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abolished. He belongs to an old and noble family. M. Lauriston, the new minister of the household, is a descendant of the famous Mississippi Law: he was distinguished under Buonaparte, both as a general and a diplomatist; but ever since the first abdication of his old master he has remained faithful to the cause of the Bourbons, though he has been almost invariably hostile to the king's ministers. He is reckoned a man of talent, but of an impatient and violent temperament. One anecdote is told of him that redounds to his honour. He was intrusted by Buonaparte with several important functions, about the time of the murder of the duke d'Enghien; and soon after that event, in a conversation with Caulincourt, who had been engaged in that disgusting act of violence, he exclaimed – “The first consul knew me too well to propose so disgraceful a task to me.” He then proceeded to reproach Caulincourt in language so severe as to provoke a challenge, which was readily accepted; but Buonaparte, in order to prevent the duel, sent him away from the metropolis. Spain has suffered some internal commotions, which, like the occasional thunder-storms in mature, seem to have purified the political hemisphere. The cortes extraordinary was convened in September, by an official notification issued in the previous month; and a deputation or commission was appointed to inquire into the state of the country, particularly with reference to the revolutionary movements in Cadiz and Seville, upon which they gave a report. It is an important document
which recognizes the just privileges of the throne, and the equal principles of a free constitution. The calmness, discrimination, and impartiality which pervade the whole, shew that order and law can coexist with liberal institutions. “The committee,” say the deputation, “does not confound the events at Cadiz with those at Seville, in the latter of which it cannot help recognizing a certain character of faction; whereas in those of Cadiz it is persuaded that the whole has proceeded from an error, from an excessive ardour, and a distrust which cannot be wholly condemned in those who love liberty, and have suffered much for it : the error in some points, and the aberration of some persons in others, are not such that the committee attributes them to the will, and they cannot but merit the indulgence of the cortes. But the national congress cannot but expressly disapprove, in the face of all Europe, the disobedience and illegal proceedings of those authorities, which will doubtless suffice to make them return to their duty, acknowledging that they have
erred.” Although Spain cannot at present be considered as in any thing like a settled state, yet great things have been accomplished towards the establishment of sound principles and an enlightened system. A new penal code has been submitted to the cortes, which, though still infected with some bigotted notions, is a material improvement upon the old one. It is highly creditable to the government that they have made urgent representations to the local authorities on the imporato, Q
of establishing universities, schools and charitable institutions; the consequence of which must necessarily be the diffusion of knowledge and all those benefits which result from the expansion of the mind and the correction of its oblique tendencies to moral, civil, and political despotism. The pope and his conclave took an effectual measure to diminish their own influence, by refusing to confirm the election of two bishops, on the ground that they took a part in the deliberations of the cortes, hostile to the privileges and immunities of the ecclesiastical orders. The tribunal of the inquisition is annihilated; a step eminently conducive to the true interests of this great nation, which is shaking off the slavery of ignorance, superstition, and despotism. The influence of those establishments which maintained a portion of the community, separated from the rest by their monastic vows, must be diminished by the suppression of so great a portion of them; and a part of those exorbitant incomes which gave to the hierarchy so great a preponderance, is now appropriated to the service of the state. We have before us an account of the number of monasteries and convents suppressed in the peninsula in consequence of the law of the 6th of September, 1820. The statement is very curious, and we consider it worthy of the attention of our readers, who cannot fail to applaud the wisdom by which the country has been relieved of a heavy burden, and recovered property of which it had been for ages deprived. The Jesuits possessed, in the provinces of Toledo, Castile, Ar
