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recommended by Dr Franklin and and other noxious vegetables. The Mr Ferguson, by which they will go author then proceeds to detail a numlonger without winding up, and con. ber of facts and experiments, in continue in action whilst winding. firmation of these propositions, in the
A variety of other premiums were order of their enunciation. adjudged, the principal of which was At the same ineeting a paper by a gold medal to Mr J. Young, for his Dr W. Howison, entitled, “An Ac improved method of collecting British count of several of the most imporopium. Mr Y. has proved that this tant Culinary Vegetables of the invaluable medicine may be collect- terior of the Russian Empire," &c. ed in this country, with sufficient pro- was read. The first of these which fit to induce the agriculturist to cul. the author treats of is the Russian tivate the poppy for this purpose, as Cucumber, a vegetable consumed in well as to extract oil from its seeds.
great quantities by the native Russians, as well as foreigners settled in the country, and which, he tells us,
differs in many respects from the cuCALEDONIAN HORTICULTURAL So- cumber of Great Britain, being smallCIETY.
er in size, yet containing a great quan
tity of juice and pulpy matter. "The Fewer premiums were distributed second is the Moscow early yellow this year than in some of the preced- turnip, produced in great abundance ing years; and the papers read to the in Moscow and the Crimea. The society were in a great measure de- third is the Narva yellow turnip, used stitute of interest. Our notice of them in considerable quantity as an article therefore will be very concise. of food by the Russian peasantry in
On the 4th of March a paper from the governments of the interior. The S. Parkes, Esq. London, entitled, fourth is the variegated cabbage, “ On the Employment of common brought by Krusenstern, the Russian Salt for the purposes of Horticul- circumnavigator, from the islands of ture,” was read by the Secretary Mr the South Sea, and since his time cul. Neill. After some preliminary ob- tivated in Russia. The fifth and sixth servations on the progress of horti- are the large black and the large culture among different nations, the white Russian raddisk. The seventh author proceeded to discuss the seve- and eighth are wo species of water ral branches of his subject in the fol. melon, natives of the coasts of the lowing order : 1. That common salt, Black Sea ; and the others consist of when applied in due proportions, has two kinds of celery, the bulbous-rootthe effect of promoting the health ed and the rothen or red; a peculiar and growth of vegetables : 2. That it species of mustard from Russian Tarhas the property of rendering fruit tary, the seeds of which were brought trees and esculent plants unfit for from Sarepta, near the Chinese wall
; the food or the habitation of worms and a peculiar species of onion from and insects : 3. That common salt is Chinese tartary. one of the most efficacious substan- On the 2d of September, a paper ces that can be employed in a garden by Dr W. Howison was read, enti. for the destruction of worms and in- tled, “ An Account of the Russian sects : And, 4. That common salt Chiccory Plant, and of the Artificial may, with material advantage, be Coffee prepared in great quantity, used for the destruction of weeds over that country, from its roots, ai
well as from the roots of common ceased to take any interest or condandelion."
cern in that important branch of naOn the 2d of December a letter tional industry; but at the general from Mr J. Dick to the Secretary was meeting in January, the society voread, “ On the advantage of graft- ted a piece of plate to Mr J. Macing the Ribston Pippin on the more kenzie, of Richmond Place, Edin. healthy Apple-Trees.” It appears burgh, who had been formerly engafrom the remarks of Mr D., that the rib- ged in the fishery, for useful inforston pippin in general produces strong mation furnished by him to the sowood, which however is often not ciety, particularly in regard to the ripened on standard trees, and is there- advantages that would result from fore ready to canker; and that those employing large boats, and which had kinds of fruit trees, which have not enabled the society to recommend the their wood well ripened in the autumn, measure. never produce fruit so well as those It had been for some time well the wood of which attains maturity. known to the society, not only that The method proposed to remedy this large tracts of land adjoining the sea evil is simply to procure some para- on the northern coast of Scotland dise pippin apples that have been had been covered and destroyed by wrought upon good crab stocks, by drifted sands, but that, in some ingrafting the ribston pippin on which, stances, such land had, by proper mait is enabled to make much finer nagement, been reclaimed; as, for exwood, to ripen its wood, and to pro- ample, by Mr Young of Inverugie, on duce fruit abundantly either upon the coast of Morayshire. Their atstandard or espalier trees.
tention, however, was more particularly drawn to this subject, at the an. niversary meeting this year, by Mr
Macleod of Harris, who suggested HIGHLAND Society or SCOTLAND. the propriety of the society's offering
premiums for successful experiments The general anniversary meeting of this description in the Hebrides, of the Highland Society of Scotland including the coasts of Orkney and was held at Edinburgh on the 12th Shetland, where the injury was known of January 1819, when a number of to be most extensive. Premiums noblemen and gentlemen were duly were accordingly offered for reclaimelected members.
