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seats before the throne, fully tember (that day,) was further robed ; when the lord president prorogued to the 29th day of of the council directed the yea November. The commons then man usher of the black rod to left the bar, and the lords comrequire the attendance of the missioners withdrew. Owing to commons. Soon after the clerk the absence of the lord Chancelassistant, accompanied by officers lor, the carrying of the mace was of the commons, came into the dispensed with. house and the commission was The London Gazette of the 17th read. The lord president of the of November, announced the fur. council then informed the houses, ther prorogation of parliament, to that the parliament which stood the 3rd of January following. prorogued to the 20th of Sep

CHAPTER V.

State of the Country external and internal.- A View of Agriculture,

Commerce, and Manufactures during the year 1821.--State of Ireland,

THE

THE state of the country may reason to be thankful to provi

be considered with reference dence. The improvement of the to its foreign relations, and its moral character is so important, internal condition; to each of and is by war so essentially imwhich it will be necessary for us peded, the comfort of domestic to advert. The former in parti- and social unions so desirable, cular, presents, upon the whole, and so broken up by the call to subject of much gratifying consi- military enterprize--and above deration : and if the latter still all, human life, is so inexpressively excites emotions of painful solici- valuable, that we must reiterate tude, we hope we may congratu- the sentiment we have avowed, late ourselves on the appearance although we may be thought to of some returning gleams of na- possess more meekness than amtional prosperity which diffuse a bition-more simplicity than helittle chearful light over the long roism. clouded scene.

The system upon which Europe Whatever temporary

evils
may

is now settled, is, that there shall have resulted from a sudden re be such a distribution of power vulsion from a state of war to among the several principal states profound peace; and a war too that each may be sufficient, in itwhich entailed singular calamities self, to maintain its independence, even upon tranquillized Europe, and to withstand foreign invasion; owing to its unprecedented cha- and that the restoration of ancient racter and continuance, we shall powers to their former state shall never cease to celebrate general take place, in subserviency to peace, as a good for the bestow- this general principle, or where ment of which we have unceasing it is expedient to forego it, the

suffering

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suffering state shall be indemnified opened every thing to our mercy, for its loss from the common fund There was no restraint, but in of conquest. The leading ground our own generosity and justice. of the treaties and of the condi- The South Americans were ac- : tion which they constitute, is the cordingly left to fight alone, and maintenance of the general peace there has been no disposition to of Europe, by the personal amity take advantage of the weakness, of the sovereigns, and by a system of a friendly power. Our officers of mediation which should recog- and soldiers were prohibited from nize the independence of the se- entering into the service of the veral states in their own internal insurgent subjects of a friendly affairs, and hold forth their come state, and thus the foreign enlista: mon interest, and therein, their ment bill secured the good faith common obligation, to consult of our country, with regard to the the general policy of Europe in treaty signed at Madrid in 1814. all questions affecting the com No expedition has therefore been mon safety of the different na sent to examine the strength of tions. Whether or not this com- the two belligerents, and no expact involves or admits any au- pectation held forth to the sucs thoritative arbitration or forcible cessful party. interference in the dissentions Our existing relations with the which may arise between different state of France, have been in acstates, it is at least not beyond cordance with the spirit of genethe truth to state that Great Bri- ral treaties, and our intercourse tain has in her foreign intercourse, perfectly amicable, ever since the and relations, acted up to her en withdrawment of the armies from gagements, and to the spirit of her territory. By the alien act the recent treaties. Notwith- which passed in both houses, with standing the situation in which large majorities, we performed a the king of Portugal has been duty towards the French governplaced, and the proceeding of the ment, and exercised an act of populous in that country, and the immediate prudence towards our forgetfulness of her obligations to public peace at home. British prowess, Portugal is left Similar statements of the spirit to the administration of her own of pacification and kindness, concerns. In the contest between shewn by this country, might be Spain and her colonies, we have made with reference to the Neevinced a moderation most ex- therlands, to Sardinia, to Naples, emplary. The emancipation of to Italy, and the other states of so large a customer, as has been the European continent. In all, well stated, could not but be most the contentions that have arisen advantageous to so large a dealer among them, our uniform policy as Great Britain. The free com- has been to preserve the integrity merce with South America, is of treaties and the peace of the nothing to other kingdoms in pro- world, while nothing arose to inportion to what it will eventually terfere with the general setilebecome to England. If our in- ment of Europe or with British terest were strong, the impotence interests. We have observed a of the power to be injured, strict neutrality with regard to

