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the marl. The second instance oc. an account of the rocks of Sandside curred so lately as October 1818, on in Sutherland, and illustrated the the estate of Kimmerghame, in the description by sections and specimens. parish of Edrom, and near the head A paper on the luminosity of the sea of that district of Berwickshire called was also read by Mr John Murray, the Merse. The bones were likewise Lecturer on Chemistry. found in a marl-pit at the depth of seven feet below the surface, which was covered with peat-moss. There was GEOLOGICAL Society. an apparent dislocation in this skele. ton, the result probably not of vio- The first communication which lence, but of the gradual and un calls for notice was a paper, by W.

equal subsiding of the soft matter in Phillips, Esq., on the Chalk Cliffs, op? which it was embedded; but, upon posite Dover on the coast of France,

the whole, the bones were in a high read at the meeting of the society state of preservation ; the cranium held on the 6th of November. Mr particularly being in a much more P. found these cliffs to consist of deperfect condition than that of the spe- posits similar to those between Do

cimen from Perthshire. Both the fos- ver and Folkstone, except that the Esil heads appeared to have belonged upper part of the bed with numerous

to full-grown animals. The author fints is not visible on the French Estates, that the fossil remains disco- coast. The dip of the strata is near

vered in Scotland appear to agree ly the same on both sides of the chanwith a beaver's head described and nel, but the thickness as well as the drawn by M. Cuvier in his “ Re- height of the cliffs is much less on the cherches sur les ossemens fossiles de French side. Mr P. thought they had quadrupèdes,” vol. iv. sect. “ De ron- once been continuous with the Enggeurs fossiles." The specimen de- lish beds, and formed part of what is scribed by the celebrated French na- now termed the chalk basin of Lonturalist was found by M. Traullé, in a don; the then connecting mass having peat-moss in the valley of the Somme been since washed away by the acin Picardy.

tion of the sea. At this meeting alAt the same meeting Mr Bald read so, Mr P. read a paper on the modia paper on the Coal Formation in fications of the primitive crystal of Great Britain, illustrated by nume. sulphate of barytes. The angles of rous sections and specimens.

the crystal, a right rhomboidal Dec. 11.-The Secretary read a prism, were found by the reflecting communication from Mr Stewart, goniometer to measure 78° 18' and Lecturer on Botany, giving an ac- 101° 42. Mr P. observed eighteen count of his having found and exa. modifications, and described the semined many specimens of the rare condary planes produced by them. moss, bux baumia aphylla, and assign- Dec. 4.-A paper from Dr Day, ing reasons for believing it to be a communicated by Sir James Macgreplant of longer duration than botanists gor, on the Geology of Ceylon, was have hitherto imagined. A paper was

read. This island consists almost enalso read by Mr Stevenson, on the tirely of primitive rock, composed original formation of the land now chiefly of gneiss and dolomite, rising constituting the territory of the U. in some places to the height of 7000 nited Dutch Provinces.

feet above the level of the sea. The Dec. 29.-Professor Jameson read mountains and plains are generally

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covered with debris, and the soil, ceeding formations ; 2. Old red sand. which is poor, corresponds to the rocks stone ; 3. Mountain limestone; and from which it is formed. There are 4. Coal measures. The second for hot springs in the neighbourhood of mation consists of–1. Calcario-maç Trincomalee, the temperature of nesian conglomerate, and magnesian which varies from 103° to 1370. Iron limestone; 2. Newer red sandston is the only metal found in the island, and red marl ; 3. Lias; and 4. Os which, however, is rich in gems; such lite. This paper also states the angle as, tourmaline, garnet, pyrope, cinna- of the inclination and direction of the mon-stone, zircon, hyacinth, spinelle, different strata. sapphire, &c. &c.No traces of vol- At the same meeting, a paper by canic action are anywhere visible. Thomas Kent, on the Rock of Gibral

Dec. 18.-A communication was tar, was read. The rock is a mass of read from T. Robinson, Esq. of Mor- limestone, the greatest height of which ley Park Iron Works, Derbyshire, on is about 1440, and its base about 2200 a tree found in these works. As the feet in its longest diameter. The miners were sinking a pit for the pur- small rock on which the Devil's Tower pose of obtaining iron-ore, they dis- is built appears to be a fragment decovered a tree, apparently oak, in an tached from it: the edge of the sunerect position, its bottom standing be- mit is in some places so sharp that a low the third measure of iron-stone; person cannot stand upon it. Part of its length was about six feet, its dia. the rock appears to have been much meter from ten to fourteen inches, broken and dislocated; and in the inand its substance dark coloured and tervals between the fragments, as mouldering ; its position, and the un- well as in a cavern in the side of the broken appearance of the beds it tra- east cliff, bones of animals have been versed, seem to countenance the idea found incrusted with stalactitic carthat it grew there previous to the de. bonate of lime. The hills near St position of the beds surrounding it. Roque, reaching to a distance of se

Jan. 1. 1819.—Mr Buckland's pa- veral miles into Spain, contain large per,“On the Geological Structure of quantities of oyster, cockle, and other the South-western Coal District, and shells. The ancient city of Carteia was on the Relations of the Deposits by built of stone quarried from these hills