ing land from drift sand in these disThe improvement of the Scotch tricts ; and they learn with pleasure, fisheries was one of the most impor- that experiments are in consequence tant objects originally embraced by making, which there is every reason the society; and from the adoption to hope will be attended with sucof the suggestion of the society, that cess, and merit the encouragement a special board should be constituted held out by the society. at Edinburgh, for the superinten- At the same meeting the society dance and management of the white voted a premium of twelve guineas herring fishery, and for the introduc- to Andrew Hislop, smith at Fountion in that fishery of large boats, much tainhall, for constructing a bridge of benefit has confessedly been derived. malleable iron over the water of Gala, Since the institution of this board, being the first bridge of this descriphowever, the Highland Society of tion erected in Scotland, which was Scotland has, in a great measure, attended with very small expense.
James Grant, Esq. of Corrymony, AFRICAN INSTITUTION. advocate, having published a very learned and ingenious treatise, en- Since the bill for the abolition of titled, “ Thoughts on the Origin and the Slave Trade was passed, twelve Descent of the Gael,” in which the years have now elapsed; and the author has thrown much light upon African Institution, which dates its points connected with the history, commencement soon after that me manners, and language of the Gael, morable event, has been steadily and the society, at the anniversary meet. zealously labouring in the cause of ing in January, voted its gold medal African civilization, and putting in to Mr Grant as a mark of the so- requisition every possible expedient ciety's approbation of the work; and which promised to facilitate the soat the subsequent meeting in July, tual extinction of the horrid trafic the sum of ten guineas was voted to in human flesh, “ THAT SCOURGZ the Reverend A. Macdonald of Crieff, WHICH HAS SO LONG DESOLATED for having executed a translation of AFRICA, DEGRADED EUROPE, AND Ossian's poem, called Fingal, into AFFLICTED HUMANITY". The ThirLatin hexameter verse.
teenth Report of this most philanBesides a regular correspondence thropic Institution is now before us ; with the Highland Society of Lon- and it is with the deepest sorrow we don, upon matters connected with observe, that, notwithstanding the Celtic literature and antiquities, the exertions, sacrifices, and example of society has recently established com- this country,—notwithstanding the munications on these subjects with general abhorrence and execration the Royal Antiquarian Society of which have been poured out against France, and the Cambrian Society. this murderous traffic, from one end Particular mention is also made of of Europe to the other,—notwith. the translation of Paradise Lost into standing the solemn declaration of the ancient British or Welsh lan- the Congress of Vienna, of date the guage, by Mr. Owen Pughe ; of the 8th of February 1815,—notwithstandtreatise on the origin of ancient ing the highly commendable exernames in mythology, topography, tions of our Statesmen and Plenipohistory, &c. by Mr Dyer of Exeter; tentiaries on that, and every subseand of the translation of the poems quent occasion, where they could of Ossian into the German language, prudently interfere, down to the preby Dr C. W. Ahlwardt of Leipsig. sent time,-so little progress has
The society farther, at the anniver- been made in putting an efficient stop sary meeting in January, on the mo- to the trade in slaves, that, by the tion of the Earl of Elgin and Kincar. miserable subterfuges, the insinceridine, passed a resolution, recommend- ty, and falsehood of foreign courts, ing to its members a subscription for the intentions of this country have erecting a monument to the memory been, 'in a great measure, rendered of our illustrious countrymen King abortive, and a gainful and active Robert Bruce, whose remains had commerce in human fleshi, is carried been recently discovered in the Abon, chiefly under Spanish, Portuguese, bey Church of Dunfermline. and French flags, along the whole
* The words of Mr Clarkson, the celebrated advocate of the abolition, in a pamphlet distributed to their Imperial and Royal Majesties, and their Representatives, at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, and certainly one of the most eloquent pieces of reasoning we bare etet had the harpiness to meet with.
coast of Africa, pot immediately un. jects of those powers which still per. der the influence of the British Go. mit this traffic; that each power havernments. A fact so afflicting to ving an inherent right to decree the the friends of humanity in every final abolition at the period it might country, deserves to be made as ma. judge most expedient, that period nifest, as the foul stain it inflicts on should be fixed by mutual negociathe national honour of those coun- tion; and that the general negociatries, which, in the face of the most tion which might ensue, should in deliberate declarations and solemn no way prejudice the stipulation contreaties, have winked at, or secretly tained in the fourth article of the encouraged this abominable traffic, treaty between the King of Portugal is deep, fearful, and indelible. For and his Britannic Majesty, in which it this purpose, and under the convic- is provided that the period of the final tion that the truth only requires to cessation of this traffic in the Portu. be known, to induce the friends of guese dominions should be determinhumanity (happily neither few nored by a separate treaty between these powerless) to unite, heart, hand, and powers. These conditions being compurse, in putting a period to the most plied with, a second conference took crying evil of our age, we shall pro- place in London in February 1818, ceed to lay before our readers as full at which Lord Castlereagh read a a statement of the facts which have note, containing a proposition for the been properly ascertained and au- more effectual abolition of the slave thenticated, as our limits, and the trade, already. rendered illegal by multifarious character of the subjects treaty, The following are the prowe have to record, will possibly per- minent topics contained in this immit.