their internal concerns, at the The friendship of Great Britain same time asserting through our and America is unimpaired, and diplomatic correspondence, the for the sake of both countries we law of nations, and the principles may be permitted to express the of general freedom. Our rela. devout hope that it may long tions with Russia and Austria continue so. The amicable dishave been maintained with inces- position of the two empires has sant regard to the confidence of been evinced in several circumtreaties. The insurrection of the stances since the war; partiGreeks against Turkey has neces- cularly in renewing the convensarily involved a prince and people tion of commerce until the year of the same religion with them. 1828, which was to have expired selves. The Russian people, and in 1819-in the British governof course their army, exercise the ment opposing no obstacle to the same religion, and in the same cession of the Floridas, but on forms with the Greeks, and the the contrary stimulating the Spaemperor has been of course in- nish government to execute their volved in unforeseen and delicate treaties; and in what respects the. circumstances; whether these navigation acts of the two counhave been in any degree sought, tries. In 1817 and 1818 'the or produced by, any private views American government then disof aggrandizement, perhaps we satisfied, passed her own navigaare not justified even in suspect- tion laws, and her right to do so ing without the further evidence we treated as indisputable. which time alone can supply. The colonial establishments There exists at present a sincere next invite a moment's attention. aim on the part of all the Euro- It cannot be justly questioned pean powers, England especially that these are a very considerable included, to procure a settlement expence lo the British nation, of differences on views of general yet many of them, if not all yield policy. Their mediation between great advantages both of a comTurkey, Russia and the Greeks, is mercial and political nature to the regulated upon two main prin- parent protecting state. Canada, ciples—the first, the termination of for instance is eminently benea state of things which, in its ulti- ficial, not only with prospective, mate consequence, may affect the reference to any future circumgeneral peace of Europe; the se stances of hostility in which we cond, on the part of Turkey, against may become involved with thie any fanatical revenge or future ex United States of America, but as cesses by her misguided populace. to the maintenance of the British If the Greek insurrection and the navy. The seamen and tonnage pending discussions between Rus- engaged in trading with Canada, sia and Turkey can be finally compose a large proportion in the settled

upon this basis, all parties amount of our navigation. The will have cause for satisfaction-- vessels employed comprise nearly the Greeks will obtain security, one-fourth of the tonage of the Alexander will satisfy his people, British empire; and in addition and Europe will see a dangerous to this the supply of timber would fire extinguished.

be eminently needful in the event

of

of war with the northern powers Our domestic circumstances now of Europe. The consumption of claim a few remarks--and here, British manufactures in Canada what do we behold ?--a spectre, exceeds that of the East Indies. of gigantic magnitude and porUnder the operation of the navi. tentous aspect, still stalking across gation laws our West India colo our land, whose terrific appearnies are secured against occa ance has alarmed all classes of sional distress, which without the the community, and whose inhelp of Canada must inevitably fluence has been too extensively arise. Jamaica is of great im- felt, not to excite a shuddering portance to the revenue and navi- horror at the very mention of its gation of our empire: it is the odious name - agricultural dischief place for the growth of tress!- At what time and by what sugar, and the gross receipt of the means this ghostly form is to be customs for sugar amounted in driven from the land we cannot 1821 to 5 millions; and if to this determine, but trust that the gebe added the amount of the re- neral solicitude on the subject venue on the colonial articles of may lead to the discovery of some rum, tobacco and snuff, cocoa- mighty spell — some anti-goblin zvuts and coffee, pepper, indigo, charm that may restore quiet and spices, and drugs, it will appear comfort to our cities, villages, and that the customs and excise on homes. But a truce to figure onr colonial produce afford little we must contemplate the too less than 8,200,0001. to the re- serious realityvenue of Great Britain.

