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FRANCE.-In the beginning of the responding volumes of plates and of present year there was published at text. Paris, by M. le Comte Chaptal, a The first volume of Antiquities comwork entitled, “De l'Industrie Fran- prehends, independently of the island çaise,” in which the ancien ministre of Philæ, all the country situated bede l'Interieur enumerates in detail tween the last cataract and the city both the sources and the products of Thebes; namely, Syene, Elephanof French agricultural and commer- tina, Ombos, Selselch, Elethyia, Ed. cial industry. From the cadastral fû, Esneh, and Erment. operations and other data, M. Chap- cond and third volumes are formed tal estimates the extent of territory entirely of the antiquities of Thebes, yielding a revenue, in some shape or and comprise all the papyri, paintother, at 52,000,000 hectares ; the ings, and other subjects found in the gross average amount of the crop of sepulchral chambers. The fourth and all kinds (calculated from the mean fitth volumes contain the monuments of the 14 years immediately preced. situated below Thebes; namely, ing) at 119,106,766 hectolitres; the Dendera, Abydus, Antæopolis, Herwool, silk, and hemp rạised at mopolis Magna, Antinoë, Fayoum, 81,763,422 kilogrammes ; and the Memphis, the grottoes, and the rest products of manufacturing and come of the Heptanomid ; Lower Egypt, mercial industry at 1,820,102,409 Heliopolis, Canopus, Alexandria, and francs.

Taposiris. To these are added the The sequel of Denon's splendid collections of hieroglyphics, inscripwork on Egypt, the first part of which tions, medals, vases, statues, and oappeared in 1809, and the second in ther antiques. 1811, having been recently publish- The first volume of the Modern ed, we subjoin a synoptical view of its State comprehends Upper and Midvarious and interesting contents. dle Egypt; Cairo and Lower Egypt,

The Description of Egypt consists with the isthmus of Suez and the enof three paris :- 1. Antiquities ; 2. virons. The second volume comModern State ; 3. Natural History. prises Alexandria, the collection of In the first two, the places are de- arts and trades, that of costumes scribed according to their geographi- and portraits, that of vases, housecal position, in going from the south hold furniture, and instruments,to the north, from the island of Philæ and lastly, that of inscriptions, coins, to the Mediterranean, and from the and medals. east to the west, from Pelusium to The two volumes of Natural His. Alexandria. In the Natural History, tory are composed of the mammifere, the mineralogy has also been ar. the birds, and the fishes of the Nile, ranged from the south to the north. of the Red Sea, and of the MediterThe Antiquities comprise all the mo- ranean ; of the insects of Egypt and numents anterior to the conquest of Syria; of the vermes, mollusca, and Egypt by the Arabs : everything that zoophytes ; of the plants; and of the is posterior to that epoch is compre- rocks, simple minerals, and fossils of hended in the Modern State. Each Egypt, and the peninsula of Mount of these three parts has several cor- Sinai.

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The plates are distributed in the fol. public libraries, besides about farty ters lowing order :--1. General and topo- special ones. The Royal Library con- pri graphical plans ; 2. Particular plans tains about 350,000 volumes of pris of edifices, sections, and elevations; ed books, besides the same number 3. Details of architecture ; 4. Bas-re. of tracts, collected into volumes, and liefs, paintings, statues, ornaments, about 50,000 manuscripts ; the Lie &c. The total number of plates is brary of the Arsenal contains abor eight hundred and forty, forming 150,000 volumes, and 5000 man. nine volumes, exclusively of the scripts; the Library of St Genévier Geographical Atlas, in fifty sheets, about 110,000 volumes, and 200 forming a separate section.

manuscripts; the Magazine Libras, “ The Text is composed, 1. Of about 90,000 volumes, and 3457 ma- 17. an historical preface, and of an ex- nuscripts; and the City Library, about planation of the plates ; forming a 15,000 volumes. In the province, tenth volume of the same size as the the most considerable are those of engravings, that is, large atlas : 2. Of Lyons 106,000: Bourdeaux 105,00; several volumes of descriptions and Aix 72,670; Besançon 53,000; Toulof memoirs, divided into three clas- ouse 50,000; Grenoble 42,000; Tours ses, corresponding to those of the 30,000; Metz 31,000; Arras 34,000; plates, and distinguished, like them, Le Mans 41,000; Colmar 30,000; by the title of Antiquities, Modern Versailles 40,000; Amiens 40,00 State, and Natural History. These The total number of these, libraries volumes are all of the size of medium in France amounts to 273; of above folio.