portant document :That since the The narrative of the report com- restoration of peace, a considerable mences by stating the proceedings, revival of the slave trade had taken for the further abolition of the Slave place on the coast of Africa to the Trade, instituted in pursuance of the north of the Line:—That the trade additional article of the treaty, of No- thus carried on was marked with invember 1815, between the Allies and creased horrors from the inhuman France. In December 1817, the Ple- practice of crowding slaves on board nipotentiaries of Austria, France, vessels better adapted to escape from Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, cruizers than to import human beheld a conference in London upon ings :- That as Africa had advanced this subject ; at which Lord Castle- in commercial prosperity as the Slave reagh presented the two Conventions Trade had been suppressed, so, with recently concluded with Portugal its revival, every prospect of imand Spain. At this conference a note provement appeared to vanish : was presented by the Portuguese Mi- That the British Government had nister, stating that the King of Por- made considerable exertions to check tugal, not having signed the addi- the growing evil; but that since the tional article of the treaty of Paris, return of peace and the restoration did not consider bimself bound to take of the French and Dutch settlements any part in these conferences, and on that coast, the trade in slaves had that he would only do so upon the greatly increased :-That, with a view condition that due regard should be to avoid giving umbrage to friendly had to the interests, the customs, powers, the British Government had, and even the prejudices of the sub. in 1816, abandoned the belligerent right of search :
-That it was, to obviate abuse, and render the sy however, proved beyond the possibi- tem more unobjectionable as a genelity of doubt, that unless the right ral law. to visit vessels should be established, His Lordship then went into some the illicit traffic would, in time of details, as to how a species of police peace, not only subsist, but increase, might be organised to give greater from the system of obtaining fraudu- effect to a prisciple recommended a lent papers and concealing owner- once by every rule of justice, Chris. ship :- That even if the traffic were tianity, and humanity : and upan to be universally abolished, and a these grounds invited the different single state should refuse to submit Plenipotentiaries to solicit, withon its flag to the visitation of vessels delay, from their respective soveof other states, slave-traders would reigns, the authority necessary to still have the means of eluding de- carry this object into effect. This tection :-That since it had been un- was accordingly done, yet no answer lawful for him to appear north of the was received from them
previous to Line, the Portuguese slave-trader had the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle. concealed himself under the Spanish In the month of June Lord Castle flag :--That whilst the flags of France, reagh addressed a letter to Mr Rush, Holland, and the United States are the American Minister in London, not included in the system establish- stating, that after the 30th of May ed by the conventions with Spain and 1820, no flag could legally cover this Portugal, the effect must be to vary detested traffic; inclosing copies of the the character of the fraud, rather treaties with Spain and Portugal, for than to suppress the mischief :-That the total or partial abolition of the the Congress of Vienna declared, in slave trade; and earnestly begging the face of all mankind, that this traf. him to submit these documents to the fic should cease, and that the law of consideration of the President of the the abolition is nothing in itself un- United States. To this request Mr less the contraband slave trade shall Rush readily assented. be suppressed by a combined system, Previous to the meeting of the a measure which they owed it to Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle, the themselves to unite their earnest en. Directors of the African Institution deavours to accomplish. For this had received from the coast of Afri purpose it is proposed, that all the
ca the most authentic information of other maritime powers should be in the increased and increasing estent vited to give their accession to the of the slave trade.
This joforma. following general provisions : 1. An tion was embodied in a very able engagement not only to declare the and eloquent pamphlet by Mr Clarkimportation of slaves illegal, but to son, one of the directors, and so de colistitute trafficking in slaves a cri- servedly celebrated for his unceasing minal act, to be punished by an ac- labours in the cause of the oppressed knowledged principle of international Africans, together with a compre law : 2. An engagement mutually to hensive view of the measures which concede the right of search to their had been hitherto adopted,—and disrespective ships of war : And, 3. The tributed to the Allied Sovereigos adoption of the minor regulations assembled in congress. In due time contained in the Conventions with the subject came under the consideSpain and Portugal, with such modi- ration of those August Potentates fications as might appear calculated and their Ministers; and the result