Of the

The question is “Whence do total amount of colonial produce the distresses ofour population proJamaica alone exports annually ceed ?" One plain answer is, “the 100,000 hogsheads of sugar, trader has lost the custom of the employing 20,000 tons of British farmer, because the farmer is un. shipping, and 5,000 British sea able to pay his rent." The labourer men, and affording 2,000,0001. gets inadequate wages from the net receipt to the revenue of the farmer, because the same farmer is country.

unable to pay his rent. The rent No efforts have been spared by remains unpaid, because it has government to assist the culture not fallen in the same proportion and population of our new colo- in which the price of wheat has nies. Every new colony and fallen. The first and fundamental every augmentation of population remedy, then, for all these evils, and culture enlarge the market is an ample reduction of the rent for the reception of British com- of land throughout the country. merce and manufactures, and with Now rents have been reduced in this view the emigrants to the many quarters; but what appears Cape of Good Hope were sent, on a mere glance at the state of and that settlement is in a pros- the markets for a long time past, perous and happy condition. The is, that while prices have sunk Ionian isles also have shared our above 40 per cent, rents on the protection and benefitted by the average have not fallen above 20. removal of many evils, political It may be alleged, that the and moral, which once existed. landed proprietor, who has given

leases

leases under other circumstances, not omit another very important and when the state of the market means of improving the condition was so essentially different and of the people which has indeed so decidedly in favour of the far- been partially resorted to, the dimer-and consequently, who has minution of taxation. Farmers adopted a scale of living propor- are suffering, not because their tionate to his then just, at least productions are too cheap, but bereasonable, anticipations of the fu- cause the means of producing ture, has no right, that is, there is them are too dear. The more no claim

upon him to diminish cheaply the food of man can be his means, impoverish his family, supplied the better, if it is raised and descend in the scale of life, at a rate which will afford a fair merely because the price of corn profit to him who raises it. That is diminished, and the tenant the depression now so universally complains. Had the war con. felt by the agriculturists (and tinued, and prices been maintain- which must, if it continue, tered or still advanced, would the minate at no very distant period occupier have remunerated his in general bankruptcy) cannot relandlord ?-All this may be true ceive even temporary mitigation enough, and the agriculturist may from duties on foreign corn, or have no legal or even equitable from a prohibition on importaclaim;—but it is simply a ques- tion, appears to require no clearer tion of necessity-of what must proof than this--that, for now be done to save both landlord considerably more than a year, and tenant ultimately from entire no corn has been imported except ruin. One great cure, therefore, oats, and yet that the price of is the reduction of rents through- wheat and other grain has been out the country, in order that the falling, and the distress of the industrious cultivator may have famer increasing, during the whole the chance of subsistence; the of that period. Would then the only evil result, if evil it must be price of our home produce for the called, accruing to the land pro- last year have been increased by prietor, will be, that, instead of enacting a forced price upon a retaining an elevation to which foreign article which was never the war has advanced him, and brought into our market, or by which is disproportionate to the a prohibition on the importacircumstance of the country and tion of goods that never were the general condition of the mass shipped for our ports ? But, of the people, he must yield to the even supposing that by artifidownward current and suffer him- cial means of this sort, the price self to stand quietly upon the of corn could be increased, the comparative level of his compa- whole difference between that intriots of the same degree in 1792, creased price and the present that is, previous to the impulse price would indeed be paid by the being given. But while the re consumer ; but it is a fallacy to duction of rents is one of the suppose that it would be enjoyed first steps to be taken, inasmuch as so much more clear gain by as that is, among the causes of the farmer. The immediate rise agricultural distress, we must which must necessarily ensue in

the

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