80 of these, the quantity of volume: 0 The Descriptions of the cities, and is not known. From the data given of the monuments, form as many in this work, it appears, therefore

, chapters as there are places describ- that the grand total of those whic

! ed or represented, and are arranged are known, amounts to 3,345,28 in the same order as the plates. Their of which there are 1,125,347 in Pa object is to make known the ancient ris alone. and the present state of the places Count Volney has recently put described, and this exposition is ac- lished an elementary work, under the companied by historical and geo. title of “ The European Alphabe graphical remarks.

applied to the Asiatic Languages." The Memoirs consist of researches It is the sequel of another of his pro and dissertations on general or par. ductions, entitled, “ A Simplification ticular subjects ; such as the physi- of the Oriental Languages, cal state of Egypt, the history and and ready Method of acquiring the geography of the country, legisla- Arabian, Persian, and Turkish Lantion

and manners, religion, language, guages, by the means of European astronomy, arts, and agriculture, a. characters." With the Roman al- P mong the ancient and modern Egyp- phabet, and a few additional sign tians. These memoirs are placed the author proposes to expres one after the other without any de- the Asiatic idioms; and thus to fi termined order, like the Academi. cilitate literary researches into the cal Collections.

languages, history, sciences, are

and immense literary stores, According to « Recherches sur

This elementary work, which is dernes,” &c. there are in Paris five Calcutta, is divided into fire chapo les Bibliothèques Anciennes et Mo. dedicated to the Asiatic Society of



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of Asia

ers, but may be more properly com- ments on the unfortunate victims of rised in three parts, the first of insanity. Not only in France, but which consists of definitions respect. in England, and Germany, he has ng the general system of sounds ut. found them, he says, “ lying on wet ered, and the letters or signs intend. straw, in filthy infectious cells, with ed to represent these sounds. Io the out fresh air, or water to quench their second part, the author explains, and thirst, loaded with irons, and driven liscusses all the vocal or tonic pro- about with blows, and scourges, nunciations employed in the langua- like so many wild beasts.". To asges of Europe. These are reduced to certain how far the ameliorations innineteen or twenty vowels, and twen- troduced into the asylums at Paris ty-two consonants, agreeing nearly had been copied in the provincial with those of the richest of the Asia- establishments, the doctor made it tic languages, particularly the San- his business to inspect personally all scrit. The twenty-five or twenty-six the houses for the reception of insane letters of the Roman alphabet are not persons, throughout the kingdom. sufficient to represent all the varia- The present publication is but the tions of the voice, at the same time programme of a larger treatise, wherethat this alphabet possesses the great in he intends to detail the observa. advantage of presenting the simplest tions made at each house, hospital, forms, and also that of being employ or prison, respectively; as also to ined throughout Europe, America, stitute a comparison of the usages in and the European colonies of Asia. France with those of other countries, Our author proposes to render it u. and especially of England. niversal, by drawing from the basis The third and last part has lately itself of this well-known alphabet, appeared of L'Histoire d'Astronomie the other simple signs necessary to Ancienne, par M. Delambre, Perpepourtray foreign sounds. In the third tual Secretary to the Royal Academy part, M. Volney gives a practical of Sciences, &c. Ancient astronomy exemplification of his theory, by ap- is generally supposed to have terplying it to the Arabic alphabet, that minated with the school of Alexanbeing one of the most complicated dria, and modern astronomy to have of the Asiatic alphabets ; and after commenced with the era of Coperhaving analyzed this alphabet in all nicus. M. Delambre deviates from the processes of its formation, he re- this opinion, and commences his solves it entirely into the European chronology of the middle age in the characters, and others, equally sim- ninth century, and terminates it at the ple, deduced from them. This pro- year 1579. Rejecting received au. cess may be applied to the Turkish, thorities and dates, he computes his Persian, Syriac, Hebrew, and Ethio- two extremes from the most ancient pian languages, and even to the San- of the writings left by the Arabian scrit and Chinese.

astronomers, and the publication of M. Esquerol, physician of the Sal. a treatise on Astronomy by the geopetriere at Paris, has published a meter Vieta. The author first conpamphlet, describing the establish- siders the astronomy of the Arabs, ments for lunatics in France, and and other Orientals; then that of the the means of ameliorating their con- Europeans ; and lastly, the history dition. This writer expresses an ho- of gnomonics. This history he brings nest indignation against the barba. down to the end of the seventeenth rous treatment almost universally century. He differs from Bailly and exercised throughout the Depart. others, as to the high antiquity of the

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science among the Chaldeans, no rèse Aubert, by C. Nodier and " Jebooks or monuments having come rusalem Delivered,” translated isdown to us to verify the fact. to French verse, by P. L. M. Baour

