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vately stealing in shops and dwelling- ries, are, he says, desirous of being houses, and in constructive burgla- prosecuted on capital indictmens ries.

rather than otherwise." The preMr Joseph Harmer, who has prac. sent numerous enactments to take tised for twenty years as a solicitor at away life appear to me wholly in the Old Bailey, gave a testimony fectual; but there are punishmenta which the Committee cannot but re. which I am convinced a thief would commend to the most serious con- dread, namely, a course of discipline sideration of the House. Jothe course totally reversing his former babit; of his practice he had confidential idleness is one of the prominent chia communication with at least 2,000 ca. racteristics of a professed thief-put pital convicts, and may be presumed him to labour ; debauchery is moto have as good means of understand- ther quality; abstinence is its oppo ing their temptations, their fears, and site--apply it; company they indulge their hopes, as any individual in the in, they ought therefore to experi. kingdom. He is now much employ ence solitude: they are accustomed by prosecutors, and from inter., ed to uncontrolled liberty of action course with them, as well as by for. - I would impose restraint and de mer observation of their conduct, has corum. Were these my suggestions the amplest means of knowing the adopted, I bave no doubt we should influence which capital punishment find a considerable reduction in the has on their disposition, to aid and number of offenders.” He states, enforce the execution of the laws. that he has often seen juries reduce The Committee must also add, that the value of things stolen, contrary he appeared to them a man of saga- to clear proof. There is no reloo city, as well as of a conscientious tance to prosecute or convict in bis and humane character, whose opi- opinion in murder, arson, burglary nions on this subject are entitled to in its original sense of nocturcal much consideration. Every part of housebreaking, highway robbery, his evidence is so important, that with violence and murderous attacks they find it difficult to select parti- op the person. The thieves observe cular facts as worthy of greater no- the sympathy of the public; it seems tice. He informed the committee, to console them, and they appear les that he knew many instances of per. concerned than those who witness sons injured by larcenies and forge- their sentence. Certainly the generies, declining to prosecute on ac- ral feeling does not go along with the count of the punishment ; that the infliction of death in the case of same consideration strongly disin- crimes unaccompanied by violence; clines many persons to serve as there are very few advocates for the jurors at the Old Bailey, and indu. generality of the present punishces them to bribe the summoning ments ; these punishments rather officer not to summon them; and that tend to excite the public feeling ahe has seen juries influenced, as he gainst the criminal laws." believes, by the severity of the pu- IV. Much of the above evidence nishment in numerous capital cases, sufficiently establishes the general but especially in forgeries, give ver- disinclination of traders to prosecute dicts of acquittal where the proofs for forgeries on themselves, or to furof the prisoner's guilt were perfectly nish the Bank of England with the clear. Old professed thieves, aware means of conviction, in cases where of the compassionate feelings of ju- forged notes are uttered. There is

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ma no offence in which the infliction of to the large amount of Afteen hun

death seems more repugnant to the dred pounds, where the forger and 1 strong and general and declared sense the utterer were both in custody, the * of the public than forgery; there is prosecution was relinquished merely E no other in which there appears to because the offence was capital. Had u prevail a greater compassion for the punishment been ever so severe, la offender, and more horror at capital short of death, no endeavour would executions.

have been made to save the offenders. In addition to the general evidence In the opinion of Mr E. Forster, above stated, to notorious facts, and more than one half of the private to obvious conclusions of reason, forgeries which are committed, esyour Committee have to state the cape prosecution on account of the testimony of some witnesses of pe severity of the law : he added an exculiar weight, on the subject of for. ample of the like sentiments, in the gery:

offence of stealing in a dwellingMr John Smith, a member of the house, which the Committee consiHouse, and banker in London, stated, der as remarkable, because it occurthat he knew instances where prose- red in the officers of a public institucutions for private forgeries were re- tion, who usually allow themselves linquished on account of the punish. to be less influenced by their feelings ment, and had no doubt that if the than individuals : a committee of a punishment was less, prosecutions public institution, whose house had would have taken place.

been robbed, would not engage in Mr Barnett, also a member of the the prosecution unless the goods House, and a banker in London, is of were valued under forty shillings. opinion, that capital punishment goes In this committee were persons of extremely to discourage prosecutions respectable condition in almost all in forgery; he knows many instances the occupations which are most liable of this, scarcely a year passed with. to loss by forgeries and thefts. out something of the kind; he is of Mr Fry, a banker in London, menopinion that the majority of private tioned four cases of prosecution for forgeries pass unpunished, on ac- forgery which were prevented by the count of the severity of the punish- capital punishment, in one of which ment. The punishment of death the party injured swallowed the fòr. tends, in his opinion, to prevent pro- ged note, that he might not be comsecution, and to increase the crime. pelled to prosecute. Mr Fry expli.