ragon, and Andalusia, 124 colleges, and 16 houses of residence, which, if not completely occupied at the time of the suppression, would soon have been so in consequence of the activity of the new Propagandists. ` The monks of St. Benedict held in the congregation of Walladolid and in La Tarraconense, 63 of the suppressed monasteries. The monks of St. Bernard had 60 in the congregation of Castile and Leon, and in that of the Cistercian of Arragon and Navarre. The Carthusian monks had 16 in the provinces of Arragon and Castile. The monks of St. Jerome had 48 in six circuits of eight monasteries each. The monks of St. Basil had in the provinces of Andalusia, Castile, and El Tardon, 17. The Premonstratensians had 17 of the suppressed convents; the military orders, 14; the hospitalars of St. John de Dios, 58; those of SanctiSpiritus, 8; and those of San Antonia Abad, 36. Making in all, 477. With respect to the financial condition of Spain, it only requires two or three years to be rendered one of the most flourishing in Europe. The internal debt will be liquidated by the sale of national domains already assigned for that purpose. The Wales reales and other funds are at a much higher value than they have been for many years; and if they have not as yet acquired that which they are likely to obtain ere long, it arises from the fact of a considerable quantity of this stock being in the hands of employee and others whose necessities oblige them to sell their credits and thus inundate the market. This circumstance has naturally enough clogged clogged the operations of government; but, when we reflect on the total loss of credit incurred by the old system, how is it possible to expect an amelioration which time alone can bring about. Portugal has been treading in the steps of her neighbour by advancing in the career of moral improvement. Without the effusion of blood, the nation is establishing for itself a constitutional freedom. The king's return from the Brazils was accelerated by disturbances in that quarter. Soldiers having been called in to disperse a meeting of electors, assembled to choose deputies to the cortes, sent a deputation to the king at midnight, requiring a provisional government, on the principles of the Spanish constitution, which was granted: but this was followed up by excesses of a revolutionary tendency, and though quiet was restored, no confidence remained in the public mind in the existing order of things. In fact, the foreign dependencies both of Spain and Portugal have felt the moral impulse, and in some cases have preceded the mother country in their movements. In Portugal some admirable laws have been adopted, in the true spirit of philosophy, for securing the liberty of the press; so that now every Portuguese may print, publish, buy or sell any books or writings, without previous censorship.
The speech of the king of the
Netherlands, on opening his parliament, exhibits a fine picture of internal prosperity. We subjoin $One extracts : — “The interior situation of the kingdom offers in general a favourable view. The fear of a scanty crop is happily dissipated,
in most of the provinces, and we can promise ourselves abundance of provisions, and at a moderate rice. “Trade and navigation have not diminished, and we can cherish the hope of seeing them in future receive a new Increase. “Notwithstanding the favourable influence of several years of peace, the situation of our manufactures does not present in all its parts an aspect equally prosperous; yet several of the most imortant among them have increased in activity, and almost no where does the want of employment give ground for well-founded complaints. “The administration assumes every where in the provinces, as well as in the cities and rural communes, a more regular and more secure march. Improvements, which experience recommends to my care, become the object of my serious deliberation. The communication between different parts of the kingdom become more and more easy. That between the two seats of the court has been considerably ameliorated, and I entertain the hope that, with the co-operation of the provinces most interested in the result, there will be opened a new source of prosperity to trade, to agriculture, and to industry, by the construction of a canal between Bois-le-duc and Maestricht. “Among the improvements on which the happiness of my subjects fixes my attention, I regard as most important the changes made in the direction of the waters of the Rhine for the purpose of preventing the disasters to which a considerable portion of the king
dom is exposed during the season of of thawing or high tides. This object is at present subjected to a particular examination. “For a long time the discipline of the prisons has appeared to me susceptible of useful modifications, having caused the subject to be examined in its details. The report which I have received has confirmed me in the opinion. . ." “ Unforeseen calamities have afflicted some parts of our transmarine possessions, but it is easily seen that they will surmount their consequences; and we have reason to flatter ourselves that the importance of the relations of the mother country with the East Indies will continue to increase. “The produce of the revenue during the present, announces results similar to those of the preceding year. If the produce of certain taxes is improved, others on the contrary have been less productive; and the experience of this year establishes anew how necessary is the revision of our financial system, if we wish to put an end to an annual deficit, which would in time destroy the best constituted state. Public opinion was operating powerfully for some time in Italy, but the attempts which were made to obtain freedom were rendered abortive by pusillanimity. The struggles of the Neapolitans and Piedmontese are at least for the present, at an end; the chief boasters struck not a blow, but dispersed at the firing of the first shot. The Greek population, whose submission rendered the name of Greek a term of scorn and reproach, has suddenly been reanimated with the spirit which history relates so eminently distinguished