Count Forbin has just published, Lormian. at Paris, his Travels in the Levant, in M. Caillaud, a young traveller, who a splendid work, embellished with has been visiting classical antiquino less than seventy-eight fine plates ties, &c. in Turkey, Egypt, and Nsin the lithographic manner. The bia, is now at Nantes, his native city. Colossus of Thebes, known by the He is preparing for another tour to name of Memnonium, the Count the same countries, and receira observes, has frequently been mista. from the government all the instrue ken for the statue of Osymandyas. tions and supplies he may bave os Strabo asserts that it was named Is- casion for. mandès. These words were derived Captain Roussin, who, by order of from Os Smandi, to give out a sound; the French king, in 1817 and 1818, a property possessed, it was said, by explored the western coasts of Africa, this statue, at the dawn of day and from Cape Bojador to Mount Soulos, at sun-set. Its true name was Ame- has addressed a memoir to the Mi. nophis. It was visited by Germani- nister of Marine, containing the subcus. On its legs are to be seen Greek stance of his observations. He points and Roman inscriptions, attesting out a number of errors and defects the prodigy of the harmonious sounds in all the charts up to 1817. emitted by this colossus, which dis- SPAIN.--At Paris has been pubtinctly pronounced the seven vowels. lished, in one volume 8vo, An Essay It is not difficult to believe, that me on the Commerce and Interests of Spain, chanism, ingeniously contrived by and of her Colonies, by F. A. de Chris the priests, was the sole, or at least tophoro d'Avalos. The author was probable cause of this miracle, which formerly in the Spanish Ministry ceased in the fourth century of the which, with the subject of his work. Christian era. At Megara, a par- is recommendation sufficient of his ticular stone also gave out sounds performance. He makes a number when it was struck by an instrument of judicious observations on Spanish of iron.

industry, with the causes of its de The principal other literary novel- cay; on the encouragement required ties of the year were “ New Princi- by the arts ; on Population, the ples of Political Economy, or Riches Clergy, the Religious Orders, &c. He as connected with Population," by considers impartially the advantages J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi; and disadvantages accruing to Spain the “ History of Cromwell,” by M. from the discovery of America, with Villemain; the “ History of the Re- the consequences dependent on the public of Venice,” by P. Daru ; loss of America as a source of wealth. * Chronology of the Greek Kings of This essay affords means for estimaiEgypt, Successors of Alexander the ing the present state of literature in Great, by M. Champollion-Figeac; the country of Calderon, of Lope de the Parvenus of Madame la Comtesse Vega, and of Cervantes, and glances de Genlis, which passed through at the reforms to be expected from three editions in four months ; Thé- the impulse of European civilization,

* This, if we are not mistaken, is the worthy gentleman accused of having hired some Arab russians to assassinate the intrepid and indefatigable Belzoni.

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and the progress of knowledge ; re- This book is the fruit of the obserforms absolutely necessary both to vations and discoveries which he governors and governed.

made in travelling over the moun. PORTUGAL.—The Baron de Sao tains of Rochne. The basalts conLourenço, principal Treasurer of tained in these mountains have so Brazil

, Knight Commander of the great a polarity, that they act upon Orders of Christ and of the Concep- the magnetic needle, even at a great tion, and one of the Council of his distance. A fragment of these stones, most faithful Majesty, has completed of about two pounds weight, produ& translation of Pope's Essay on ces a greater effect on the magnetic Man, into Portuguese verse, con- needle, than a quintal of iron. A fining his version to exactly the remarkable quality of the basalts, is, same number of lines as the ori. that they manifest polarity at the ginal. To the text he has added same time, and on all the points, and various comments, historical, criti- .attract, with the same degree of cal, and explanatory, enlivened by strength, either point of the magneextracts from the works of many of tic needle. For this reason, it is althe best writers in the Greek, Latin most impossible to make use of the Italian, French, Spanish, Portu- compass in these mountains. M. guese, German, and English lan- Bauer found, that the polarity of guages. The work will shortly be porphyry was equally great. published in this country, and will The three Bavarian Universities of form three volumes in quarto. The Wurtzburg, Erlangen, and Landavowed object of the work is to en- shut, have just obtained great adcourage a taste for Literature and vantages from the munificence of the the Fine Arts in the Portuguese do- government. The first has received minions, and it has the immediate a new organization; the number of sanction of the King of Portugal and its professors has been increased, Brazil, to whom it is dedicated. and its library considerably enrich

GERMANY. The Archduke Charles ed. The University of Altorf, sup. has lately published at Vienna, a His. pressed since 1809, has been incor. tory of the campaign of 1799 in Ger- porated with that of Erlangen, the many and in Switzerland. This work, library alone of which has acquired, says the illustrious author in his pre- by this union, an increase of 40,000 face, may be considered as a sequel to volumes. The government has, that which he published in 1813, un

moreover, made a present to that der the title of Principles of Strategy, University of the country seat forillustrated by the Campaigns in Ger- merly occupied by the Dowager many in 1796. Marshal Jourdan Margravine Caroline of Branden(the opponent of the Archduke) has burg and Bayreuth. The garden also published, by way of reply to belonging to it is to be transformed the latter work, A History of the into a botanic garden, and the buildCampaigns of 1796. It may be hop- ings, by which it is surrounded, will ed that a History of the Campaign of be employed as clinical establish1799 will also be published on the ments. Several distinguished men part of the French.

of science have been called from difM. Bauer, capitular vicar of the ferent foreign countries to fill the cathedral of Wurtzburg, is about to vacant professorships in the Univerpublish a very important work on bo- sity of Erlangen. "The endowment tany, mineralogy, and meteorology. of Landshut has been, in like man

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