Mr J. F. Forster, a Russia mer- citly stated, what is indeed implied chant, and Mr E. Forster, a banker in the evidence of the preceding witin London, gave some remarkable nesses, that, as a banker, he should examples of the repugnance to pro- consider bis property as much more secute in forgery. In one, by the secure if the punishment of forgery connivance of the prosecutor, a per- were mitigated to such a degree that son who was introduced to the magic the law against that offence would be strate as a friend of the prisoner's generally enforced ; in nine cases desired to see the forged check, out of ten of forgery which he has snatched it away, and threw it into known, there has been an indisposithe fire-a mode of avoiding pro- tion to prosecute. secution, which, from other parts of Dr Lushington declared that he the evidence, does not seem to be knew, that in the minds of many peruncommon. In another, a forgery sons there is a strong indisposition

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to prosecute, on account of the se. ther capital felony; and again the verity of the punishment; and that severity of the law appears to have he had heard from the mouths of been her protection. prosecutors themselves, who have Mr Daniel Gurney, a banker in prosecuted for

capital offences, where the county of Norfolk, declared his there was a danger of the persons own reluctance, and had observed being executed, the greatest regret a similar reluctance among many that they had so done; and many bankers and traders in the country times they have expressed a wish, to prosecute in cases of forgery, is that had they been able to have fore- consequence of the severity of the seen the consequences, they would law. The dread of being instrumennever have resorted to the laws of tal in inflicting death had, with himtheir country. He also related the self, and to his knowledge with case of a servant who committed a others, operated as a protection to robbery upon him : the man was ap- the criminal. In illustration of his prehended, and his guilt was clear; sentiments, he mentioned the case but Dr Lushington " refused to pro- of a man who was in the habit of secute, for no other reason than that committing forgery, “ and he could not induce himself to run prosecuted in consequence of the the risk of taking away the life of a capital punishment." Mr Gurney

considers that “ his property as a Mr Charles Attwood, a manufac. banker would be more secure, if the turer of window-glass at Newcastle, punishment were not so severe, beand a seller of window-glass in Lon- cause there would be more inclinadon, had observed a very consider- tion to prosecute.” He also sag. able indisposition to prosecute in gested, that if in every town of sufcapital cases among the traders officient importance, an agent was isLondon generally and conceives vested with full authority from the that this reluctance would abate, if Bank of England, to stamp the forthe punishment were mitigated to ged notes that were presented to something less than death.

him, it would be a considerable Mr Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, a bro. check to their circulation. In this ker to the bank, and to merchants, opinion Mr William Birkbeck, a whose experience in the transactions banker in the West Riding of York, of bankers is very extensive, enter. fully concurred; conceiving that if tains no doubt, that the punishment an agent of this kind were authoriof death has a tendency generally sed to put a mark upon such notes, to prevent prosecution, and thinks indicating that they were forged, it that evidence to that effect might be would probably throw them back on discovered in hundreds of instances. the original issuer so early, as to A servant of his own committed a show him the futility of attempting very aggravated forgery upon him. to issue others of a similar descripShé confessed her guilt to the ma. tion. gistrates before whom she was taken; Your Committee cannot but conbut it appearing that if she was pro- sider the suggestion made by these secuted at all, it must be capitally, respectable gentlemen as well meritMr Goldsmid declined all further ing attention. proceeding, and she was liberated. After due consideration of this In the next family in which she be- important question, your Committee came a servant, she committed ano. are of opinion, that forgeries are a