. which it is partially covered,"the read. Jan. 15.- A paper was read by S. ing of which had been commenced at Babington, Esq., “On the Geology of the former meeting, was now conclu- the country between Tellicherry and ded. The district referred to appears

Madras." The face of the country generally to consist of two principal in general below the Ghauts is mark formations : the first reposes on the ed by low-rounded hills, composed of transition rocks, and includes the in.

a porous substance, called by Buchadependent coal formation of Werner; nan laterite. The mountains denowhile the second consists of more re- minated Ghauts, &c. the author de. cent horizontal deposits, lying on the scribes as consisting of granite, gneiss, transverse edges of the first formation. mica, slate, &c. varieties of bortThe first formation consists of the fol. blende rock, sometimes containing lowing beds : 1. Limestone and im- garnet, and in one place cyanite

. perfect slate, which the author consi. The Carnatic, or country east of the ders as the upper members of the Ghauts, is flat, and the soil to a consigreywacké series, and a link between derable depth consists of strata of the transition slate.rocks and suc- brown and bluish clay, interspersed

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vith beds of oyster, cockle, and other bay, Devon. This line of coast, behells.

ginning at its western point, consists Feb. 19.-A paper was read from of the following beds which dip easthe Hon. Mr Strangways on the Ra- ward: 1. Rock marl, or red conglopids of Imatra on the Voxa river in merate : 2. Green sand : 3. Chalk, Carelia, and containing a notice of into which the green sand sometimes he bursting of the lake Loubando in- passes. The more remarked fossils o the Ladoga in 1818. The greater are, ichthyosaurus, nautili and am. part of the course of the Voxa may monites, pentacrini, trochi, casts of se considered rather as a chain of turbinated shells, pectens, gyphites, lakes than a river. Near Imatra it anomiae, and other bivalves, &c. is contracted into a narrow channel April 2. The reading of Mr Henwithin rocky banks, about sixty feet nabis' paper, begun at the previous in breadth, which continues for 500 meeting (March 19.) On the Plyyards. Through this channel the mouth Lime stone, was concluded. river rushes with great fury and This bed generally rests on clay slate, dreadful noise. The rock of this and rises about 100 feet above high wachannel is the usual red granite of ter mark. It runs nearly east and west Finland, which is easily disintegrated for several miles, and dips towards the by exposure to the weather. In 1818 south or south-west : its breadth is one of the lakes Loubando, which from a quarter to half a mile. Many discharged its waters into the Voxa, organic remains are found in it, chiefopened a passage into lake Ladoga ly madripores, tubipores, millepores, eastward, by bursting through the trochites, pentacrinites, collaties, &c. isthmus of Taipala,-a circumstance An abstract of a letter from Dr that will probably alter its future Nugent, of Antigua, to the Presi. geographical character.

dent, was read, accompanying some March 5.-An extract was read specimens of the Barbuda limestone, from a letter written by the Reverend and containing some remarks on the G. Young, Whitby, to S. Parkes, Esq. geology of that island and of Anticontaining an account of the disco. gua. "Barbuda consists of a hard levery near that place of the fossil re- vel limestone, with scarcely any vemains of an animal, supposed to have getable mould upon it, which is supbeen the ichthyosaurus. These re- posed to be of the same formation mains were embedded in an alum rock. with that of Antigua. The more The skull was entire, measured two mountainous parts of the latter island feet ten inches in length and one foot consist of trap rocks, on which rests in breadth at the broadest part, and a series of stratified conglomerated tapered to a point like a biru's beak. rocks, consisting of a clayey basis, The jaw-bones were twisted, the containing minute crystals of felteeth broken and displaced, and the spar and spots of chlorite. On this remainder of the skeleton mutilated reposes an extensive limestone forand imperfect. It is supposed that mation, the lower part of which conthe animal must have been fourteen tains a great number of silicified fos

sils of various kinds. These islands, At this meeting also a paper was and some others in the vicinity, are read from H. T. De La Beche, Esq. conceived to afford evidence of the On the Rocks and Fossils of the Coast existence of a recent formation, conextending from Brideport Harbour, temporaneous with, or perhaps even Dorset, to the eastern point of Tor: posterior to the Paris basin.

feet long.