the ancient inhabitants of their soil. Unarmed and unprovided with the materiel of armament, but impatient of further oppression and degradation, the Greek slave has heroically, rather than prudently, engaged in a terrible and unequal contest. The Turks are known to have enslaved their Greek subjects for centuries, and to be repaid by them with a degree of hatred amounting to abhorrence in the heart of every Greek. If the energy of action correspond with the ardour of expression in their proclamations, some considerable success may be fairly anticipated for them. It is worth while to preserve a specimen:— “Macedonians ! Greeks . The standard of liberty waves over the summit of Olympus, over the summit of Pindus. Glorious monuments, the monumental columns, the tombs of our heroes, have passed away; but our native mountains, those eternal trophies of our glory, still bid defiance to time. Macedonians, children of Alexander, around these trophies will we assemble: beside them will we conquer or die; and those who fall in the glorious contest will add new lustre to the deeds of their ancestors; and that lustre will strike terror into the hearts of the barbarians! Macedonians, children of Alexander, sons of the conquerors of the world, grasp your swords! Shame on those who will longer submit to be governed by a wretched hoard of barbarians. Your mountains and your valleys are free, and the ensigns of tyranny only still wave on the fortresses. But in vain do the barbarians hide themselves behind the walls of Salonichi, of Jenizzar, R • of of Cavalla, and call them, as heretofore, their bulwarks: but these walls wit fail before the swords of the Macedonians, and we will avenge the sufferings of our fathers, our wives, and our daughters, in the blood of the barbarians. Thrice have we already conquered Philippopoli is in our possession. Our heroes in a few days conquered that city. Stagira is no more, the Greeks have destroyed the town of the philosopher. Why should it be an asylum for the barbarians? Many have fallen, more will yet fall ! But our ranks increase daily, and will still further increase. To those who have sacrificed themselves on the altar of freedom the favour of heaven will be extended, and their
brothers will avenge their death."
To arms 1 to freedom, Macedonians ! Greeks of every country, the eyes of the world are turned upon us, ODysseus, Commander of the Macedonians. From the camp on mount Olympus, July 20.” So far as an accession of territory could be considered profitable to those whose dominions are already perhaps more than conveniently extensive, Russia and Austria might perhaps be gainers by the dissolution of the Turkish empire; but if the views of either of them be directed to territorial aggrandizement, it may in all probability endanger the peace of Europe, and perhaps ultimately involve the unhappy consequence of a general war. The emperor of Russia issued, in October last, an ukase respecting the commercial regulations with regard to the eastern coast of Asia, and the north-west coast
of America, which seems to bespeak both a fearless and an encroaching spirit. The line of maritime and commercial dominion covered by the decrees of the custom-house of St. Petersburgh, extends along the American coast full 10 degrees of latitude from Beering's Straits, in about 61 N. to 51 N., in the neighbourhood of Nootka; and on the Asiatic side, from the same Straits of Beering, above 15 degrees along the eastern coast of Kamtschatka, and down to the south cape in the island of Ourop, lat. 45 deg. 51 min, not very far north of the empire of Japan. The regulation spoken of, is nothing less than aprohibition to all foreign nations to commence the whale or other fishery, or any other branch of trade or industry, on any part of the aforesaid coasts or islands, or to approach any one of the Russian settlements within a less distance than 100 Italian miles, under the penalty of losing the cargo. An exception is made in favour of ships driven in by stress of weather, and of ships sent out on voyages of discovery, being previously provided with passports from the Russian minister of marine. The alleged ground of this restriction is to prevent the further continuance of those mischievous consequences which, it is said, have been felt by the above Russian settlements from the prevalence of a contraband traffic. To the prevention of such a traffic none can object: yet it is unprecedented, that any power should assert so broad a dominion over the sea itself, for the mere purpose of providing a check against smugglers, as is here laid claim to