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class of offences respecting which it notes has been found by experience
is expedient to bring together and to be in the highest degree difficult,
methodize the laws now in being. your Committee consider the sug-
That in the present state of public gestion of the commissioners for in-
feeling, a reduction of the punish. quiring into the means of preventing
ment, in most cases of that crime, is forgeries,, of offering an unusually
become necessary to the execution large reward for the detection of for-
of the laws, and consequently to the geries, as worthy of serious considera-
security of property and the protec- tion: to such rewards in general, the
tion of commerce; and that the Committee feel an insuperable objec-
means adopted by the Legislature to tion. In the case of forgery there are
return to our ancient standard of va. circumstances which considerably
lue render the reformation of the weaken the objection. No jury could
criminal laws respecting forgeries a

convict in such a case on the mere
matter of very considerable ur- evidence of an informer, unsupport-
gency. Private forgeries will, in ed by the discovery of those materials,
the opinion of the Committee, be implements, and establishments ne-
sufficiently and most effectually re- cessary for carrying on the criminal
pressed by the punishments of trans. system. The reward would there-
portation and imprisonment. As fore have little tendency to endanger
long as the smaller notes of the innocent men by false accusation.
Bank of England shall continue to The evidence on which the convice
constitute the principal part of the tion would rest must be of a sort
circulating medium of the kingdom, which can hardly deceive. The in-
it may be reasonable to place them former would only furnish the key,
on the same footing with the metallic by which the means of evidence
currency; your Committee there. would be found; the reward would
fore propose that the forgery of rather be for detection than for con-
these notes may for the present re.

viction.
main a capital offence; that the ut- There are several points on which
tering of forged bank notes shall, your Committee are desirous of of-
for the first offence, be transporta. fering some observation to the house:
tion or imprisonment; but that, on two of these are of great importance:
the second conviction, the offender the first relates to the best means of
shall be deemed to be a common ut- enabling judges to pronounce sen-
terer of forged notes, and shall, if tence of death only in those cases
the prosecutor shall so desire, be in- where they think it probable that
dicted as such, which will render death will be inflicted; the second,
him liable to capital punishment whether the establishment of unex.
Respecting the offence of knowingly pensive and accessible jurisdictions,
possessing forged notes, your Com- for the trial of small offences, with
mittee have no alteration to suggest, the help of juries, but with simple
but what they conceive would be fit forms of proceeding and corrective
to all transportable offences, that a punishments, might not be a means
discretion should be vested in the of checking the first steps towards
Judges to substitute imprisonment criminality. These and other parts
with hard labour for transportation, of this great subject, the Committee
where such a substitution shall seem hope that the house will allow them
to them expedient. As the disco- another opportunity to consider, by
very of the actual forgers of bank permitting them, in the next session,

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VOL. XII, PART II.

to resume, and, if possible, to com- whole course of the investigatioe. plete their inquiries.

Your Committee will conclude by is. The Committee consider them.. forming the house, that in pursuance selves as bound to express their gra- of the various opinions and recomtitude to Mr Evans, the learned and mendations which they have stated most meritorious Vice-Chancellor of above, they have instructed their the County Palatine of Lancaster ; chairman, early in the next session to Mr Long, a respectable barrister; of Parliament, to move for leave to and to Mr Jameson, a young gentle. bring in bills, for the objects and man employed in the study of the purposes of which this report is inlaw, for the liberal and useful aid tended to explain the nature, and to which they have afforded during the prove the fitness.

REPORT

OF THE COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED FOR INQUIRING INTO THE MODE OF PRE

VENTING THE FORGERY OF BANK-NOTES,

To bis Royal Highness George, larly classed and arranged; together Prince of Wales, Regent of the Uni- with the correspondence respecting ted Kingdom of Great Britain and them, a statement of the trials to Ireland.

which they had been subjected, and In obedience to the directions specimens of the proposed originals, contained in his Majesty's Commis. and of the imitations executed by sion, we proceeded, in the latter end order of the Bank. They also laid of the month of July last, to consider before us about seventy varieties of the important subject referred to us. paper made at their manufactory in Our attention was first directed to experiments for its improvement

, in the proposals for improvement in which almost every alteration recomthe form of the notes issued by the mended for adoption had been tried, Bank of England; and it being and, in some instances, anticipated known that many plans had been sub. by their own manufacturer. mitted to that body which they had We have also received and answernot thought it expedient to adopt, ed communications from about se. we felt it proper, in the first instance, venty individuals, which have been to obtain correct information upon arranged and considered ; and in this point ; and we, therefore, re- some cases, a personal interview has quested the Court of Directors to been requested and held. Several furnish us with an account of such of these persons had been previously plans. They did accordingly fur. in communication with the Bank : nish us, without delay, with a de- and we find, that in the instance of tailed account of 108 projects, regu- some projects of superior promise,

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