May 7.-The Description of the are two very remarkable arched rocks: Valley of the Ligovca,” by the Hon. one of the openings is about 60 feet Mr Strangways, was read. The river high, and between 50 and 60 feet Ligovca, or Doordorovca, issues from wide. It is formed in a basaltic rock, the lake Doordoroff, fifteen miles to resting on green sand, and does not the south west of St Petersburgh. At contain any fossils. a short distance from this lake, it is June 4.—The reading of Mr Tay. expanded into a second, and finally lor's paper, “On the smelting of Tindischarges itself into the Gulf of Fine ores in Cornwall and Devonshire," beland, through a marsh which is daily gun at last, was concluded at the preincreasing in extent. In the upper sent meeting. The author observes

, part of its course the bed of the river that tin-ore is found in two states, in is composed of limestone; but when veins accompanied by other metals, it leaves the second lake it passes into or in detached fragments dispersed a channel of blue clay, and its banks through alluvial matter : these are reare covered with an accumulation of spectively known by the names of gravel. The heights on the west side mine-tin and stream.iin. Mine-tin is of the valley consist of limestone. first subjected to the process of dressThe lower beds of limestone pass in- ing, by which a considerable part of to upper strata of green schist, and the exiraneous minerals, as well as the as they approach the schist they ac- earthy matrix, is separated. The mequire a green colour. The fossils of tal produced from this kind of ore is the limestone are principally ortho-called block-tin, and is less pure than ceratites, and trilobites.

that from stream-tin, in consequence An extract of a letter from MrD. of some remains of other metallic Scott, was then read. It contained substances, of which it is very difficult an account of some marine remains, entirely to deprive it. Stream-tin that had been laid bare by the river has no other metallic ore mixed with Brahmaputra, near_the north-east it, except occasionally a little hæmafrontier of Bengal. The Garton hills, titic iron. This furnishes the grainwhich are in the vicinity of the Brah- tin of commerce. In dressing mine. maputra, are of two formations; the tin it is necessary to have it very first, which occasionally rise to the minutely pulverised, in consequence height of from 2000 to 3000 feet, con- of its being so intimately dispersed sist

of granite, with veins of quartz through the matrix, a large part of and felspar; the second, which rest which, from the great specific gravity upon these, seem to have been depo- of the ore, may be removed by washsited from water, as their strata are ing. It is then smelted in the com. nearly horizontal.

It is under or mon reverberatory furnace, mixed through one of these latter that the with Welsh culm and lime, and expobed of shells appears to extend. sed to a very strong heat, so as to re

May 21.- A paper by the Right duce the whole to a state of perfect Hon. Lord Crompton was read, enti- fusion. As tin-ore consists merely tled, “ A Description of the Rocks of an oxide mixed with a quantity of which occur along a portion of the extraneous matter, the only objects south coast of the Isle of Mull.” to be attended to in smelting are to These are what are called the Carsey reduce the earthy matter to a state Rocks. The shore is composed of of perfect fusion, to which the lime basaltic columns, which rise in some contributes, and to remove the oxy. places to the height of 500 feet. There gen, which is effected by the coal.

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The produce of the smelting furnace The society's gold medal was adis considerably impure, and the me- judged to Mr Hardy, for his inverted tal afterwards goes through the pro- pendulum, an instrument which the cess of refining, which consists es celebrated Captain Kater had presentially in fusing the tin at a low viously made known to the public, by heat, insufficient to melt the other a paper in the transactions of the metals with which it is mixed. When Royal Society of London, entitled sufficiently pure, it is cast into moulds " An Account of Experiments for and sold under the name of block-tin. determining the length of the PenThe reduction of grain-tin proceeds dulum vibrating Seconds, in the laupon a different principle. After being titude of London.” In conducting dressed, it is carried to what is called these experiments, Captain K. is said the blowing-house, in which the metal to have derived advantage from Mr is reduced in a blast furnace by means Hardy's instrument, “ in proving the of charcoal. The blast furnace con- stability of the support for his pensists of a cylinder of iron standing on dulum." Whether this be correct, its eod, into the upper part of which we cannot say, as we have not had the ore and charcoal are thrown; the access to the original paper in the blast is admitted by a hole near the transactions of the Royal Society; bottom, and the metal, as it is reduced, but in a very ingenious and able ar. flows out at another hole on the op. ticle on Captain K.'s experiments on posite side. The metal obtained from the pendulum, in the number of the these furnaces is farther purified by Edinburgh Review for September having pieces of charcoal soaked in 1818, no mention whatever is made water thrown into it while melted. of Mr Hardy's instrument, the whole The water is thus rapidly volatilized; credit of the invention of the converand, as it appears, by the agitation tible pendulum being ascribed to it occasions, all the impurities are Captain K., who is said to have first carried to the surface, where they are reduced to practice the theorem foreasily removed.

merly demonstrated by Huygens, June 18.–Some additional remarks that the centres of suspension and by Mr De La Beche, on the Fossil oscillation are reciprocally converanimal called ichthyosaurus, con- tible. cluded the business of the season; The Society awarded the silver the society not meeting again till No- medal and ten guineas to Mr A. Bell, vember.

for his invention of a new Chuck to the Lathe.

Mr T. Taylor's Repeating Alarum,

for which the sum of fifteen guineas SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT was awarded, has been found of great

OF ARTS, MANUFACTURES AND service in the Royal Observatory, in
COMMERCE.

giving the astronomer timely warn

ing of the passage of certain stars, Since the commencement of the either by day or night, and thereby session in November last, this society affording him opportunities of making has been occupied in adjudging re- observations which might otherwise wards for various useful improve. be lost. ments in the arts and manufactures ; The Society voted its silver Isis a few of which we shall now briefly medal to Mr Fayrer for his improvenotice.

ment on the three wheeled clocks,

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