-5 and 1813-14-15; under schedule A.

nor any account of any single year They have also thought it useful between those periods, except that


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